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Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum

Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum


edidit John William Wevers

adiuvante U. Quast

[Originally published in German by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1986;

English translation prepared by John William Wevers

and edited for internet use by Sigrid Peterson, 2007; updates are indicated in red.]


A.The Textual Witnesses

I. The Greek Witnesses1

1For fuller information on the Greek manuscripts, see Rahlfs, Verzeichnis.

The edition2 of Leviticus is based on the following mss, which have been recollated by the LXX-Unternehmen:

2Of all those at the Septuaginta-Unternehmen I would especially wish to thank Detlef Fraenkel for the translation of both the Introduction and the Supplements.

 1. Uncial Manuscripts 

A London, Brit. Mus., Royal 1 D.V. V. Century. “Codex Alexandrinus”. Lacking are 6,19-23. In H.-P. = III. 

B Rome, Bibl. Vat., Vat.gr. 1209. IV. Century. In H.-P. = II. 

F Milan, Bibl. Ambr., S.P.51 (earlier A.147 inf.). V. Century. Lacking is 9,19-10,14 αφαιρεμα[τος], and has been restored by Fb. Correctors in F come from two clearly differentiated periods. The codex was first corrected by various hands which can be distinguished by a yellowish brown tint as well as majuscle script, and are named Fa. When these corrections can be distinguished in time they are called Fa1, Fa2, etc. In the Middle Ages the codex was thoroughly retraced by a Restorer, who also made corrections. His and later correctors are called Fb; should it be possible to distinguish these correctors in time, they would be designated Fb1, Fb2, etc. Where Fb clearly made an error in his retracing, it is called Fs. Corrections by erasure are designated by Fc. Most of the marginal corrections are by Fb, in which cases the coresponding text in F might be marked by dots. These have not been recorded in the edition. Edition: A.M.Ceriani, Monumenta sacra et profana 3, Milan 1864. The edition contains only the text of the original ms without corrections (except for those made by the original hand). In H.-P. = VII. 

G Leiden, Univ.-Bibl., Voss.graec. in qu.8; Paris, Bibl. Nat., Gr.17. IV.-V. Century. Through leaf loss the following texts are lost: 13,17 [μετε]βαλεν - 49 τω 1°  14,6 το 3° - 32 fin  14,49 [αφαγνι]σαι - 15,24 αν  17,10 [προσ]ηλυτων - 18,28 ε[θνεσιν]  19,36 χους - 24,9 Ααρων  27,16 κυριω - fin libri. Edition of the Leiden part: C. Tischendorf, Monumenta sacra inedita. Nova collectio 3, Leipzig 1860. Edition of the Paris part: P. de Lagarde, Semitica II. Abh. d.K. Ges.d.Wiss. zu Göttingen, Vol.25, Göttingen 1879. Facs. edition: Codices Graeci et Latini photgraphice depicti duce G.N.Du Rieu. Tom.I: V.T. Graece. Codicis Sarraviani-Colbertini quae supersunt in Bibliothecis Leidensi Parisiensi Peropolitana phototypice edita. Leiden 1897. In H.-P. = IV. 

M Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coisl.1. VII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. In H.-P. = X. 

V Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.2106. VIII. Century. “codex Venetus”. Contents: 13,39 [στιππυ[ινου - fin libri. In H.-P. = XI, in Br.-M. = N. 

2. Minuscule Manuscripts 

15 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl.2. X. Century. Due to leaf loss it lacks 23,41 εν - 24,23 εποιησαν  25,43 και - 26,8 υμων ult. In Br.-M = a. 

16 Florence, Bibl. Laur., Plut. V. 38. XI. Century. 

18 Florence, Bibl. Laur., Medic. Palat. 242. XI. Century. 

19 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Chigi R., VI 38. XII. Century. In Br.-M. = b*. 

29 Venice, Bibl.Marc., Gr.2. X.-XI. Century. In Br.-M. = b2. 

30 Rome, Bibl. Casanat., 1444. XI.-XII. Century. 

44 Zittau, Christian-Weise Bibl.,A.1. XV. Century. in Br.-M. = d. 

46 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl 4. XIII.-XIV. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 26,5 και 2° - 27,15 προσθη[σει]. 

52 Florence, Bibl.Laur., Acq.44. X.-XI. Century. Cat., Scribal change at 8,17 παρεμβοþ|3λης. In Br.-M. = e. 

53 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.17A. Written 1439. In Br.-M. = f. 

54 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.5. XIII.-XIV. Century. In Br.-M. = g. 

55 Rome, Bibl.Nat., Regin.gr.1. First half of X. Century. It lacks 15,8-33. In Br.-M. = h. 

56 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.3. Written 1096. In Br.-M. = i. 

57 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.747. XI. Century. Cat. Through leaf loss it lacks 4,34 (αυτου)επιθησει - 6,2 και 2°  23,27 υμων - fin libri. In Br.-M. = j. 

58 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Regin.gr.10. XI. Century. In Br.-M. = k. 

59 Glasgow, Univ.Libr., BE 7b. 10 XV. Century. In Br.-M. = l. 

64 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.2. X. Century. 

68 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Gr.5. XV. Century. 

71 Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr.1. XIII. Century 

72 Oxford, Bodl. Libr., Canon.gr.35. XII. Century. Lacking are 8,19-22  9.11 init - 20 στηθυνια 23,9-22. Ιn Br.-M. = m. 

73 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vaat.gr.746. XI.-XII. Century. Cat. Through leaf loss it lacks 11,44 και 2° - 13,1 προς  13,27 τη 1° - 39 ο[ψεται]. 

74 Florence, Bibl.Laur., .S Marco 700. Late XIII. Century. 

75 Oxford, Univ. College 52. Written 1125. In Br.-M. = n. 

76 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.4. XIII. Century. For 21,14 βεβηλωμενην - 24 fin  22,1 - 24,1 εσπερας e silentio conclusions are not valid. 

77 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.748. XIII.-XIV. Century. Cat. 

82 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl.3. XII. Century. In Br.-M. = o. 

84 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.1901. X.-XI. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 6,2 [αρ]παγης - 14,10 και 2°  19,37 αυτα - 20,25 κτηνων 1° 26,37 [κατα]~τρεχοντος - 27,20 ετερω.          

85 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.2058. X. Century. Hexaplaric notes. in Br.-M. = z. 

106 Ferrara, Bibl. Comm., 187 I. XIV. Century. In Br.-M. = p. 

107 Ferrara, Bibl. Comm., 188 I. Written 1334. 

<>108 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.330. XIII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. In Br.-M. = b. 

118 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr.6. XI.-XII. Century. 

