Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum

Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum

II.2 Leviticus

edidit John William Wevers

adiuvante U. Quast

[Originally published in German by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1986;

English translation prepared by John William Wevers

and edited for internet use by Robert A. Kraft, 2006; updates are indicated in red.]



A.The Textual Witnesses


I. The Greek Witnesses\1/

\1/For fuller information on the Greek manuscripts, see Rahlfs, Verzeichnis.

The edition of Leviticus is based on the following mss, which have been recollated by the LXX-Unternehmen:

1. Uncial Manuscripts

A    London, Brit. Mus., Royal 1 D.V. V. Century. “Codex Alexandrinus”. Lacking are 6,19-23. In H.-P. = III.

B Rome, Bibl. Vat., IV. Century. In H.-P. = II.

F Milan, Bibl. Ambr., S.P.51 (earlier A.147 inf.). V. Century. Lacking is 9,19-10,14 αφαιρεμα[τος], and has been restored by F\b/. Correctors in F come from two clearly differentiated periods. The codex was first corrected by various hands which can be distinguished by a yellowish brown tint as well as majuscle script, and are named Fa. When these corrections can be distinguished in time they are called Fa 1, Fa  2, etc. In the Middle Ages the codex was thoroughly retraced by a Restorer, who also made corrections. His and later correctors are called F\b/; should it be possible to distinguish these correctors in time, they would be designated F\b/a 1, F\b/ 2, etc. Where F\b/ clearly made an error in his retracing, it is called Fs. Corrections by erasure are designated by Fc. Most of the marginal corrections are by F\b/, in which cases the corespon­ding text in F might be marked by dots. These have not been recorded. Edition: A.M.Ceriani, Monumenta sacra et profana 3, Milan 1864. The edition contains only the text of the original ms without corrections (except for those made by the original hand). In H.-P. = VII.

G    Leiden, Univ.-Bibl., Voss.graec. in qu.8; Paris, Bibl. Nat., Gr.17. IV.-V. Century. Through leaf loss the following texts are lost: 13,17 [μετε]βαλεν - 49 τω 1°  14,6 το 3° - 32 fin  14,49 [αφαγνι] /Mαι - 15,24 αν  17,10 [προσ]ηλυτων - 18,28 ε[θνεσιν]  19,36 χους - 24,9 Ααρων  27,16 κυριω - fin libri. Edition of the Leiden part: C. Tischendorf, Monumenta sacra inedita. Nova collectio 3, Leipzig 1860. Edition of the Paris part: P. de Lagarde, Semitica II. Abh. d.K. Ges.d.Wiss. zu Gφttingen, Vol.25, Gοttingen 1879. Facs. edition: Codi­ces Graeci et Latini photgraphice depicti duce G.N.Du Rieu. Tom.I: V.T. Graece. Codicis Sarraviani-Colbertini quae supersunt in Bibliothecis Leidensi Parisiensi Peropolitana phototypice edita. Leiden 1897. In H.-P. = IV.

M Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coisl.1. VII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. In H.-P. = X.

V Rome, Bibl.Vat., VIII. Century. “codex Venetus”. Con­­tents: 13,39 [στιππυ[ινου - fin libri. In H.-P. = XI, in Br.-M. = N.

                        2. Minuscule Manuscripts

15 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl.2. X. Century. Due to leaf loss it lacks 23,41 εν - 24,23 εποιησαν  25,43 και - 26,8 υμων ult. In Br.-M = a.

16 Florence, Bibl. Laur., Plut. V. 38. XI. Century.

18 Florence, Bibl. Laur., Medic. Palat. 242. XI. Century.

19 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Chigi R., VI 38. XII. Century. In Br.-M. = b'.

29 Venice, Bibl.Marc., Gr.2. X.-XI. Century. In Br.-M. = b®MDSD―2®MDNM―.

30 Rome, Bibl. Casanat., 1444. XI.-XII. Century.

44 Zittau, Christian-Weise Bibl.,A.1. XV. Century. in Br.-M. = d.

46 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl 4. XIII.-XIV. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 26,5 και 2° - 27,15 προσθη[σει].

52 Florence, Bibl.Laur., Acq.44. X.-XI. Century. Cat., Scribal change at 8,17 παρεμβοώ|3λης. In Br.-M. = e.

53 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.17A. Written 1439. In Br.-M. = f.

54 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.5. XIII.-XIV. Century. In Br.-M. = g.

55 Rome, Bibl.Nat., First half of X. Century. It lacks 15,8-33. In Br.-M. = h.

56 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.3. Written 1096. In Br.-M. = i.

57 Rome, Bibl.Vat., XI. Century. Cat. Through leaf loss it lacks 4,34 (αυτου)επιθησει - 6,2 και 2°  23,27 υμων - fin libri. In Br.-M. = j.

58 Rome, Bibl.Vat., XI. Century. In Br.-M. = k.

59 Glasgow, Univ.Libr., BE 7b. 10 XV. Century. In Br.-M. = l.

64 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.2. X. Century.

68 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Gr.5. XV. Century.

71 Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr.1. XIII. Century

72 Oxford, Bodl. Libr., XII. Century. Lacking are 8,19-22  9.11 init - 20στηθυνια 23,9-22. Ι®MDUL―®MDNM―n Br.-M. = m.

73 Rome, Bibl.Vat., XI.-XII. Century. Cat. Through leaf loss it lacks 11,44 και 2° - 13,1 προς  13,27 τη 1° - 39 ο[ψεται].

74 Florence, Bibl.Laur., .S Marco 700. Late XIII. Century.

75 Oxford, Univ. College 52. Written 1125. In Br.-M. = n.

76 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.4. XIII. Century. For 21,14 βεβηλωμενην - 24 fin  22,1 - 24,1 εσπερας e silentio conclusions are not valid.

77 Rome, Bibl.Vat., XIII.-XIV. Century. Cat.

82 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl.3. XII. Century. In Br.-M. = o.

84 Rome, Bibl.Vat., X.-XI. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 6,2 [αρ]παγης - 14,10 και 2°  19,37 αυτα - 20,25 κτηνων 1° 26,37 [κατα]~τρεχοντος - 27,20 ετερω.        

85 Rome, Bibl.Vat., X. Century. Hexaplaric notes. in Br.-M. = z.

106 Ferrara, Bibl. Comm., 187 I. XIV. Century. In Br.-M. = p.

107 Ferrara, Bibl. Comm., 188 I. Written 1334.

108 Rome, Bibl.Vat., XIII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. In
Br.-M. = ®MDIT―b®MDNM―.

118 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.6. XI.-XII. Century.

120 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Gr.4. XI. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 16,12 του 2° - 26,20 υμων 3°. Also absent is 6,31 - 7,17 αν. In Br.-M. = q.

121 Venice, Bibl.Marc., Gr.3. X. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 3,1 τε θηλυ - 4,27 μια  15,31σκηνην - 16,34 εξιλασκεσθαι  20,10 [μοιχευ]σηται 2° - 22,4 ψυχης. In Br.-M. = y.

122 Venice, Bibl.Marc., Gr.6. XV. Century.

125 Moscow, formerly Syn. Bibl., Gr.30, XIV. Century.

126 Moscow, formerly Syn. Bibl., Gr. 19. Written 1475.

127 Moscow, formerly Syn. Bibl., Gr. 31. X. Century.

128 Rome, Bibl. Vat., 1657. XIII. Century. Cat.

129 Rome, Bibl.Vat., XI.-XII. Century. In Br.-M. = r.

130 Vienna, Nat. Bibl., 23. XII.-XIII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. In H.-P, = 131; in Br.-M. = s.

131 Vienna, Nat.Bibl., 57. Late X. Century.

134 FLorence, Bibl. Laur., PLutei V 1. XI. Century. It lacks 2,12 - 16 κυριω 1° and due to leaf loss 15,13 και 2° - 16,6 τον 1°. In Br.-M. = t.

246 Rome, Bibl. Vat., Written 1195. In part a palimpsest; Leviticus text overwrites.

313 Athens, Nat. Bibl., 43. XI. Century. Cat.

314 Athens, Nat.  Bibl.,®MDNM―44. XIII. Century. In Br.-M. = w.

318 Athos, Βατοπαιδἰου, 598 (formerly 511). X.-XI. Century.

319 Athos, Βατοπαιδἰου  600 (formerly 513). Written 1021.

320 Athos, Βατοπαιδἰου 602 (formerly 515). XIII. Century. Cat. Through leaf loss it lacks 3,15 νεφρους - 4,15 κυριου 1° 19,36 Αιγυπτου - 20,9 θανατω. The ms is a copy of 73 in Leviticus, but because of the two large omissions in 73 it was collated.®MDNM―

321 Athos, Βατοπαιδἰου, 603 (formerly 516). XIV. Century. Hexaplaric notes.

343 Athos, Λαύρα, 352. X. Century. Hexaplaric notes.

344 Athos, Παντοκρἀτερος 24. X. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 7,5 [κατλειψου]σιν - 11,40 αυ[των], Hexaplaric notes. In Br.-M. = v.

