Tenth - Seventh Centuries B.C.E.
I. Large Construction Projects in the Tenth Century
A. City of David (Jerusalem)
1. Problems of finding Iron Age remains and general
layout of Iron Age city
B. 1 Kings 9:14-17, the royal cities
1. Fortification lines at Hazor
2. Gate and wall systems at Megiddo
a. Rethinking the Megiddo conclusions
b. Y. Yadin's reconstruction
c. The general debate on Megiddo
d. Other 10th century remains (e.g. Palace 1723)
1. Bit Hilani design, or house with pillared
portico, staircase and throne room.
(1 Kings 7:2-7)
3. Fortification lines at Gezer (1 Kings 9:15-16)
4. Other 10th century fortifications (Lachish) and issue
of labelling 10th century remains, Solomonic
II. Walls and Fortification Lines throughout Iron II
A. Early casemate walls systems.
B. Solid walls common in 9th-8th century.
C. Return to casemate walls.
III. Archaeological evidence for campaign of Shishak (Sheshonk), 22nd
Dynasty Pharoah. (1 Kings 14:25-28)
IV. Capital of the North Kingdom of Israel
A. The early capital at Tirzah
B. Samaria (1 Kings 16:24)
1. General plan of royal residence.
2. Quality of craftsmanship (2 Sam 5:11, 2 Chron. 2:2)
a. Phoenician architecture style
1.Proto-Aeolic capitals (Ezek. 40:26)
2. Window designs (Jud 5:28, 2 Sam 6:16,
2 Kings 9:30)
2. Header & Stretcher technique of construction
b. So-called Phoenician ivories
C. Stables or storage buildings at Megiddo (1 Kings 9:19)
1. Dating structures
2. Alternative interpretation of structures
3. Similar or related structures at Hazor,
V. City planning, Temples and House Structures
A. General layout of cities in the Iron Age.
B. Developments in the pillared house throughout the period.
C. Limited evidence of temples.
1. Comparison of Temple at Arad to later temples
at Lachish and a contemporary shrine at Sarepta.
2. Other cultic structures.
3. Speculation about the style of the Temple of
V. Development and Changes in Burial Practices throughout Iron II.
VI. Assyrian Domination of Region (ANET, 282-301)
A. Evidence for the destruction of cities in Israel.
(2 Kings 15-17; ANET.,282-287)
1. Changes at Hazor and Megiddo: city plan and
2. Appearance of Assyrian artifacts.
B. Review of Sennacherib's invasion
1. Dating the Siloam tunnel (2 Kings 20:2;
2. Evidence for the siege at Lachish. (2 Kings 18-19;
VII. Late 8th-7th century remains
A. Dating the Royal stamp seals.
B. Royal palace at Ramat Rahel.
C. Decline and fall of Judah. (2 Kings 21-24;
VIII. Review of the Virtual Gallery's material on the Web