120 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Gr.4. XI. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 16,12 του 2° - 26,20 υμων 3°. Also absent is 6,31 - 7,17 αν. In Br.-M. = q. 

121 Venice, Bibl.Marc., Gr.3. X. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 3,1 τε θηλυ - 4,27 μια  15,31 σκηνην - 16,34 εξιλασκεσθαι  20,10 [μοιχευ]σηται 2° - 22,4 ψυχης. In Br.-M. = y. 

122 Venice, Bibl.Marc., Gr.6. XV. Century. 

125 Moscow, formerly Syn. Bibl., Gr.30, XIV. Century. 

126 Moscow, formerly Syn. Bibl., Gr. 19. Written 1475. 

127 Moscow, formerly Syn. Bibl., Gr. 31. X. Century. 

128 Rome, Bibl. Vat., Vat.gr. 1657. XIII. Century. Cat. 

129 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Vat.gr.1252. XI.-XII. Century. In Br.-M. = r. 

130 Vienna, Nat. Bibl., Theol.gr. 23. XII.-XIII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. In H.-P, = 131; in Br.-M. = s. 

131 Vienna, Nat.Bibl., Theol.gr. 57. Late X. Century. 

134 FLorence, Bibl. Laur., PLutei V 1. XI. Century. It lacks 2,12 - 16 κυριω 1° and due to leaf loss 15,13 και 2° - 16,6 τον 1°. In Br.-M. = t. 

246 Rome, Bibl. Vat., Vat.gr.1238. Written 1195. In part a palimpsest; Leviticus text overwrites. 

313 Athens, Nat. Bibl., 43. XI. Century. Cat. 

314 Athens, Nat.  Bibl.,44. XIII. Century. In Br.-M. = w. 

318 Athos, Βατοπαιδίου, 598 (formerly 511). X.-XI. Century. 

319 Athos, Βατοπαιδίου  600 (formerly 513). Written 1021. 

320 Athos, Βατοπαιδίου 602 (formerly 515). XIII. Century. Cat. Through leaf loss it lacks 3,15 νεφρους - 4,15 κυριου 1° 19,36 Αιγυπτου - 20,9 θανατω. The ms is a copy of 73 in Leviticus, but because of the two large omissions in 73 it was collated. 

321 Athos, Βατοπαιδίου, 603 (formerly 516). XIV. Century. Hexaplaric notes. 

343 Athos, Λαύρα, 352. X. Century. Hexaplaric notes. 

344 Athos, Παντοκράτερος 24. X. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 7,5 [κατλειψου]σιν - 11,40 αυ[των], Hexaplaric notes. In Br.-M. = v. 

346 Athos Πρωτάτου, 53. Written 1326. It lacks init libri - 5,15 ακου[σιως]. Hexaplaric notes.

370 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Chigi R. VIII. 61. XI. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks init libri - 4,6 κυριου 11,40 και ult - 13,59 δερματινου. 

376 Escorial, Real Bibl., Υ-II-5. XV. Century. In Br.-M. = c. 

381, Escorial Real Bibl., Ω-I-13. XI. Century. 

398 Grottaferrata, Bibl. della Badia, A.γ. 1. X. Century. 

407 Jerusalem, Patr. Bibl., Ἁγίου Τάφου,2. End of IX. Century. in Br.-M. = u. 

413 Constantinople, Bibl. d. Serail, 8. XII. Century. Cat. 

414 Leiden, Univ.-Bibl., Voss.gr. in fol.13. XIV. Century. Cat. 

416 Leipzig, Univ.-Bibl., Gr.16. X. Century. Hexaplaric notes . 

417 London, Archiepisc. Libr., 1214. Written 1104. Cat. 

422 London, Brit., Mus., Add. 35123. XII.-XIII. Century. Cat. 

424 London, Brit. Mus., Burney 34. XV. Century. Cat. The ms contains the following text pieces: 1,1-5,15 ακουσιως 6,19-20 θυσιαν  7,12-13 προβατων  7,18-19 σωτηριου 1°  8,1-2 αμαρτιας  8,6-7 της  10,2-3 και 2°  10,8-9 θυσιαστηριον  11,1-3 ονυχιστηρας  11,13-17 καταρρακτην  12,1-2 ημερας 1°  13,1-2 αυτου 2°  13,7-8 ιδου  13,22-24 γενηται 1°  13,42  13,52 εν πυρι - 55 αφην  14,1-2 και  14,10 33 34  15,1-3 νομος  15,19-20 κοι[ταζηται  15,24-25 γυνη  16,1-4 και 3°  16,9-10 αποπο[μπαιου]  17,1-2 ενετειλατο  17,8-9 σκηνης  17,1-14 σαρκος 1°  18,1-3 παρωκησατε  18,6-7 ασχημοσυνην 2°  18,16-17 της  19,19 τα-20 μετα  19,26-28 ποι[ησετε] 1°  20,1-2 προ[σγεγε~νημενων]  20,24 εγω 2°-25 μεσον 3°  21,1-2 αυτων  21,9-10 αυτου  21,16-17 προσφερειν  22,1-2 μου  22,17-18 προσ[κειμενων]  22,26-27 δεχθησεται  23,1-3 τη δε  23,9-10 και 2°  23,12-13 αναπε[ποιημενης]  23,23-24 μηνος 2°  23,26-27 τουτου  23,29-30 ταυτη  23,33-35 πρωτη  24,1-2 κα[θαρον]  24,5 init - δυο  24,32 init-ισρα[ηλιτιδος] 2°  24,18-19 δω  25,1-2 γη  25,8-9 φωνη  25,32  25,46 των 1°-fin  26,3-4 χυλα  26,18-19 θησω  26,34 init-αυτης 2°  27,1-3 εως  27,20. 

<>426 London, Brit. Mus., Add. 39585 (earlier Curzon 66). Early XI. Century. init. libri - 16,8 κληρους was restored in the late XI. Century. In Br.-M. = x. 

458 Messina, Bibl. Univ., S.Salv.62. XII. Century. Hexaplaric notes. 

500 Vienna, Nat. Bibl., Suppl.gr.176 (earlier Nikolsburg, Dietr. Schlossbibl. II 221). XI.-XII. Century. Cat. The ms had two scribes:

a) init libri - 3,2 δωρου  11,26 πας -fin libri, b) 3,2 και 2°-11,36 θνησιμαιων. 

509 Leningrad, Öff. Staatsbibl., Gr.62. IX.-X. Century. in Br.-M. = a2. 

527 Paris, Bibl de l’Arsenal, 8415. XIV. Century. 

528 Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coisl.5. Written 1264. Cat. 