346 Athos Πρωτἀτου, 53. Written 1326. It lacks init libri - 5,15 ακου[σιως]. Hexaplaric notes.
370 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Chigi R. VIII. 61. XI. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks init libri - 4,6 κυριου 11,40 και ult - 13,59 δερματινου.

376 Escorial, Real Bibl., Υ-II-5. XV. Century. In Br.-M. = c.

381, Escorial Real Bibl., Ω-I-13. XI. Century.

398 Grottaferrata, Bibl. della Badia, A.®MDIT―®MDNM―γ. 1. X. Century.

407 Jerusalem, Patr. Bibl., ʽΑγἰου Τφου,2. End of IX. Century. in Br.-M. = u.

413 Constantinople, Bibl. d. Serail, 8. XII. Century. Cat.

414 Leiden, Univ.-Bibl., in fol.13. XIV. Century. Cat.

416 Leipzig, Univ.-Bibl., Gr.16. X. Century. Hexaplaric notes .

417 London, Archiepisc. Libr., 1214. Written 1104. Cat.

422 London, Brit., Mus., Add. 35123. XII.-XIII. Century. Cat.

424 London, Brit. Mus., Burney 34. XV. Century. Cat. The ms contains the following text pieces: 1,1-5,15 ακουσιως 6,19-20 θυσιαν  7,12-13 προβατων  7,18-19σωτηριου 1°  8,1-2 αμαρτιας  8,6-7 της  10,2-3 και 2°  10,8-9 θυσιαστηριον  11,1-3 ονυχιστηρας  11,13-17 καταρρακτην  12,1-2 ημερας 1°  13,1-2 αυτου 2°  13,7-8 ιδου  13,22-24 γενηται 1°  13,42  13,52 εν πυρι - 55 αφην  14,1-2 και  14,10 33 34  15,1-3 νομος  15,19-20 κοι[ταζηται  15,24-25 γυνη  16,1-4 και 3°  16,9-10 αποπο[μπαιου]  17,1-2 ενετειλατο  17,8-9σκηνης  17,1-14σαρκος 1°  18,1-3 παρωκησατε  18,6-7 ασχημοσυνην 2°  18,16-17 της  19,19 τα-20 μετα  19,26-28 ποι[ησετε] 1°  20,1-2 προ[σγεγε~νημενων]  20,24 εγω 2°-25 μεσον 3°  21,1-2 αυτων  21,9-10 αυτου  21,16-17 προσφερειν  22,1-2 μου  22,17-18 προσ[κειμενων]  22,26-27 δεχθησεται  23,1-3 τη δε  23,9-10 και 2°  23,12-13 αναπε[ποιημενης]  23,23-24 μηνος 2°  23,26-27 τουτου  23,29-30 ταυτη  23,33-35 πρωτη  24,1-2 κα[θαρον]  24,5 init - δυο  24,32 init-ισρα[ηλιτιδος] 2°  24,18-19 δω  25,1-2 γη  25,8-9 φωνη  25,32  25,46 των 1°-fin  26,3-4 χυλα  26,18-19 θησω  26,34 init-αυτης 2°  27,1-3 εως  27,20.

426 London, Brit. Mus., Add. 39585 (earlier Curzon 66). Early XI. Century. init. libri - 16,8 κληρους was restored in the late XI.
Century. In Br.-M. = x.

458 Messina, Bibl. Univ., S.Salv.62. XII. Century. Hexaplaric notes.

500 Vienna, Nat. Bibl., (earlier Nikolsburg, Dietr. Schlossbibl. II 221). XI.-XII. Century. Cat. The ms had two scribes:
a) init libri - 3,2 δωρου  11,26 πας -fin libri, b) 3,2 και 2°-11,36 θνησιμαιων.

509 Leningrad, Οff. Staatsbibl., Gr.62. IX.-X. Century. in Br.-M. = a®MDSD―2®MDNM―.

527 Paris, Bibl de l’Arsenal, 8415. XIV. Century.

528 Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coisl.5. Written 1264. Cat.

529 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl.6. XIII. Century. Cat.

537 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl. 184. XIII. Century.

550 Paris, Bibl. Nat., Gr.128. XII. Century. Cat.

551 Paris, Bibl Nat., Gr.129.XIII. Century. Cat.

552 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr. 132. XV. Century. Cat.

610 Paris, Bibl.Nat., XIV. Century.

615 Patmos ἰa’ωἀννου το θεολόγου, 216. XI. Century. Cat.

618 Patmos, ἰa’ωἀννου το θεολόγου, 410. ΧΙΙΙ. Century.

619 Patmos, ἰa’ωἀννου το θεολόγου, 411. 8,27 εναντι - 29 Μω[υσης]
8,33 ουκ - 34 ταυτη  9,4 αναπεφυραμενην - 5 μαρτυριου  9,10 ανηνεγκεν - 11 παρ[εμβολης]®LAHebrew― were restored by a later hand, since the upper part of a leaf was cut off. The same scribe restored 9,19 και 2° - 11,2 fin and 26,40 [εξα]γορευσουσι - fin libri, two omissions due to leaf loss.

628 Leningrad, Φff. Staatsbibl., Gr. 124. XIII. Century. Contains be­sides the Lev. text Tht ®MDIT―Lev®MDNM― in the form of a chain-catena.

630 Leningrad, Φff. Staatsbibl., Papadopulos-Kerameus 8. X. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 7,10 [κρε]ων - 28 τροπον  20,4 [υπεριδω]σιν - fin libri.

642 Rome, Bibl. Vallicell., Gr.10. XII. Century. Contents: 16,1-17 αγιω.

646 Rome, Bibl.Vat. XII. Century. Cat. The ms has a double form. The first is collated under the symbol 4641. Through leaf loss it lacks 6,8-10,11  14,33-16,34  19,19 τα-24,4.

664 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Pii. gr.20. XIV. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 8,10 του-9,1 υιους  25,19 και 2° - 53 μοσθω.

707 Sinai St. Catherine Monastery, X.-XI. Century. The ms is badly faded, and e silentio conclusions are not valid. 

708 St. Catherine Monastery, X. Century. Cat.

730 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Gr.15. XII. Century. Cat.

739 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Cr.534. X. Century. Cat.

761 Zόrich, Zentralbibl., C.II. XIII. Century. Cat.

767 Athos, ®MDNM―Λαύρα, 603. XIII.-XIV. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks init libri 13,5 α[φοριει], as well as 23,34 τη -25,14 fin.

799 Athens, Nat. Bibl., 2491. Written 1280.

                        Manscripts not Collated

    The following younger mss. were not collated, since they would not yield an important text.

83 Lisbon, Arch. da Torre do Tombo, 670. XVI. Century. Cat.

350 Berlin, Staatsbibl., Phill. 1405. Written cir. 1540. Cat.

461 Μετε'ωρα, 216. ΧVΙ. Century

702 Rome, Bibl. Vat., XVI. Century. Cat.

723 Turin, Bibl. Naz., B.III.15. XVI. Century. Cat.

Not available was:

Rumania, Τόμ. 1 σελ. 371. Cat.

The following were destroyed by fire:

364 Με'γα πη'λαιον, Βε'ης 68. XIV. Century.

716 Smyrna, Ευ’αγγελ. χολη'. A-1. XII. Cewntury. Cat.

                        4. Papyri and Fragments

801 Jerusalem, Rockefeller Museum, 4QLXX Leva. I. Century B.C.E. Contents (fragmentary): 26,2-16. Edition: P.W.Skeehan, The Qumran Manu­scripts and Textual Criticism, Supplement Vetus Testamentum 4. Leiden 1957, 157-159.

802 Jerusalem, Rockefeller Museum, 4QLXX Levb, I. Century B.C.E. Contents (very fragmentary): 1,11 2,3-5 7-8 3,4 7(vid) 9-14  4,3-4 6-8 10-11 18-20 25 26-28 5,6(vid) 8-10 16-17(vid) 18-6,5.®FN1 My special thanks go to Monseigneur P.W.Skehan† who in extra­or­dinary kindness gave me not only photographs but also a copy of his transcriptions.―

809 Vienna, Nat. Bibl.,P. Gr. Vind. 19893. VI. Century. Contents (fragm.): 8,14-15 17-19. Edition: P. Sanz, Griechische literarische Papyri christlichen Inhalts I. Mittelilungen aus der Papyrusasammlung der Nationalbiblothek in Wien (Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer). N.S. IV, Folge, Baden b. Wien 1946., 18-19.