529 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl.6. XIII. Century. Cat. 

537 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Coisl. 184. XIII. Century. 

550 Paris, Bibl. Nat., Gr.128. XII. Century. Cat. 

551 Paris, Bibl Nat., Gr.129.XIII. Century. Cat. 

552 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Gr. 132. XV. Century. Cat. 

610 Paris, Bibl.Nat., Suppl.gr.609. XIV. Century. 

615 Patmos Ἰωάννου τοῦ θεολόγου, 216. XI. Century. Cat. 

618 Patmos, Ἰωάννου τοῦ θεολόγου, 410. ΧΙΙΙ. Century. 

619 Patmos, Ἰωάννου τοῦ θεολόγου, 411. 8,27 εναντι - 29 Μω[υσης] 8,33 ουκ - 34 ταυτη  9,4 αναπεφυραμενην - 5 μαρτυριου  9,10 ανηνεγκεν - 11 παρ[εμβολης] were restored by a later hand, since the upper part of a leaf was cut off. The same scribe restored 9,19 και 2° - 11,2 fin and 26,40 [εξα]γορευσουσι - fin libri, two omissions due to leaf loss. 

628 Leningrad, Öff. Staatsbibl., Gr. 124. XIII. Century. Contains besides the Lev. text Tht Lev in the form of a chain-catena. 

630 Leningrad, Öff. Staatsbibl., Papadopulos-Kerameus 8. X. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 7,10 [κρε]ων - 28 τροπον  20,4 [υπεριδω]σιν - fin libri. 

642 Rome, Bibl. Vallicell., Gr.10. XII. Century. Contents: 16,1-17 αγιω. 

646 Rome, Bibl.Vat. Barber.gr.474. XII. Century. Cat. The ms has a double form. The first is collated under the symbol 4641. Through leaf loss it lacks 6,8-10,11  14,33-16,34  19,19 τα-24,4. 

664 Rome, Bibl.Vat., Pii. gr.20. XIV. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks 8,10 του-9,1 υιους  25,19 και 2° - 53 μοσθω. 

707 Sinai St. Catherine Monastery, Cod.gr.1. X.-XI. Century. The ms is badly faded, and e silentio conclusions are not valid.    

708 St. Catherine Monastery, Cod.gr.2. X. Century. Cat. 

730 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Gr.15. XII. Century. Cat. 

739 Venice, Bibl. Marc., Cr.534. X. Century. Cat. 

761 Zürich, Zentralbibl., C.II. XIII. Century. Cat. 

767 Athos, Λαύρα, 603. XIII.-XIV. Century. Through leaf loss it lacks init libri 13,5 α[φοριει], as well as 23,34 τη -25,14 fin. 

799 Athens, Nat. Bibl., 2491. Written 1280. 

                                   3. Uncollated Manscripts

      The following younger mss. were not collated, since they would not yield an important text. 

83 Lisbon, Arch. da Torre do Tombo, 670. XVI. Century. Cat. 

350 Berlin, Staatsbibl., Phill. 1405. Written cir. 1540. Cat. 

461 Μετέωρα, 216. ΧVΙ. Century 

702 Rome, Bibl. Vat., Vat.gr.2131. XVI. Century. Cat. 

723 Turin, Bibl. Naz., B.III.15. XVI. Century. Cat. 

<>Not available was: 

    Rumania, Τόμ. 1 σελ. 371. Cat.

The following were destroyed by fire: 

364 Μέγα Σπήλαιον, Βέης 68. XIV. Century. 

<>716 Smyrna, Εὐαγγελ. Σχολή. A-1. XII. Century. Cat.
<>4. Papyri and Fragments 

801 Jerusalem, Rockefeller Museum, 4QLXX Leva. I. Century B.C.E. Contents (fragmentary): 26,2-16. Edition: P.W.Skeehan, The Qumran Manuscripts and Textual Criticism, Supplement Vetus Testamentum 4. Leiden 1957, 157-159. 

802 Jerusalem, Rockefeller Museum, 4QLXX Levb, I. Century B.C.E. Contents (very fragmentary): 1,11 2,3-5 7-8 3,4 7(vid) 9-14  4,3-4 6-8 10-11 18-20 25 26-28 5,6(vid) 8-10 16-17(vid) 18-6,5.2 

809 Vienna, Nat. Bibl.,P. Gr. Vind. 19893. VI. Century. Contents (fragm.): 8,14-15 17-19. Edition: P. Sanz, Griechische literarische Papyri christlichen Inhalts I. Mittelilungen aus der Papyrusasammlung der Nationalbiblothek in Wien (Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer). N.S. IV, Folge, Baden b. Wien 1946., 18-19. 

858 Heidelberg, Inst. f. Papyrologie, P.Heid. Gr.945. III. Century. Contents (fragm.): 19,16-19 31-33. Edition: Griech. Texte der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung IV, ed. by B.Kramer and D. Hagedorn with contributions by C.Römer, B.H.Kraut and F. Montanari. Veröffentl. a.d.Heidelb. Pap.-Samml., NF. publ. by Heidelb. Akad. d.Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl., No.5. Heidelberg 1986. 

931 Sinai, St. Catherine Monastery, Fragment 1. IV. Century. Contents: 22,3 αν 1°-8 θηριαλω[τον]  22,9 και 2°-14 κ[αι] 2°  22,16 init - 21 ευχην η  22,21 μωμος - 27 ημερας  22,28 [προβ]ατον - 23,3 εν   23,6 init - 12 πο[ιησετε]  23,12 [ενιαυ]σιον - 17 δεκα[των] 23,17 [πεφθη]σονται - 22 αγρου σου. Of these 22,1-8 21-27 are complete, and the rest are fragmentary. Edition: J.R.Harris, Biblical Fragments from Mount Sinai. London 1890, 57-64 (No.15). In Br.-M. = *aü**6. 

936 Munich, Bayer. Staatsbibl., Gr.610, No.2. V. Century. Contents (fragm.): 1,14 15  2,10-12. Edition: W. Gerhäuser and A. Rahlfs, Münchener Septuaginta-Fragmente, MSU 1. Berlin 1913.  

947 P.Oxyrh. 1225. IV. Century. Contents (fragm.): 16,33 34. Edition with facs.: B.F.Grenfell and A.D. Hunt, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part X. London 1914. 

<>954 P.Oxyrh. 1351. IV. Century. Contents: 27,12 15 16 19 20 24; of these verses very few letters are extant. Edition with Facs. on the front side: see ms 947, Part XI. London 1915.

<>5. The Greek Patristic Citations

<>      For the problems with the proper assessment of patristic citations  see Genesis 29-30.

<>The Following authors were compared.3

3The collection of citations of patristic witnesses cited with † were graciously made available to me by the Centre d’Analyse de Documentation Patristiques in Strassburg, for which I express my gratitude.<> <>

Anast      = Anastasius Sinaita (PG 89) 

Ast         = Asterius Amasenuss (PG 40,163-478)

Ath        = Athanasius I-III (Pg 25-27) 

Barn      = Epistula Barnabae (ed. F.X.Funk-K.Bihlmeyer, 1956)† 

Bas        = Basilius Magnus Caesariensis I-IV (PG 29-32) 

CanAp   = Canones apostolicae (TU 2,1-2’ ed. A.Harnack 1884) 

Chr       = Chrysostomus I-XVIII (PG 47-64) 

Clem   =  Clemens Alexandrinus I-III (GCS 12, 15, 17; ed. O.Stählin)† 

Cyr   = Cyrillus ALexandrinus I-X (PG 68-77) 

CyrHier = Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus (PG 33,331-1180) 

DialTA = F.C.Conybeare, The Dialogues of Athanasius and Zaccheus and of Timothy and Aquila, Anecdota Oxoniensia, Class. Ser. I, 8 Oxford, 1898 

Did   = Didymus Alexandrinus, Kommentar zu Sacharja (Tura-Papyrus) (SC 83-85; ed. H.L.Doutreleau, 1962)†. Cited according to the Papyrus page 

            Eccl   = Kommentar zum Ecclesiastes (Tura Pypyrus) Pt. I.1  Ch. 1-2,14) ed. G.Binder & L.Liesenborghs; Pt.II (Ch. 3-4,12)

ed. Gronewald; Pt.III (Ch. 5-6) ed. J.Kremer; Pt.IV (Ch. 7-

8,8) ed. J.Kramer & B.Krebber; Pt.V. (Ch. 9,8-10,20) ed.M.

Gronewald; Pt.VI (Ch. 11-12) ed. G.Binder & L.Liesenborghs, PTA 25,22,13,16,24,9. Cited acccording to Papyrus page & Column 

            Hiob    = Kommentar zu Hiob (Tura Papyrus), PTA 1,2,3; Vol. 1 & 2 ed A. Hendrichs; Vol.3 ed. U.& D.Hagedorn & L. Koenen. Cited

as  in Eccl 

            Ps    = Psalmenkommentar (Tura Papyrus), I-V ed.. L.Koenen & R. Merkelbach, PTA 7,4,8,6,12. Cited as in Eccl 

DionAl  = Dionysius Alexandrinus (.Feltoe, Λείψανα. The Letter and Other Remains of Dionysius of Alexandria, Cambridge 1904 [Cambridge Patr. Texts]  

Epiph  = Epiphanius I-III (GCS 25,31,37; ed. K. Holl


Eus   = Eusebius Caesariensis I,II,III 1,IV,VI,VIII 1,2 (GCS 7; ed. E.Klostermann. GCS 9,1-3: ed. E.Schwartz. GCS 11,14; ed.       E.Klostermann. GCS 23; ed. I.A.Heikel. GCS 43, 1,2; ed. K. Mras). IX (GCS; ed. J.Ziegler) 

            Ps    = Commentaria in Psalmos (PG 23 24) 

Hipp    = Hippolyus † 

            Elenchos = Elenchos (GCS 26; ed. P.Wendland 

Isid   = Isidorus Pelusiota (PG 78) 

Iust   = Iustinus Martyr (ed. H.Hemmer & P.Lejay. 1909† 

                              Dial = Dialogus cum Tryphoni (ed. G.


Mac   = Macarius Aegyptus (PG 34) 

Meth   = Methodius (GCS 27. Ed. N.Bonwetsch) 

            Convivium = Convivium (SC 95; ed. H.Musurillo and V.H.

                 Debidour, 1963) † 

Nil   = Nilus Ancyranus (PG 79) 

Or   = Origines I-IV, VI, IX, X, XII (GCS 2,3; ed. P. Koetschau. GCS 6; ed. E.Klostermann. GCS 10; ed. E.Preuschen. GCS 29 ed. W.A.Baerens. GCS 49(35); ed. M.Rauer. GCS 40 and 41,1; ed. E.Klostermann. GCS 41,2; ed. E.Klostermann & L. Früchtel) 

            Cel  = Contra Celsum I-VIII (SC 132,136,147, 150; ed. M.

                                Borret, 1967-1969)† 

            Rom  = Le Commentaire d’Origène sur Rom 3,5-5.7

                                ed. J. Scherer† 

Phil    = Philon Iudaeus ALexandrinus (Opera; ed. L. Cohn &

                   P. Wendland, Berlin 1896ff) 

Procop   = Procopius Gazaeus (PG 87) 

Ptol    = Ptolemaeus Gnosticus, Epistula ad Floram. SC 24; ed.       G. Quispel† 

Sev    = Severianus Gabalitanus (PG 56, 429-516) 

Th    = Theodorus Mopsuestenus (PG 66) 

Tht    = Theodoretus Cyrensis I-V (PG 80-84) 

                  Gen = Quaestiones in Genesis (TECC 17; ed. N. Fernández

                                Marcos and A.Saenz-Badillos, 1979)


                  Lev = Quaestiones in Leviticum (TECC 17) 

                                    II. The Old Versions 

      In the ranking of the versions, the Old Latin stands first in the

Apparatus, in which the ms are listed first, followed by the Fathers; the remaining versions follow these in alphabetic order.

      For the problems connected with the Versions in geneal see Genesis 33-34. 

                                    1. The Old Latin Version = La4 

      The following mss were collated: 

  91: Léon, S. Isidoro, Codex Gothicus Legionensis. Written 960.

  92: Léon, S. Isidoro 1.3 (Legionensis 2). Written 1162. Copy of 91.

  94: Escorial, Biblioteca de S.Lorenzo 54. V.35. Written 1561.

  95: Madrid, Acad. de la Historia 2-3. XII. Century.

  96: Calahorra, Catedral 2. Written 1183. 

   Mss 91-96 are Vulgate mss which contain marginal readings which are attributed to LXX, Al and T. Only 95 in the main fails to indicate their derivation. The attributions LXX and GR (= Graecus), for which no distinction could be discovered, have not been noted in the apparatus, whereas readings of Al (aliter or alia) and T (tertius) are noted.  The notes designated by Al (for aliter or alia) show a close relation to the readings of ms. 100. 