858 Heidelberg, Inst. f. Papyrologie, P.Heid. Gr.945. III. Century. Contents (fragm.): 19,16-19 31-33. Edition: Griech. Texte der Heidelberger Papyrus­sammlung IV, ed. by B.Kramer and D. Hagedorn with contributions by C.Rφmer, B.H.Kraut and F. Montanari. Verφffentl. a.d.Heidelb. Pap.-Samml., NF. publ. by Heidelb. Akad. d.Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl., No.5. Heidelberg 1986.

931 Sinai, St. Catherine Monastery, Fragment 1. IV. Century. Contents: 22,3 αν 1°-8 θηριαλω[τον]  22,9 και 2°-14 κ[αι] 2°  22,16 init - 21 ευχην η  22,21 μωμος - 27 ημερας  22,28 [προβ]ατον - 23,3 εν   23,6 init - 12 πο[ιησετε]  23,12 [ενιαυ]σιον - 17 δεκα[των] 23,17 [πεφθη]σονται - 22 αγρουσου. Of these 22,1-8 21-27 are complete, and the rest are fragmentary. Edition: J.R.Harris, Biblical Fragments from Mount Sinai. London 1890, 57-64 (No.15). In Br.-M. = pNaό| | ®MDSD―6®MDNM―.

936 Munich, Bayer. Staatsbibl., Gr.610, No.2. V. Century. Contents (fragm.): 1,14 15  2,10-12. Edition: W. Gerhδuser and A. Rahlfs, Mόnchener Septuaginta-Fragmente, MSU 1. Berlin 1913.

947 P.Oxyrh. 1225. IV. Century. Contents (fragm.): 16,33 34. Edition with facs.: B.F.Grenfell and A.D. Hunt, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part X. London 1914.

954 P.Oxyrh. 1351. IV. Century. Contents: 27,12 15 16 19 20 24; of these verses very few letters are extant. Edition with Facs. on the front side: see ms 947, Part XI. London 1915.

                        5. The Greek Patristic Citations

    For the problems with the proper assessment of patristic citations  see Genesis 29-30.

     Τhe Following authors were compared.®FN1  A collection of citations of the patristic witnesses marked with † were graciously made available to the Unternehmen by the Centre d’Analyse et de Documentation Patristiques in Strassburg.―

Anast        = Anastasius Sinaita (PG 89)

Ast            = Asterius Amasenuss (PG 40,163-478_

Ath            = Athanasius I-III (Pg 25-27)

Barn            = Epistula Barnabae (ed. F.X.Funk-K.Bihlmeyer, 1956)†

Bas             = Basilius Magnus Caesariensis I-IV (PG 29-32)

CanAp        = Canones apostolicae (TU 2,1-2’ ed. A.Harnack 1884)

Chr            = Chrysostomus I-XVIII (PG 47-64)

Clem         = Clemens Alexandrinus I-III (GCS 12, 15, 17; ed. O.Stδhlin)†

Cyr            = Cyrillus ALexandrinus I-X (PG 68-77)

CyrHier    = Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus (PG 33,331-1180)

DialTA    = F.C.Conybeare, The Dialogues of Athanasius and Zaccheus and of Timothy and Aquila, Anec­dota Oxoniensia, Class. Ser. I, 8 Oxford, 1898

Did            = Didymus Alexandrinus, Kommentar zu Sacharja (Tura-Papyrus) (SC 83-85; ed. H.L.Doutreleau, 1962)†. Cited according to the Papyrus page

        Eccl            = Kommentar zum Ecclesiastes (Tura Pypyrus) Pt. I.1  Ch. 1-2,14) ed. G.Binder & L.Liesenborghs; Pt.II (Ch. 3-4,12)
ed. Gronewald; Pt.III (Ch. 5-6) ed. J.Kremer; Pt.IV (Ch. 7-
8,8) ed. J.Kramer & B.Krebber; Pt.V. (Ch. 9,8-10,20) ed.M.
Gronewald; Pt.VI (Ch. 11-12) ed. G.Binder & L.Liesenborghs, PTA 25,22,13,16,24,9. Cited acccording to Papyrus page & Column

        Hiob       = Kommentar zu Hiob (Tura Papyrus), PTA 1,2,3; Vol. 1 & 2 ed A. Hendrichs; Vol.3 ed. U.& D.Hagedorn & L. Koenen. Cited
as  in Eccl

        Ps          = Psalmenkommentar (Tura Papyrus), I-V ed.. L.Koenen & R. Merkelbach, PTA 7,4,8,6,12. Cited as in Eccl

DionAl        = Dionysius Alexandrinus (.Feltoe, Λεἰψανα. The Letter and Other Remains of Dionysius of Alexandria, Cambridge 1904 [Cambridge Patr. Texts]

Epiph        = Epiphanius I-III (GCS 25,31,37; ed. K. Holl
Eus            = Eusebius Caesariensis I,II,III 1,IV,VI,VIII 1,2 (GCS 7; ed. E.Klostermann. GCS 9,1-3: ed. E.Schwartz. GCS 11,14; ed.                   E.Klostermann. GCS 23; ed. I.A.Heikel. GCS 43, 1,2; ed. K. Mras). IX (GCS; ed. J.Ziegler)

        Ps    = Commentaria in Psalmos (PG 23 24)

Hipp             = Hippolyus †

        Elenchos = Elenchos (GCS 26; ed. P.Wendland

Isid            = Isidorus Pelusiota (PG 78)

Iust            = Iustinus Martyr (ed. H.Hemmer & P.Lejay. 1909†

                    Dial    = Dialogus cum Tryphoni (ed. G.

Mac            = Macarius Aegyptus (PG 34)

Meth         = Methodius (GCS 27. Ed. N.Bonwetsch)

        Convivium = Convivium (SC 95; ed. H.Musurillo and V.H.
                 Debidour, 1963) †

Nil            = Nilus Ancyranus (PG 79)

Or            = Origines I-IV, VI, IX, X, XII (GCS 2,3; ed. P. Koetschau. GCS 6; ed. E.Klostermann. GCS 10; ed. E.Preuschen. GCS 29 ed. W.A.Baerens. GCS 49(35); ed. M.Rauer. GCS 40 and 41,1; ed. E.Klostermann. GCS 41,2; ed. E.Klostermann & L. Frόchtel)

        Cel        = Contra Celsum I-VIII (SC 132,136,147, 150; ed. M.
                      Borret, 1967-1969)†

        Rom        = Le Commentaire d’Origθne sur Rom 3,5-5.7
                      ed. J. Scherer†

Phil                = Philon Iudaeus ALexandrinus (Opera; ed. L. Cohn &
                       P. Wendland, Berlin 1896ff)

Procop            = Procopius Gazaeus (PG 87)

Ptol                = Ptolemaeus Gnosticus, Epistula ad Floram. SC 24; ed.                   G. Quispel†

Sev                = Severianus Gabalitanus (PG 56, 429-516)

Th                = Theodorus Mopsuestenus (PG 66)

Tht                = Theodoretus Cyrensis I-V (PG 80-84)

            Gen    = Quaestiones in Genesis (TECC 17; ed. N. Fernαndez
                      Marcos and A.Saenz-Badillos, 1979)
            Lev    = Quaestiones in Leviticum (TECC 17)

                        II. The Old Versions

    In the ranking of the versions, the Old Latin stands first in the
Apparatus, in which the ms are listed first, followed by the Fathers; the remaining versions follow these in alphabetic order.
    For the problems connected with the Versions in geneal see Genesis 33-34.

                        1. The Old Latin Version = La®FN1  I would like to tender my special thanks to H.J.Frede and W. Thiele of the Vetus Latina Institut in Beuron for their friendly support, by which it became possible for me to investigate the wealth of materials in the Institute on site relevant to my work.  They offered me the use of their enormous collection of patristic evidence not only, but also enabled me to make a new collation of the mar­ginal notes on mss 91-96.―

    The following mss were collated:

  91: Lιon, S. Isidoro, Codex Gothicus Legionensis. Written 960.
  92: Lιon, S. Isidoro 1.3 (Legionensis 2). Written 1162. Copy of 91.
  94: Escorial, Biblioteca de S.Lorenzo 54. V.35. Written 1561.
  95: Madrid, Acad. de la Historia 2-3. XII. Century.
  96: Calahorra, Catedral 2. Written 1183.