100 Lyon, Bibl. de la Ville, Ms 403 + 1964. VII. Century. The ms lacks 18,30 - 25,13 αριθμον 2°. Edition: U. Robert, Pentateuchi versio latina antiquissima e codice Lugdunensi. Paris 1881. 

101 Naples, Bibl. Nazionale, lat.1. V. Century. Palimpsest. Contents: 1,1-3,2 σκηνης  5,10 ως-6,20 πρωι  8,5 ενετειλατο-33 θυρας. Collated on the basis of P. Bonifacius Fischer’s decipherment. 

103 Würzburg, Univ. Bibl., Mp. theol.fol.64a. V. Century. Palimpsest. Contents: 4,23-35  5,1-4 (fragm.) 4-8 10 (fragm.) 11-6,2  7,2-11 16-20 (fragm.) 23-27 (fragm.)  28-8,3 (fragm.) 6-15 (fragm.)  11,7-9  12-16  22-25  27-36 (fragm.) 37-47 17,14-18,21  19,31-20,3  12-16 (very fragm.) 20-21,2  22,19-29  23,5-9 (fragm.). Edition: E. Ranke, Par palimpsestorum Wirceburgensium Antiquissimae Veteris Testamenti versionis Latinae fragmenta. Vienna 1871. 

104 Munich, Bayer. Staatsbibl., Lat. Monac. 6225. VI. Century. Palimpsest. Contents (fragmentary): 3,17-4,25  11,12-13,6  14,17-15,10  18,18-20,3. Edition: L.Ziegler, Bruchstücke einer vorhieronymianischen Übersetzung des Pentateuch aus eiem Palimpseste der K. Hof- und Staatsbibl. zu München. Munich 1883. 

      For the textual character of Vetus Latina comp. A.V.Billen, The Old Latin Texts of the Heptateuch, Camridge 1927. As in Numbers and Deuteronomium citations of mss and the Fathers were made, rather than by text types as in Genesis. The character of the Vetus Latina texts of Leviticus are characteried as in Numbers and Deuteronomium as homogeneous. Also in the case of Leviticus the rendering of the Greek hexaplaric text (LaO in Genesis), and the translations from the Greek related to PsPhil, i.e. those not dependent on La are, however, cited within the series of Latin Fathers. The designation La is used whenever all Old Latin witnesses agree.

      Abbreviatons for the Latin Patristic citations. The abbreviations placed in parentheses are those found in Frede, Verzeichnis, where all further information can be found. 

Ambr (AM) = Ambrosius

      Ep (ep) = Epistulae

      Fuga (fu) = De fuga saeculi

      Luc (Lc) = Expositio Evangelii secundum Lucam

      Noe (noe) = De Noe

      Off min (off) = De officiis minisitrorum

      Ps 118 (118 Ps) = Expositio de Psalmo CXVIII

      Sat (Sat) = De excessu fratris Satyri

      Tob (Tb) = De Tobia 

Amrst (AMst) = Ambrosiaster

      Quaest (q) = Quaestiones V. et N.T.

      Rom (Rm) = Commentarius in Epistulas Paulinas 

Aug (Au) = Augustinus

      C Adim (Ad) = Contra Adimantum

      Faust (Fau) = Contra Faustum Manicheum libri 33

  Iul imp (Jul im) = Contra secundam Iuliani responsionem

          imperfectum opus

      Lev (Lv) = Locutionum in Heptateuchum libri 7

      Num (Nm) = Quaestiones de Numeris

      Parmen (Par) = Contra epistulam Parmeniani libri 3

      Ps (Ps) = Enarrationes in Psalmos 

Caes (CAE) = Caesarius

      Serm (s) = Sermones 

Cassiod (CAr) = Cassiodorus

      Compr (cpl) = Complexiones in epistulis Apostolorum et Actibus

                eorum et Apocalypsi

      1 Cor, 2 Cor (1-2 Cor) = Expositio in epistulae S. Pauli

      Ps (Ps) = Expositio Psalmorum 

Chrom (CHRO) = Chromatus

      Matth(Mt) = Tractatus in Matthaeum 

Concil(Cyr) (CYR:CO) = Scholia de incarnatione Unigeniti 

ConcilTur (CO-Tur) = Concilia Turonensia 

Cyp (CY) = Cyprianus

      Ep (ep) = Epistulae

      Laps (lap) = De lapsis

      Quir (te) = Ad Quirinum seu testimoniorum libri 3 

Eucher (EUCH) = Eucherius

      Form (int) = Formulae spiritalis intelligentiae 

EusEm (EUS-E) = Euselius of Emesa 

Fulg (FU) = Fulgentius

      Tras (Thr) = Ad Trasamundum libri 3 

GregIl (GR-I) = Gregor of Illiberis

      Tr (tr) = Tractatus Origenis 

Hes (HES) = Hesychius of Jerusalem 

Hi (HI) = Hieronymus

      Agg (Agg) = Commentariorum in Aggaeum prophetam ad Paulam et

      Eustochium liber

      C Pel (Pel) = Dialogi contra Pelagianos libri 3

      Ep (ep) = Epistulae

      Ezech (ez) = Commentariorum in Hiezechielem libri 14

      Helv (Hel) = Adversos Helvidium de Mariae virginitate perpetua

      Is (Is) = Commentariorum in Esaiam libri 18

      Luc (Lc) = Origenis in Lucam homiliae 39

      Mal (Mal) = Commentariorum in Malachiam prophetam ad

              Minervium et Alexandrum liber

      Or in Ezech hom (Ez h) = Origenis in Ezechielem homiliae 14

      Pach (Pach) = Pachomiana

      Quaest (q) = Hebraicae quaestiones in libro Geneseos 

Hiln (HILn) = Quintus Iulius Hilarianus

      Pasch (pa) = De ratione paschae et mensis 

IohCass (CAn) = Johannes Cassianus

      Conlat (co) = Conlationes Patrum 24

      Inst (in) = De institutis coenobiorum et de octo principalium

              vitiorum remedis libri 12 

Isid (IS) = Isidor

      Fid (fi) = De fide catholica ex Veteri et Novo Testamento contra

                          Iudaeos ad Florentinam sororem

      Off (off) = De ecclesiasticis officiis libri 2 

Luc (LUC) = Lucifer of Cagliari

      Athan (Ath) = De Athanasio libri 2 

MissMoz (M-M) = Missale Mozarabicum 

Pac (PAC) = Pacianus

      Paen (par) = Paraenesis ad paenitentiam 

Pel (PEL) = Pelagius, Brite

      2 Cor (2Cor) = Expositiones XIII Epistularum S. Pauli

      Ep et tr (Casp 2-6) = Epistulae et tractatus a C.P.Caspari edita,


      Rom (Rm) = Expositiones XIII Epistularum S. Pauli 

PsAmbr (PS-AM) = Pseudo-Ambrosius

      Lex (lex) = Lex Dei sive Mosaicarum et Romanarum legum collatio

      Mans (man) = De XLII mansionibus filiorum Israel

      Trin (tr) = De Trinitate alias in Symbolum Apostolorum tractatus 

PsCyp (PS-CY) = Pseudo-Cyprianus

      Aleat (al) = De aleatoribus 

PsHi (PS-HI) = Pseudo-Hieronymus

      Ep (ep) = Epistulae 

PsPhil (PS-PHo) = Pseudo-Philo, Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum 

Quodv (QU) = Quodvultdeus 

      Prom (pro) = Liber promissionum et praedictorum Dei 

Ruf (RUF) = Rufinus

      Cant (Ct) = Commentarius Origenis in Ct

      Gen (Gn) = Origenis in Gn homiliae 16

      Lev (Lv) = Origenis in Lv homiliae 16

      Num (Nm) = Origenis in Nm homiliae 28

      Or princ (pri) = Origenis libri De principiis

      Reg S Bas (reg) = Regula S. Basilii ad monachos

      Rom (Rm) = Origenis Commetarius in Rm 

SedScot (SED-S) = Sedulius Scottus 

Spec (PS-AU spe) = Liber de divinis scripturis sive Speculum quod fertur S. Augustini 

Tert (TE) = Tertullianus

      Ieiunio (je) = De ieiunio adversos psychicos

      Marc (Marc) = Adversos Marcionem libri 5

      Monog (mon) = De monogamia

      Pud (pud) == De pudicitia

      Scorp (sco) = Scorpiace 

Zeno (ZE) = Zeno of Verona 

                              2. The Ethiopic Version = Aeth 

      The collation of the Ethiopic translation of Lev was made from O.Boyd’s edition and according to the text of cod M; for both cf Genesis 43-44. For the dating of the Colophon in cod. P see Deueronomium 31. 

                              3. The Arabic Version = Arab 

      Cf Genesis 44-46. 

                              4. The Armenian Version = Arm 

      The old Armenian version was collated from Zohrab’s edition of 1805. See further on Arm Genesis 46-47 and Numeri 26. 

                              5. The Coptic Versions = Co 

                                    a) The Bohairic Version = Bo 

            As in Numeri and Deuteronomium (see 31-32) two mss were collated for Bo 

      Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coptic 1, 1356

      Rome, Bibl. Vat., Coptic 1. IX.-X. Century.

            If the two texts differ the Paris ms is called BoA, and the Roman

one BoB, For the Bohairic Version in general see Genesis 47. 

                                    b) The Sahidic Version = Sa 

      The Sahidic text for Leviticus is practically entirely extant in Sa1. Various pages of the ms are very difficult to read; accordingly no e silentio conclusions are valid. In another seven mss smaller or larger fragments of Leviticus are extant. For the Sahidic in general see Genesis 48. The following mss were collated: 

Sa1 = New York, J. Pierpont Morgan Library, Copt. ms. 566. See H. Hyvernat, A check-list of Coptic Manuscripts in The Pierport Morgan

Library, New York 1909, p.3, No.1 and Biblothecae Pierpont Morgan Codices Coptici photographice expressi. Rome 1922. Lacking are 14,33-15,13 and 27,16-25. 

Sa2 = G. Maspéro, Fragments de la version thébaine de l’Ancien Testament. Mém. publ. par les membres de la mission arch. fr. au Caire VI, fasc.1. Paris 1892. Contents: 6,6-25 λεγων  6,39 επ-11,3  11,4-9 (fragm.) 13-18 (fragm.)   21-23 (fragm,)  13,4 ταπεινη-39  18,30 τα-20,11 γναικος σου  21,5 τας σαρκας-22,9 ινα  23,3 εργα-25,38  27,26 τω-27 των 1°  29 30 33 αλλαξης-34. 

Sa3 = A. Ciasca, Sacrorum Bibliorum fragmenta copto-sahidica Musei Borgiani iussu et sumptibus S. Congregationis de Propaganda Fide edita. Tom. I, Rome 1885. Contents: 7,24 Ααρων-13,39 ιδου  14,8-29 εξιλασεται  15,25 ρυσεως-19,16 πορευση  19,34 αυτον-20,16 προσελευσεται 23,5-12  26,15 διασκεδασαι-30  27,15 δε-31 ανθρωπος. 

Σα4 O. von Lemm,, Sahidische Bibelfragmente. Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg. Ve Série, XXV,4. St. Pétersbourg 1906. Cod. orient. Berolin. in fol.1605, fol.2. Contents: 2,3 Ααρων-3,5 επι ult. 

Sa5 = L.Th. Lefort, Les Manuscrits Coptes de l’Université de Louvain. Louvain 1940. Contents: 21.17 ου-22,8 εν. 

Sa6 = W.Till, Sahidische Fragmente des Alten Testaments. Le Muséon 50(1937), 180f. Vienna, Nat. Bibl., K. 2596. Contents (fragmentary): 25,47 53-55. 

Sa7 = C. Wesseley, Griechische und koptische Texte theologischen Inhalts IV. Studien zur Paläographie und Papyruskunde XV. Leipzig 1914. Vienna, Nat. Bibl., K.9387. Contents: 25,6-20 εαν. 

Sa8 = J.Schleifer, Bruchstücke d. sahidischen Bibelübersetzung: Sitzb. d. Kais.Akad.d.Wiss. in Wien, philos.-hist. Kl. 170, I. Vienna 1912. London, Brit. Mus., Or. 3579A. Contents: 19,4-7. 

                                    6. The Palestiniah-Syriac Version = Pal 

      Pal was collated from The Bible in the Syropalestinian Version, ed. M.H. Goshen-Gottstein, Part I Pentateuch and Prophets. Jerusalem 1973. This edition is a collation of all previously known as well as of newly found texts of Pal for the Pentateuch and the Prophets. For Leviticus it contains only two fragments, which were first published by A.S.Lewis, Codex Climaci Rescriptus, Horae Semiticae VIII. Cambridge 1909. Contents: 8,18 Ααρων-30 fin and 11,42 επι ult-12,8 ολοκαυτωμα. 