   Mss 91-96 are Vulgate mss which contain marginal readings which are attributed to LXX, Al and T. Only 95 in the main fails to indicate their derivation. The attributions LXX and GR (= Graecus), for which no distinction could be discovered, have not been noted in the apparatus, whereas readings of Al (aliter or alia) and T (tertius) are noted.  The notes designated by Al (for aliter or alia) show a close relation to the readings of ms. 100.

100 Lyon, Bibl. de la Ville, Ms 403 + 1964. VII. Century. The ms lacks 18,30 - 25,13 αριθμον 2°. Edition: U. Robert, Pentateuchi versio latina antiquissima e codice Lugdunensi. Paris 1881.

101 Naples, Bibl. Nazionale, lat.1. V. Century. Palimpsest. Contents: 1,1-3,2σκηνης  5,10 ως-6,20 πρωι  8,5 ενετειλατο-33 θυρας. Collated on the basis of P. Bonifacius Fischer’s decipherment.

103 Wόrzburg, Univ. Bibl., Mp. theol.fol.64a. V. Century. Palimpsest. Contents: 4,23-35  5,1-4 (fragm.) 4-8 10 (fragm.) 11-6,2  7,2-11 16-20 (fragm.) 23-27 (fragm.)  28-8,3 (fragm.) 6-15 (fragm.)  11,7-9  12-16  22-25  27-36 (fragm.) 37-47 17,14-18,21  19,31-20,3  12-16 (very fragm.) 20-21,2  22,19-29  23,5-9 (fragm.). Edition: E. Ranke, Par palimpsestorum Wirceburgensium Antiquis­simae Veteris Testa­menti versionis Latinae fragmenta. Vienna 1871.

104 Munich, Bayer. Staatsbibl., Lat. Monac. 6225. VI. Century. Palimpsest. Contents (fragmentary): 3,17-4,25  11,12-13,6  14,17-15,10  18,18-20,3. Edition: L.Ziegler, Bruchstόcke einer vorhie­ronymi­anischen άbersetzung des Pentateuch aus eiem Palimpseste der K. Hof- und Staatsbibl. zu Mόnchen. Munich 1883.

    For the textual character of Vetus Latina comp. A.V.Billen, The Old Latin Texts of the Heptateuch, Camridge 1927. As in Numbers and Deuterono­mium citations of mss and the Fathers were made, rather than by text types as in Genesis. The character of the Vetus Latina texts of Leviticus are charac­teried as in Numbers and Deuteronomium as homogeneous. Also in the case of Leviticus the rendering of the Greek hexaplaric text (LaO in Genesis), and the translations from the Greek related to PsPhil, i.e. those not dependent on La are, however, cited within the series of Latin Fathers. The designa­tion La is used whenever all Old Latin witnesses agree.
    Abbreviatons for the Latin Patristic citations. The abbreviations placed in parentheses are those found in Frede, Verzeichnis, where all further informa­tion can be found.

Ambr (AM) = Ambrosius
    Ep (ep) = Epistulae
    Fuga (fu) = De fuga saeculi
    Luc (Lc) = Expositio Evangelii secundum Lucam
    Noe (noe) = De Noe
    Off min (off) = De officiis minisitrorum
    Ps 118 (118 Ps) = Expositio de Psalmo CXVIII
    Sat (Sat) = De excessu fratris Satyri
    Tob (Tb) = De Tobia

Amrst (AMst) = Ambrosiaster
    Quaest (q) = Quaestiones V. et N.T.
    Rom (Rm) = Commentarius in Epistulas Paulinas

Aug (Au) = Augustinus
    C Adim (Ad) = Contra Adimantum
    Faust (Fau) = Contra Faustum Manicheum libri 33
  Iul imp (Jul im) = Contra secundam Iuliani responsionem
          imperfectum opus
    Lev (Lv) = Locutionum in Heptateuchum libri 7
    Num (Nm) = Quaestiones de Numeris
    Parmen (Par) = Contra epistulam Parmeniani libri 3
    Ps (Ps) = Enarrationes in Psalmos

Caes (CAE) = Caesarius
    Serm (s) = Sermones

Cassiod (CAr) = Cassiodorus
    Compr (cpl) = Complexiones in epistulis Apostolorum et Actibus
                eorum et Apocalypsi
    1 Cor, 2 Cor (1-2 Cor) = Expositio in epistulae S. Pauli
    Ps (Ps) = Expositio Psalmorum

Chrom (CHRO) = Chromatus
    Matth(Mt) = Tractatus in Matthaeum

Concil(Cyr) (CYR:CO) = Scholia de incarnatione Unigeniti

ConcilTur (CO-Tur) = Concilia Turonensia

Cyp (CY) = Cyprianus
    Ep (ep) = Epistulae
    Laps (lap) = De lapsis
    Quir (te) = Ad Quirinum seu testimoniorum libri 3

Eucher (EUCH) = Eucherius
    Form (int) = Formulae spiritalis intelligentiae

EusEm (EUS-E) = Euselius of Emesa

Fulg (FU) = Fulgentius
    Tras (Thr) = Ad Trasamundum libri 3

GregIl (GR-I) = Gregor of Illiberis
    Tr (tr) = Tractatus Origenis

Hes (HES) = Hesychius of Jerusalem

Hi (HI) = Hieronymus
    Agg (Agg) = Commentariorum in Aggaeum prophetam ad Paulam et
      Eustochium liber
    C Pel (Pel) = Dialogi contra Pelagianos libri 3
    Ep (ep) = Epistulae
    Ezech (ez) = Commentariorum in Hiezechielem libri 14
    Helv (Hel) = Adversos Helvidium de Mariae virginitate perpetua
    Is (Is) = Commentariorum in Esaiam libri 18
    Luc (Lc) = Origenis in Lucam homiliae 39
    Mal (Mal) = Commentariorum in Malachiam prophetam ad
              Minervium et Alexandrum liber
    Or in Ezech hom (Ez h) = Origenis in Ezechielem homiliae 14
    Pach (Pach) = Pachomiana
    Quaest (q) = Hebraicae quaestiones in libro Geneseos

Hiln (HILn) = Quintus Iulius Hilarianus
    Pasch (pa) = De ratione paschae et mensis

IohCass (CAn) = Johannes Cassianus
    Conlat (co) = Conlationes Patrum 24
    Inst (in) = De institutis coenobiorum et de octo principalium
              vitiorum remedis libri 12

Isid (IS) = Isidor
    Fid (fi) = De fide catholica ex Veteri et Novo Testamento contra
                  Iudaeos ad Florentinam sororem
    Off (off) = De ecclesiasticis officiis libri 2

Luc (LUC) = Lucifer of Cagliari
    Athan (Ath) = De Athanasio libri 2

MissMoz (M-M) = Missale Mozarabicum

Pac (PAC) = Pacianus
    Paen (par) = Paraenesis ad paenitentiam

Pel (PEL) = Pelagius, Brite
    2 Cor (2Cor) = Expositiones XIII Epistularum S. Pauli
    Ep et tr (Casp 2-6) = Epistulae et tractatus a C.P.Caspari edita,
    Rom (Rm) = Expositiones XIII Epistularum S. Pauli

PsAmbr (PS-AM) = Pseudo-Ambrosius
    Lex (lex) = Lex Dei sive Mosaicarum et Romanarum legum collatio
    Mans (man) = De XLII mansionibus filiorum Israel
    Trin (tr) = De Trinitate alias in Symbolum Apostolorum tractatus

PsCyp (PS-CY) = Pseudo-Cyprianus
    Aleat (al) = De aleatoribus

PsHi (PS-HI) = Pseudo-Hieronymus
    Ep (ep) = Epistulae

PsPhil (PS-PHo) = Pseudo-Philo, Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum

Quodv (QU) = Quodvultdeus    
    Prom (pro) = Liber promissionum et praedictorum Dei

Ruf (RUF) = Rufinus
    Cant (Ct) = Commentarius Origenis in Ct
    Gen (Gn) = Origenis in Gn homiliae 16
    Lev (Lv) = Origenis in Lv homiliae 16
    Num (Nm) = Origenis in Nm homiliae 28
    Or princ (pri) = Origenis libri De principiis
    Reg S Bas (reg) = Regula S. Basilii ad monachos
    Rom (Rm) = Origenis Commetarius in Rm

SedScot (SED-S) = Sedulius Scottus

Spec (PS-AU spe) = Liber de divinis scripturis sive Speculum quod fertur S. Augustini

Tert (TE) = Tertullianus
    Ieiunio (je) = De ieiunio adversos psychicos
    Marc (Marc) = Adversos Marcionem libri 5
    Monog (mon) = De monogamia
    Pud (pud) == De pudicitia
    Scorp (sco) = Scorpiace

Zeno (ZE) = Zeno of Verona

                    2. The Ethiopic Version = Aeth

    The collation of the Ethiopic translation of Lev was made from O.Boyd’s edition and according to the text of cod M; for both cf Genesis 43-44. For the dating of the Colophon in cod. P see Deueronomium 31.