                                    7. The Syro-hexaplaric Version = Syh 

      The following texts were collated: 

SyhT = Tur*Abdin Ms. Edition: A Vööbus, The Pentateuch in the Version of the Syro-Hexapla. A facsimile edition of a Midyat Ms. discovered 1964. Corp. Scr. Chr. Or. 369. Louvain 1975. The following pieces of text are absent because of leaf loss: 20,14 εν υμιν-21,9 εκπορνευσαι (A page has been ripped out. Fragments of 20,21-24 and 21,5-9 are preserved) and 26,46 των-fin libri. 

SyhB = W. Baars, New Syro-hexaplaric Texts. Leiden 1968. Contents: 8,1-3 θυραν  23,33-41 υμων. 

SaG = M.H.Gottstein, Neue Syrohexaplafragmente. Biblica 37(1956), 162-183. British Museum, Add. 14495. Contents: 19,11-19 φυλαξεσθε. J.Gwynn, Remnants of the Later Syriac Versions of the Bible, Pt.II. London 1909. British Museum, Add. 12139. Contents: 26,42-46 Ισραηλ.

            Besides these Barh and Ish were also compared. 

      With the discovery of SyrT the text of this translation of Lev has been made available to scholars for the first time. As in the other books of the Pentateuch Syh is one of the chief witnesses to the hexaplaric recension. Syh constitutes, even though not entirely trustworthy, for the greater part of the book, where cod G is lacking, the only witness for the hexaplaric signs. Furthermore, the significance of Syh for the reconstruction of the ο* text of the hexapla in full can hardly be overstated, since ms 426 which is a chief witness for the hexaplaric text in other books is extant only from 16,8. 

                                    III. The Printed Editions 

            The three large oldest Bibles: Aldina (Ald), Complutensis Compl) and the Sixtina (Sixt) are particularly important. They have been fully collated for this edition. The principles which govern their citation are given below. Only the Sixtina has been reprinted numerous times; in this edition only the original text has been used. 

                                          1. Aldina (Ald) 

      In Leviticus Ald is especially closely related to the ms-pair 68*. These in turn are related to 120; and where this is not available, to 29. All four mss were in the possession of Cardinal Bessarion, and their text has been influencial either directly or indirectly on the text of Ald. It has also been established that Ald has a number of variants which are witnessed by oI. Ald is only noted in the Apparatus when it has unique readings or variants which permit further conclusions for the developement of its textual form. 

                                          2. Complutensis (Compl) 

      The text of Compl is based in large part of mss 19*. but it also supports variants which are found in the f-group. The notation of Compl readings is treated in the same fashion as Ald. As for its unique readings it must be said that these do not come from a lost Greek parent text, but go back to the editor of Compl; note some otherwise unsupported instances of MT influence. 

                                          3. Sixtina (Sixt) 

      Of all the old printed editions Sixt shows the closest dependence on a single ms. It presents almost exclusively the text of B; if B is corrected it mainly supports Bc. Since little is known of other mss which were used in the creation of B, whenever Sixt does not support B, B or Bc, it is noted in the Apparatus. Purely orthographic variants, which might be interessst in certain cases, as with spellings of names, are not considered for B. 

                                          4. Grabe (Gr) 

See Genesis 53, 

                                          5. Holmes-Parsons (H.-P.) 

See Genesis 54. 

                                          6. Lagarde 

      The text of Lagarde is that of his reconstructed Lucianic text of the books Genesis to Esther. The edition is not used for the Apparatus. 

                                          6. Brooke-McLean (Br.-M.) 

      See Genesis 54-55. The edition Exodus-Leviticus appeared in 1909. Also in the edition list of divergences from Br.-M. are given in a Supplement. The list does not, hwoever, contain any material which Br.-M. took over from  H.-P. 

                                          7. Rahlfs Ra) 

      Ra refers to the manual edition of the Greek Old Testament; for Leviticus it is essentially based on a comparison of the uncials A and B. 

                                    B The Text History    

  The text history has been thoroughly discussed in J.W.Wevers THGL. Only such information will be given here which is necessary for the use of this edition. 

                              I. Recensions and Textgroups in the LXX-tradition 

                                    1. The O recension 

O = G-58-376-426(from 16,8) Syh

oI = 15-64-381-618-708

oII = 29-72-82-707 

O* = O + oI  O’ = O + oII  O*ʾ = O + oI + oII  oI’ = oI + oII

64* = 64 + 708  72* = 72 + 707  376* = 376 + 426  381* = 381 + 618

      Hexaplaric signs are found chiefly only in G and in Syh; occasionally

they are found in mss which do not present the O-text. 

                                    2. The C-Group 

C = 16-46-77-131-500-529-739

cI = 57-73-320-413-528-550-552-761

cII = 52-313-414-417-422-551-615 

C* = C + cI  C’ = C + cII  C*ʾ = C + cI + cII  cI’ = cI + cII

16* = 16 + 46  52* = 52 + 615  57* = 57 + 413  73 = 73 + 320 

77* = 77 + 131  414* = 414 + 551  500* = 500 + 739  528* = 528 + 761

550* = 550 + 552 

      The C*ʾ-Group presents a widely diffused text type,, which is preserved particularly in Catena-mss. Except for the mss 16-46-131 all the mss of this group are Catena mss. On the other hand, ther are six catena mss which are not members of the C group, namely two from the codices mixti, 18 and 646, 128 which is a z text, the oI ms 708, and the s ms 730. Ms 424 also represents the C*ʾ text

type, but is such a condensed text that it would be difficult to record it among

the C group, and has been assigned to the codd mixti for convenience’ sake. 

                                    3. The b-Group 

b = 19-108-118-314-537

19* = 19 + 108  118* = 118 + 314 

      The group often divides into 19* and 118*-537, but usually it constitutes a closed group. 

                                    4. The d-Group 

d = 44-106-107-125-610

44* = 44 + 106  107* = 107 + 610  125* = 107 + 125 

      On the character of the d-group as the chief representative of the Byzantine text see THGN. 

                                    5. The f-Group 

f-Group = 53-56-129-246-664

53* = 53 + 664  56* = 56 + 246 

      Ms 129 ofen deviates from the group. 

                                    6. The n-Group 

n = 54-75-127-458-767

54* - 54 + 127  75* = 75 + 458 

      Ms 54 has a few hexaplaric readings in its text. 

                                    7. The s-Group 

s = 30-85-130-321-343-344-346-730

30* = 30 + 730  85* = 85 + 130  321* = 321 + 346  343* = 343 + 344 

      The mss of the s-group contain numerous hexaplaric readings on the margins. 

                                    8. The t-Group 

t = 74-76-84-134-370

74* = 74 + 134  76* = 76 + 370 

      As in Genesis the t-group is closely related to the d-group. 