                    3. The Arabic Version = Arab

    Cf Genesis 44-46.

                    4. The Armenian Version = Arm

    The old Armenian version was collated from Zohrab’s edition of 1805. See further on Arm Genesis 46-47 and Numeri 26.

                    5. The Coptic Versions = Co

                        a) The Bohairic Version = Bo

        As in Numeri and Deuteronomium (see 31-32) two mss were collated for Bo    
    Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coptic 1, 1356
    Rome, Bibl. Vat., Coptic 1. IX.-X. Century.
        If the two texts differ the Paris ms is called BoA, and the Roman
one BoB, For the Bohairic Version in general see Genesis 47.

                        b) The Sahidic Version = Sa

    The Sahidic text for Leviticus is practically entirely extant in Sa1. Various pages of the ms are very difficult to read; accordingly no e silentio conclusions are valid. In another seven mss smaller or larger fragments of Leviticus are extant. For the Sahidic in general see Genesis 48. The following mss were collated:

Sa1 = New York, J. Pierpont Morgan Library, Copt. ms. 566. See H. Hyvernat, A check-list of Coptic Manuscripts in The Pierport Morgan
Li­b­­rary, New York 1909, p.3, No.1 and Biblothecae Pierpont Morgan Codices Coptici photographice expressi. Rome 1922. Lacking are 14,33-15,13 and 27,16-25.

Sa2 = G. Maspιro, Fragments de la version thιbaine de l’Ancien Testament. Mιm. publ. par les membres de la mission arch. fr. au Caire VI, fasc.1. Paris 1892. Contents: 6,6-25 λεγων  6,39 επ-11,3  11,4-9 (fragm.) 13-18 (fragm.)   21-23 (fragm,)  13,4 ταπεινη-39  18,30 τα-20,11 γναικοςσου  21,5 ταςσαρκας-22,9 ινα  23,3 εργα-25,38  27,26 τω-27 των 1°  29 30 33 αλλαξης-34.

Sa3 = A. Ciasca, Sacrorum Bibliorum fragmenta copto-sahidica Musei Borgiani iussu et sumptibus S. Congregationis de Propaganda Fide edita. Tom. I, Rome 1885. Contents: 7,24 Ααρων-13,39 ιδου  14,8-29 εξιλασεται  15,25 ρυσεως-19,16 πορευση  19,34 αυτον-20,16 προσελευσεται 23,5-12  26,15 διασκεδασαι-30  27,15 δε-31 ανθρωπος.

α4 O. von Lemm,, Sahidische Bibelfragmente. Bulletin de l’Acadιmie Impιriale des Sciences de Saint-Pιtersbourg. Ve Sιrie, XXV,4. St. Pιtersbourg 1906. Cod. orient. Berolin. in fol.1605, fol.2. Contents: 2,3 Ααρων-3,5 επι ult.

Sa5 = L.Th. Lefort, Les Manuscrits Coptes de l’Universitι de Louvain. Louvain 1940. Contents: 21.17 ου-22,8 εν.

Sa6 = W.Till, Sahidische Fragmente des Alten Testaments. Le Musιon 50(1937), 180f. Vienna, Nat. Bibl., K. 2596. Contents (fragmentary): 25,47 53-55.

Sa7 = C. Wesseley, Griechische und koptische Texte theologischen Inhalts IV. Studien zur Palδographie und Papyruskunde XV. Leipzig 1914. Vienna, Nat. Bibl., K.9387. Contents: 25,6-20 εαν.

Sa8 = J.Schleifer, Bruchstόcke d. sahidischen Bibelόbersetzung: Sitzb. d. Kais.Akad.d.Wiss. in Wien, philos.-hist. Kl. 170, I. Vienna 1912. London, Brit. Mus., Or. 3579A. Contents: 19,4-7.

                        6. The Palestiniah-Syriac Version = Pal

    Pal was collated from The Bible in the Syropalestinian Version, ed. M.H. Goshen-Gottstein, Part I Pentateuch and Prophets. Jerusalem 1973. This edition is a collation of all previously known as well as of newly found texts of Pal for the Pentateuch and the Prophets. For Leviticus it contains only two fragments, which were first published by A.S.Lewis, Codex Climaci Rescriptus, Horae Semiticae VIII. Cambridge 1909. Contents: 8,18 Ααρων-30 fin and 11,42 επι ult-12,8 ολοκαυτωμα.

                        7. The Syro-hexaplaric Version = Syh

    The following texts were collated:

SyhT = Turb‘Abdin Ms. Edition: A Vφφbus, The Pentateuch in the Version of the Syro-Hexapla. A facsimile edition of a Midyat Ms. discovered 1964. Corp. Scr. Chr. Or. 369. Louvain 1975. The following pieces of text are absent because of leaf loss: 20,14 εν υμιν-21,9 εκπορνευσαι (A page has been ripped out. Fragments of 20,21-24 and 21,5-9 are preserved) and 26,46 των-fin libri.

SyhB = W. Baars, New Syro-hexaplaric Texts. Leiden 1968. Contents: 8,1-3 θυραν  23,33-41 υμων.

SaG = M.H.Gottstein, Neue Syrohexaplafragmente. Biblica 37(1956), 162-183. British Museum, Add. 14495. Contents: 19,11-19 φυλαξεσθε. J.Gwynn, Remnants of the Later Syriac Versions of the Bible, Pt.II. London 1909. British Museum, Add. 12139. Contents: 26,42-46 Ισραηλ.
        Besides these Barh and Ish were also compared.

    With the discovery of SyrT the text of this translation of Lev has been made available to scholars for the first time. As in the other books of the Pentateuch Syh is one of the chief witnesses to the hexaplaric recension. Syh constitutes, even though not entirely trustworthy, for the greater part of the book, where cod G is lacking, the only witness for the hexaplaric signs. Furthermore, the significance of Syh for the reconstruction of the οb' text of the hexapla in full can hardly be overstated, since ms 426 which is a chief witness for the hexaplaric text in other books is extant only from 16,8.

                        III. The Printed Editions

        The three large oldest Bibles: Aldina (Ald), Complutensis Compl) and the Sixtina (Sixt) are particularly important. They have been fully collated for this edition. The principles which govern their citation are given below. Only the Sixtina has been reprinted numerous times; in this edition only the original text has been used.

                            1. Aldina (Ald)

    In Leviticus Ald is especially closely related to the ms-pair 68b'. These in turn are related to 120; and where this is not available, to 29. All four mss were in the possession of Cardinal Bessarion, and their text has been influencial either directly or indirectly on the text of Ald. It has also been established that Ald has a number of variants which are witnessed by oI. Ald is only noted in the Apparatus when it has unique readings or variants which permit further conclusions for the developement of its textual form.

                            2. Complutensis (Compl)

    The text of Compl is based in large part of mss 19b'. but it also supports variants which are found in the f-group. The notation of Compl readings is treated in the same fashion as Ald. As for its unique readings it must be said that these do not come from a lost Greek parent text, but go back to the editor of Compl; note some otherwise unsupported instances of MT influence.

                            3. Sixtina (Sixt)

    Of all the old printed editions Sixt shows the closest dependence on a single ms. It presents almost exclusively the text of B; if B is corrected it mainly supports Bc . Since little is known of other mss which were used in the creation of B, whenever Sixt does not support B, B or Bc , it is noted in the Apparatus. Purely orthographic variants, which might be interessst in certain cases, as with spellings of names, are not considered for B.

                            4. Grabe (Gr)

See Genesis 53,

                            5. Holmes-Parsons (H.-P.)

See Genesis 54.

                            6. Lagarde

    The text of Lagarde is that of his reconstructed Lucianic text of the books Genesis to Esther. The edition is not used for the Apparatus.

                            6. Brooke-McLean (Br.-M.)

    See Genesis 54-55. The edition Exodus-Leviticus appeared in 1909. Also in the edition list of divergences from Br.-M. are given in a Supplement. The list does not, hwoever, contain any material which Br.-M. took over from  H.-P.

                            7. Rahlfs Ra)

    Ra refers to the manual edition of the Greek Old Testament; for Leviticus it is essentially based on a comparison of the uncials A and B.

                    ®LAHebrew―    ®LAHebrew―®SZ14PT―®MDBO―B ®MDBO―The Text History            

®SZ12PT―  The text history has been thoroughly discussed in J.W.Wevers THGL. Only such information will be given here which is necessary for the use of this edition.

                    I. Recensions and Textgroups in the LXX-tradition

                        1. The O recension

O = G-58-376-426(from 16,8) Syh
oI = 15-64-381-618-708
oII = 29-72-82-707

Ob' = O + oI  O’ = O + oII  Ob'b‡ = O + oI + oII  oI’ = oI + oII
64b' = 64 + 708  72b' = 72 + 707  376b' = 376 + 426  381b' = 381 + 618
    Hexaplaric signs are found chiefly only in G and in Syh; occasionally
they are found in mss which do not present the O-text.

                        2. The C-Group

C = 16-46-77-131-500-529-739
cI = 57-73-320-413-528-550-552-761
cII = 52-313-414-417-422-551-615

Cb' = C + cI  C’ = C + cII  Cb'b‡ = C + cI + cII  cI’ = cI + cII
16b' = 16 + 46  52b' = 52 + 615  57b' = 57 + 413  73 = 73 + 320  
77b' = 77 + 131  414b' = 414 + 551  500b' = 500 + 739  528b' = 528 + 761
550b' = 550 + 552

    The Cb'b‡-Group presents a widely diffused text type,, which is preserved particularly in Catena-mss. Except for the mss 16-46-131 all the mss of this group are Catena mss. On the other hand, ther are six catena mss which are not members of the C group, namely two from the codices mixti, 18 and 646, 128 which is a z text, the oI ms 708, and the s ms 730. Ms 424 also represents the Cb'b‡ text
type, but is such a condensed text that it would be difficult to record it among
the C group, and has been assigned to the codd mixti for convenience’ sake.

                        3. The b-Group

b = 19-108-118-314-537
19b' = 19 + 108  118b' = 118 + 314

    The group often divides into 19b' and 118b'-537, but usually it constitutes a closed group.

                        4. The d-Group

d = 44-106-107-125-610
44b' = 44 + 106  107b' = 107 + 610  125b' = 107 + 125

    On the character of the d-group as the chief representative of the Byzantine text see THGN.

                        5. The f-Group

f-Group = 53-56-129-246-664
53b' = 53 + 664  56b' = 56 + 246

    Ms 129 ofen deviates from the group.

                        6. The n-Group

n = 54-75-127-458-767
54b' - 54 + 127  75b' = 75 + 458

    Ms 54 has a few hexaplaric readings in its text.

                        7. The s-Group

s = 30-85-130-321-343-344-346-730
30b' = 30 + 730  85b' = 85 + 130  321b' = 321 + 346  343b' = 343 + 344

    The mss of the s-group contain numerous hexaplaric readings on the margins.

                        8. The t-Group

t = 74-76-84-134-370
74b' = 74 + 134  76b' = 76 + 370

    As in Genesis the t-group is closely related to the d-group.

                        9. The x-Group

x = 71-509-527-619
71b' = 71 + 619

                          10. The y-Group
 ®MDUL―y = 121-318-392

                        11. The z-Group

z = 68-120-122-126-128-407-628-630
68b' = 68 + 122  120b' = 120 + 407  126b' = 126 + 128  628b' = 628 + 630

    68-120b' quite often diverges from the others, but usually the group
is closed as a group.

                    II. The younger Greek Versions

    On the character of the second Apparatus see Genesis 59-60. The readings
brought together in Apparatus II, which come in the main from the hexapla
especially as αb'σb' and θb' readings, are usually marginalia from the mss.
Only seldom are there direct references to the later versions in the text of the mss themselves, as for ex. in ms. 54. The situation is quite different in the Catenas, where the non-LXX readings are to be found either within the commentaries of the Fathers or as independent catena fragments. Accordingly the catena texts have been systematically excerpted of non-LXX materials germane to the second apparatus. Since Cb'b‡ is not the equivalent to “catena mss”, some clarification is necessary for the nomenclature within Apparatus II. The designaton Cb'b‡ can hardly involve the non-catena mss 16 46 and 131. In fact, the evidence for such readings extends beyond Cb'b‡ and includes the other catena mss (18 128 646 708 730) as well, which are separately listed as supporters; though it must be added that the readings
of 128 throughout and the majority for 708 do not actually stem from the catena tradition.
   The intent of c a t and c o m m has not changed; similarly also in Leviticus in so
far as the source of a c o m m-reading can be verified, the witness for the Father would be named.
    As to the witnesses for non-LXX readings the usual picture is attested in
Leviticus as well. The most readings are again to be found in the mss Mb' (M = 664; 416 = 577) as well as the s mss: 344 (= 488), 130 (= 448), 321 (= 435), 85 (= 389), 346 (=380), 343 (= 43). Next come the Catena mss, of which the Cb'b‡ group present 100 readings. ms 18 = 94, 730 = 64. and the damaged ms 646 = 35 cases, while the rogue mss over against the other catenas, 128 and 708 witness to only 29 and 14 resp.
   For the Ob'b‡-mss once again in Leviticus it is only Syh which yields
substantial material with 51 cases,  whereas the other Ob'b‡ witnesses only show an occasional instance: 58 = 35, 707 = 16, 376 = 3, and 64 = 1. This situation is similar for all other witnesses, except for F\b/ (= 68). This appears from the following: a) mss.: 56  = 25, 108 = 24, 458 = 21, 54 = 14, F = 8, 118 = 7, 314 = 5, Fa and 127 each = 2; b) patristic witnesses: Hes = 57, Tht = 7, Procop = 6, Eus = 5, Barh = 4, Ish = 1 instance.
     It is worthy of notice that non-LXX readings in Leviticus remain anonymous to a large extent. Of the ca 1400 readings,about 66% (=916); 10% (139), of the cases present a summary source indication, such as οἰa‘ λb', οι ε‘'τεροι, or as αb'σb' or θb' or some other named source, while 6.7% each name αb' orσb' (96 and 94 resp.), 5% name οb', about 4.4% (61) for θb', and 1.2% (18) name το`σαμb',
    A basis for the large number of anonymous readings, which incidentally helps to explain the relatively large amount of non-LX material involved, might be sought in the fact that many readings are repeatedly attested; in such cases as a rule the first mention is often given with source, whereas the repeats may well lack the name of the source. For example, the reading ιωβηλ is given four times together with source (θb' in 25,29;σb' θb' b’εβρb' in 25,11 13 28), and ten times is anonymous (25,12 15 28 30 31 33 40 50 52 27,17). Beyond that, this example points to the fact that the majority of these anonymous readings belong to αb'σb' and θb'.
    As a further source to which a large number of anonymous readings can be assigned. the Samaritan Targum may be named; its Greek translation of the mss in a rather few cases show a direct relation to το`σαμ(αρειτικον). Since the fact that eleven of the thirteen cases which are found under the name το`σαμb' in the catena mss, are also found, either directly or indirectly in Cod.M, which are throughout
s nom, similar anoonymous readings of M which were not readings of the three, but did seem to represent MT, were compared to the Samaritan Targum of Petermann. This produced 74 instances, a number large enough to warrant their being noted in apparatus II. These were noted under the designation either
= SamA r a m or cf SamA r a m.
    It was interesting that the readings of SamA r a m almost exclusively agreed with those in M and the Catenas, but was not witnessed by mss of the s-Group, for which only one instance, 14,3 η’^ρταε 85b', obtained. This discovery reflects once again the still unsolved problem in connection with the particular tradition-historical con­ditions which lay behind the non-LXX readings. An edition can in any event only add some clarification by bringing out these materials. This means that these non-LXX readings in Leviticus must be included. Only such materials should be omitted that seems certain to be exegetical gloss or lexical comment. Thus the readings which were uncertain®FN1 My special thanks are due to D. Fraenkel who in the course of his collating the hexaplaric materials for this edition b­e­came aware of the relation between the M marginal readings and SamA r a m (see also Field, pp.329ff.) and so compared all the non-LXX readings with SamA r a m, His results have been included in Apparatus II.―, were placed in the Apparatus.

                    ®SZ14PT― ®MDBO―C Re this Edition
    The general layout of the Genesis edition was retained for Leviticus as well. The changes over against earlier volumes of the Gφttingen Septuaginta are in part repeated from the Genesis volume.

                        1. The Introduction

    The introduction is limited to those materials which are immediately necessary for the user of the volume. An extensive discussion, especially of the text history is to be found in THGL. Deviations from Br.-M are collectively listed in an Appendix, which in spite of their importance are not absolutely necessary for the use of this edition.
    As in Genesis the Orthographica- and Grammatica-discussion has been placed in a Supplement. It is limited, however, to fewer instances of this discussion that might help to understand some passages. For the construction of the edition the editor had to distinguish between real variants and variants which were only orthographic in nature; only the former were taken up in the first apparatus. Only for names are all variants cited in the apparatus.

                        2. The Critical Text

    As in the Genesis edition, proper nouns are supplied with accents, and where appropriate with spiritus lenis or spiritus asper. The principles which were followed in the Genesis edition are also followed in this edition. The reader is referred to Genesis 62-63.

                        3. List of Sources

    Between the text and the apparatus all the ms witnesses and versions are named in the same order as that in the apparatuses. For this see the following paragraphs. A witness whose text is fragmentary appears in parentheses, e.g. (931). Should the text of a witness begin on a particular page a hyphen follows, e.g. (931-). Should such a reference end there, the hyphen would precede, e.g. (-931).    
    It is also noted in the list when a piece of text fails for some external reason. E.g., should ms 314 lack some text due to leaf loss the notation would read b- 3 1 4. This would show that the entire b-group except for ms 314 (which belongs to b) contains the text of the page involved.
    The abbreviation al (for alia manuscripta) refers to mss which could not be assigned to any text group, i.e. the so-called codices mixti as well as those mss too broken or damaged to be classified. The expression verss refers to all versions which contain the complete text of Leviticus. Versions whose Leviticus text is not complete, such as Pal, are placed at the end of the source list.

                        4. Apparatus I

    The evidence for a variant is always given in a special order: a) the uncial mss in alphabetic order, b) the papyri in numerical order, c) the witnesses of  Ob'b‡ mss, d) the witnesses of Cb'b‡, e) the remaining text families (cf Section B I supra), in alphabetic order, f) the codices mixti, g) the rest of the Greek witnesses in the following order: N.T. witnesses, Phil, followed by the other Greek Patristics in alphabetic order, h) the Latin texts in numerical order, followed by the Latin Fathers in alphabetic order. The Latin witnesses are (except for unique readings of a Father) always introduced by a raised L a t, i) the remaning versions in alphabetic order, and j) other witnesses or commentaries.
    Over against the Genesis edition only the notation of the Latin witnesses has changed. The various text types, such as LaK, LaI, etc. could not be used, and the designation La in Leviticus is only used to indicate that all Latin witnesses agree (cf Section A II 1. supra). This change was necessary since up to the present no critical edition of the Vetus Latina for Leviticus has appeared, and so no secure basis of the classification of Latin witnesses according to text types is possible (cf Section A II 1 supra.). For the same reason it was necessary to record the witness of the Latin Fathers immediately after the Latin mss. For the changes in the notation which the Pentateuch editions have in common over against the other editions of the Gφttingen Septuaginta, see Genesis 64.

                        5. Apparatus II

    The theory that underlies the second apparatus was explained above under B II. Unless otherwise stated the recorded variants are throughout marginal readings. Readings of the younger translators which are found in the commentary texts of catena mss are designated by a raised c o m m, (for ex. 77c o m m). Should such a reading be attributed to a certain Father, his name would be added, (for ex 77c o m m T h t). Readings within the catenas which are not in a commentary, are noted by a raised c a t (for ex. 77c a t).

                    ®SZ14PT―®MDBO―D Signs and Abbreviations

®SZ9PT―-        = up to, for ex. L a tcodd 94-96 = L a tcodd 94 95 96 or        
        also used to indicate mss within a group, for ex. 44-125-610 or
        L a tcodd 94-96 = L a t codd 94 95 96

C- 1 6        Mss deviating from a group are shown by a raised minus  
         sign, so C- 1 6 means all of C except 16. Similarly Aeth- F
        means all the Aeth texts except F.        

C( - 1 6 )    indicates that ms 16 has a larger omission than the other
        members of C. E.g. Cb'b‡- 3 2 0 in Lev 1,14 (om κἀρπωμα προσφε'ρη, 320)

*        = the original reading of a ms.

c        = later corrections

( * ), ( c ) means that within a larger omission the ms does not have the
         original or corrected variant (e.g. 77( c )

c   p r   m (c pr m)    = a correction of the first hand.

c 1         =  the first corrector

c 2        = the second corrector

s        refers to the suppletor of a ms,. for ex. 46s An s cannot
         contrast with an *  

txt        means a textual reading in mss        

mg        = a marginal reading in mss

(mg)    means that a marginal reading does not contrast with a reading in
        text, since the txt has a larger omission, e.g. 77(mg)

txt*,txtc,mg*,mgc are used if a txt- or margin- shows a correction

te        refers to readings in the text of editions

a p        refers to readings (variants) in the apparatus of editions

c a t(in App.2)   means the reading comes from the Catena of a Catena ms

c o m m(in App.2)  means the reading from Catena attributed to a particular
        Church Father, for ex 77c o m m

vid        means the reading is uncertain, for ex 31(vid)

v i d        refers to a reading in which it is uncertain whether it deals
        with a corrected or an original text

(?)        refers to uncertain words or symbols

m s ( s )        refers to codex(-ices) of the Vulgate

L a t        introduces series of Latin Fathers

ώ]³        indicates line change

ώ|3        indicates  a page or column change

hD        a dot under a letter means that the letter cannot be read            with certainty                   

+, add        indicates a plus

>, om        indicates an omission

sΗ        indicates omission due to homoioteleuton

(ν)        means that the enclosed letter is omitted in various mss,
        for ex εστι(ν)

[...]        shows that three letters cannot be read in a ms.

...]αι, αι[...    means that only αι can be read in a ms

[ωσ]ει        means that ωσ is conjectured

<>        means a symbol added contrary to the tradition

{}            means a symbol omitted contary to the tradition

 ,χ        are asterisk and obelus

pE        means metobelus

|         refers to Apparatus II

MT        = the Masoretic text

MTL    = the text of BHS

Q        = A Qumran text

absc    = abscissus
App    = apparatus
cf       = confer
cod(d)    = codex (-dices)
corr    = correctura
c var    cum variis (lectionibus)
del      = deletus
dess    = desunt    
dittogr    = dittographia
ed(d)    = editio (-tiones)
ex corr    = correctura
ex par    = ex parallelis locis
fin        - finis
hab        = habe(n)t
haplogr  = haplolographia
homoiar  = homoiarcton
homoiot  = homoioteleuton
inc         = incertus
init        = initium
Lev    = textus criticus
litt    = littera(e)
mend    = mendose
metob    = metobelus
ms(s)    = manuscriptum (-ta)
mutil    = mutilatum
omn codd = omnes codices
pap    = papyrus
pl    = plures
plur    = pluraliter
pr    = praemittit (-tunt)
praec    praecedens (re text reference within a verse)
praef    = praefatio
pr m    = prima manus
ras      = rasura
relict    = relictus
rell     = reliqui
rescr    = rescriptus
s         = sine
s ind    = sine indice
s nom    = sine nomine
s ss     = sequens, sequentes (for pages)
scr      = scripsit (-serunt)
sed hab    = sed habe(n)t
sing    = singulariter
spat    = spatium
sq        = sequens (re text reference within a verse)
sup lin     = supra lineam
sup ras    = supra rasuram
superscr = superscripsit
tr        = transposuit (-suerunt)
ult      = ultimus
vers(s)    = versio (-ones)
vid      = ut videtur  

®SZ12PT―                Recensions and Ms-Groups

O = G-58-476-426(from 16®MDSD―s)
    376b' = 376 + 426
oI = 15-64-381-618-708
    64b' = 64 + 708  381b' = 381 + 610
oII = 29-72-82-707
    72b' = 72 + 707
Ob'b‡ = Ο + oI + oII  Ob' =O) + oI  O’ = O + oII   oI’ = oI + oII

C = 16-46-77-131-500-529-739
    16b' = 16 + 46  77b' = 77 + 131  500b' = 500 + 739
cI = 57-73-320-413-528-550-552-761
    57b' = 57 + 413  73b' = 73 + 320  528b' = 528 + 761  550b' = 550 + 552
cII = 52-313-414-417-422-551-615
52b' = 52 + 615  414b' - 414 + 551
Cb'b‡ = C + cI + ®MDUL―cII  Cb' = C + cI  C’ = C + cII  cI’ = cI + cII

b = 19-108-118-314-537
    19b' = 19 + 108  118b' = 118 + 314

d = 44-106-106=125=610
44b' = 44 + 106  107b' = 107 + 610  125b' = 135 + 107

f = 53-56-129-246-664
    53b' = 53 + 664  56b' = 56 + 246

n = 54=75=127-458-767
    54b' = 54 + 127  75b' = 75 + 458

s = 30-85-130-321-343-344-346-730
    30b' = 30 + 730  85b' = 85 + 130  321b' = 321 + 346  343b' = 343 + 344

t = 74-76-84-134-370

x = 71-509-527-619
    71b' = 71 + 619

y = 121-318-392

z = 68-120-122-126-128-407-628-630
    68b' = 68 + 122  120b' = 120 + 407  126b' = 126 + 128  628b' = 628 + 630


Aeth     = Ethiopic version
Arab     = Arabic version (Paris, Bibl. Nat., Arab 9)
Arm      = Armenian version
Co       = Coptic version
            Bo = Bohairic version
            Sa = Sahidic Version
La    = Old Latin version
Pal    = Palestinian-Syriac version
Pesch    = Peshitta
Sam    = Samaritan Pentateuch
Syh    = Syro-hexaplaric version
      SyhB = Text ed. Baars
      SyhG = text ed. Goshen-Gottstein
      SyhT = Ms from Tur b‘Abdin
Tar    = Targums
        TarO = Onkelos Targum
        Vulg = Vulgate
            TarP = Neofiti Targum

Later Greek translations (Apparatus II)

αb'     = Aquila
σb'    = Symmachus
θb'    = Theodotion
οἰa‘ λb'    = ο‘ι λοιποἰ
οἰa‘ γb'    = οἰa‘ τρεἰa^ /F
οἰa‘ οb'    = οἰa‘ ε‘βδομη'κοντα
ο‘ ε‘βρb'   = ο‘ Ε’βραἰa^ο /F
το` ε’βρb'  = το` ε’βραἰa¨κόν
(το`)σαμb'  = (το`)σαμαρειτικόν
γρb'    = γρἀφεται
α’'λλο /F, α’'λλοι, ε‘'τερο /F = unknown sources

            Printed Editions

Ald        = Aldina
Compl    = Complutensis
Sixt     = Sixtina
Gr        = Grabe
Ra        = Rahlfs
Ra.    = Conjectures of Rahlfs

                Literature and Collections

APF    = Archiv fόr Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete
Barh    = Abu ‘l-Farag - Barhebraeus’ Scholia on the O.T. Ed. by
BHS    = Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, fasc.2 Exodus et Leviticus, praep.
             G.Quell. Stuttgart 1966
BK        = Berliner Klassikertexte aus den Staatlichen Museen Berlin
Br.-M.    = The Old Testament in Greek according to the Text of Codex
             Vati­ca­nus ed. by A.E.Brooke and N.Mc ®MDSD―Lean, vol.I part II, Cambridge
CSCO     = Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium
Deuteronomium = Deuteronomium, edidit J.W.Wevers, Gφttingen 1977
Field    = Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, ed. Fr. Field, Oxonii 1875
Frede, Verzeichnis  = H.J.Frede, Kirchenschriftsteller, Verzeichnis u. Sigel
           (Vetus Latina Teil I,1),3, neubearb. u.. erw. Aufl. von B.Fischer,
            Verzeichnis der Sigel fόr Kirchenschriftsteller. Freiburg i.Br.
GCS    = Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei
              (Berliner Ausgabe)
Genesis     = Genesis, edidit J.W.Wevers, Gφttingen 1974
Gr     = Septuaginta Interpretum tomus I, ed. J.E.Grabe, Oxonii 1707
Hesych     = Hesychii Alexandrii Lexicon recensuit et emendavit Kurt Latte.
              Hauniae 1953, 1966
H.-P.    = Vetus Testamentum Graecum cum variis lectionibus, tom.I, Oxonii 1798
Huber    = K.Huber, Untersuchungen όber den Sprachcharakter des
             griechischen Leviticus. Giessen 1916
Ish          = Commentaire d’Isho’dad de Merv sur l’Ancien Testament. II. Exode-
            Deutιronome, ιditι par C. van den Eynde CSCO 176 (Scriptores Syri
           Tome 80). Louvain 1958
JThSt       = Journal of Theological Studies
Lagarde    = Librorum VT canonicorum pars prior graece Pauli de Lagarde studio
           et sumptibus, Gottingae 1883
Leviticus  = Leviticus, edidit J.W.LS            = A Greek-English Lexicon by H.Wevers, Gφttingen 1986
G.Liddel and R.Scott. A New Edition
              by H.S.Jones. Oxford 1940
Mayser    = E.Mayser, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der
           Ptolemδerzeit. I Leipzig 1906, II 1 Berlin 1926, II 2 1933/34,
           II 3 1934, 2nd Edition I 1 1970. I 2 1938, I 3 1936
MSU        = Mitteilungen des Septuaginta Unternehmens, Berlin 1909ff.
Numeri    = Numeri, edidit J.W.Wevers. Gφttingen 1981
SamA r a m  = Pentateuchus Samaritanus Ad fidem Librorum Manuscriptorum apud
                Nablusianus Repertorium edidit H. Petermann, Fasc. Leviticus.
               Berlin 1883
SC        = Sources Chrιtiennes
Schleusner = Novus Thesaurus philologico-criticus sive Lexicon in LXX..., ed.
             J.Fr.Schleusner, Lipsiae 1820/21
Schwyzer    = E.Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik auf der Grundlage von Karl
            Brugmanns griechischer Grammatik. Handbuch der Alter­tumswissen~-                    schaft. II.1.Band I:3, Aufl. Band II:2.Aufl. Munich 1959
Swete    = The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint, Vol.1.
                Cambridge 1887
TECC     = Textos y Estudios “Cardinal Cisneros”   
Thack     = H.St.J.Thackeray, A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek
                 according to the Septuagint, vol.1. Cambridge 1909
THGD    = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Deuteronomy, MSU XIII.
                 Gφttingen 1978
THGG    = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Genesis. MSU XI. Gφttingen
THGL    = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Grek Leviticus, MSU XIX.
          Gφttingen 1986
THGN    = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Numbers, MSU XVI.
          Gφttingen 1982
TU        = Texte und Untersuchungen
Wackernagel = Kleine Schriften von Jacob Wackernagel. 2 Bδnde. Gφttingen 1953
Walters     = P.Walters, The Text of the Septuagint. ed. by D.W.Gooding.
                 Cambridge 1973
We.        = Conjectures by the editor

                    Text Editions and Other Literature
Ayuso Marazuela, T., La Vetus Latina Hispana. II.El Octateucho. TECC 6,
     Madrid 1967
Baars, W., New Syro-hexaplaric Texts. Leiden 1968
Bibliothecae Pierpont Morgan Codices Coptici photographice expressi. Rome
Billen, A.V., The Old Latin Texts of the Heptateuch. Cambridge 1927
Bischoff, B., Neue Materialien zum Bestand und zur Geschichte der
    altlateini­schen Bibelόberzetzungen, Studi e Testi 121. Cittΰ del Vaticano
     1946, 407-410
Boyd, O., The Octateuch in Ethiopic, Pt.II. Exodus and Leviticus.
    Biblio~thecα Abessinica: Studies concerning the Languages, Literature and
     History of Abyssinia, ed. by E. Littmann IV. Leiden 1911
Ceriani, A.M., Pentateuchi et Iosue quae ex prima scriptura supersunt in cod.
    Ambros. graeco seculi fere  V. Monumenta sacra et profana 3. Milan 1864
Ciasca, A., Sacrorum Bibliorum fragmenta copto-sahidica Musei Borgiani iussu
  et sumptibus S. Congregationis de Propaganda Fide edita. Tom, I. Rome 1885
Dνez Macho, A., Levitico, Neophyti 1: Targum Palestinense ms de la Bibio­teca
  Vaticana Tomo III. Madrid 1971
De Rieu, G.N., Codices Graeci et Latini photographice depicti, Tom. I: V.T.
   Graece. Codicis Sarraviani-Colbertini quae supersunt in Bibliothecis
   Leidensi Parisiensi Petropolitana phototypice edita. Leiden 1897
von Gall, A., Der hebrδische Pentateuch der Samaritaner. Leipzig 1918
Gerhδuser, W., and Rahlfs,A., Mόnchener Septuaginta-Fragmente, MSU I. Berlin
Goshen-Gottstein,  M.H., The Bible in the Syropalestinian Version, Part I
   Pentateuch and Prophets. Jerusalem 1973
-- Neue Syrohexaplafragmente, Biblica 37(1956), 162-183
Grenfell, B.F. and Hart, A.S., The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part X. London 1914
Gwynn, J., Remnants of the Later Syriac Vesions of the Bible, Part II: Old
   Testament. London 1909
Harris, J.Rendel, Biblical Fragments of Mount Sinai no.15. London 1890
Hyvernat,H., Album de Palιographie Copte. Paris 1880
de Lagarde, P., Bibiotheca Syriaca. Gφttingen 1892
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