                        9. The x-Group 

x = 71-509-527-619

71* = 71 + 619 

                                    10. The y-Group

y = 121-318-392 

                                    11. The z-Group 

z = 68-120-122-126-128-407-628-630

68* = 68 + 122  120* = 120 + 407  126* = 126 + 128  628* = 628 + 630 

      68-120* quite often diverges from the others, but usually the group

is closed as a group. 

                              II. The younger Greek Versions 

      On the character of the second Apparatus see Genesis 59-60. The readings

brought together in Apparatus II, which come in the main from the hexapla

especially as α* σ* and θ* readings, are usually marginalia from the mss.

Only seldom are there direct references to the later versions in the text of the mss themselves, as for ex. in ms. 54. The situation is quite different in the Catenas, where the non-LXX readings are to be found either within the commentaries of the Fathers or as independent catena fragments. Accordingly the catena texts have been systematically excerpted of non-LXX materials germane to the second apparatus. Since C*ʾ is not the equivalent to “catena mss”, some clarification is necessary for the nomenclature within Apparatus II. The designaton C*ʾ can hardly involve the non-catena mss 16 46 and 131. In fact, the evidence for such readings extends beyond C*ʾ and includes the other catena mss (18 128 646 708 730) as well, which are separately listed as supporters; though it must be added that the readings

of 128 throughout and the majority for 708 do not actually stem from the catena tradition.

   The intent of cat and comm has not changed; similarly also in Leviticus in so

far as the source of a commreading can be verified, the witness for the Father would be named.

      As to the witnesses for non-LXX readings the usual picture is attested in

Leviticus as well. The most readings are again to be found in the mss M* (M = 664; 416 = 577) as well as the s mss: 344 (= 488), 130 (= 448), 321 (= 435), 85 (= 389), 346 (=380), 343 (= 43). Next come the Catena mss, of which the C*ʾ group present 100 readings. ms 18 = 94, 730 = 64. and the damaged ms 646 = 35 cases, while the rogue mss over against the other catenas, 128 and 708 witness to only 29 and 14 resp.

   For the O*ʾ-mss once again in Leviticus it is only Syh which yields

substantial material with 51 cases,  whereas the other O*ʾ witnesses only show an occasional instance: 58 = 35, 707 = 16, 376 = 3, and 64 = 1. This situation is similar for all other witnesses, except for Fb (= 68). This appears from the following: a) mss.: 56  = 25, 108 = 24, 458 = 21, 54 = 14, F = 8, 118 = 7, 314 = 5, Fa and 127 each = 2; b) patristic witnesses: Hes = 57, Tht = 7, Procop = 6, Eus = 5, Barh = 4, Ish = 1 instance.

       It is worthy of notice that non-LXX readings in Leviticus remain anonymous to a large extent. Of the ca 1400 readings,about 66% (=916); 10% (139), of the cases present a summary source indication, such as οἱ λ*, οι ἕτεροι, or as α* σ* or θ* or some other named source, while 6.7% each name α* or σ* (96 and 94 resp.), 5% name ο*, about 4.4% (61) for θ*, and 1.2% (18) name τὸ σαμ*,

      A basis for the large number of anonymous readings, which incidentally helps to explain the relatively large amount of non-LX material involved, might be sought in the fact that many readings are repeatedly attested; in such cases as a rule the first mention is often given with source, whereas the repeats may well lack the name of the source. For example, the reading ιωβηλ is given four times together with source (θ* in 25,29; σ* θ* *εβρ* in 25,11 13 28), and ten times is anonymous (25,12 15 28 30 31 33 40 50 52 27,17). Beyond that, this example points to the fact that the majority of these anonymous readings belong to α*σ* and θ*.

      As a further source to which a large number of anonymous readings can be assigned. the Samaritan Targum may be named; its Greek translation of the mss in a rather few cases show a direct relation to τὸ σαμ(αρειτικον). Since the fact that eleven of the thirteen cases which are found under the name τὸ σαμ* in the catena mss, are also found, either directly or indirectly in Cod.M, which are throughout

s nom, similar anoonymous readings of M which were not readings of the three, but did seem to represent MT, were compared to the Samaritan Targum of Petermann. This produced 74 instances, a number large enough to warrant their being noted in apparatus II. These were noted under the designation either

= SamAram or cf SamAram.

      It was interesting that the readings of SamAram almost exclusively agreed with those in M and the Catenas, but was not witnessed by mss of the s-Group, for which only one instance, 14,3 ἦρταε 85*, obtained. This discovery reflects once again the still unsolved problem in connection with the particular tradition-historical conditions which lay behind the non-LXX readings. An edition can in any event only add some clarification by bringing out these materials. This means that these non-LXX readings in Leviticus must be included. Only such materials should be omitted that seems certain to be exegetical gloss or lexical comment. Thus the readings which were uncertain5, were placed in the Apparatus. 

                               C Re this Edition 

      The general layout of the Genesis edition was retained for Leviticus as well. The changes over against earlier volumes of the Göttingen Septuaginta are in part repeated from the Genesis volume. 

                                    1. The Introduction 

      The introduction is limited to those materials which are immediately necessary for the user of the volume. An extensive discussion, especially of the text history is to be found in THGL. Deviations from Br.-M are collectively listed in an Appendix, which in spite of their importance are not absolutely necessary for the use of this edition.

      As in Genesis the Orthographica- and Grammatica-discussion has been placed in a Supplement. It is limited, however, to fewer instances of this discussion that might help to understand some passages. For the construction of the edition the editor had to distinguish between real variants and variants which were only orthographic in nature; only the former were taken up in the first apparatus. Only for names are all variants cited in the apparatus.  

                                    2. The Critical Text 

      As in the Genesis edition, proper nouns are supplied with accents, and where appropriate with spiritus lenis or spiritus asper. The principles which were followed in the Genesis edition are also followed in this edition. The reader is referred to Genesis 62-63. 

                                    3. List of Sources 

      Between the text and the apparatus all the ms witnesses and versions are named in the same order as that in the apparatuses. For this see the following paragraphs. A witness whose text is fragmentary appears in parentheses, e.g. (931). Should the text of a witness begin on a particular page a hyphen follows, e.g. (931-). Should such a reference end there, the hyphen would precede, e.g. (-931). 

      It is also noted in the list when a piece of text fails for some external reason. E.g., should ms 314 lack some text due to leaf loss the notation would read b-314. This would show that the entire b-group except for ms 314 (which belongs to b) contains the text of the page involved.

      The abbreviation al (for alia manuscripta) refers to mss which could not be assigned to any text group, i.e. the so-called codices mixti as well as those mss too broken or damaged to be classified. The expression verss refers to all versions which contain the complete text of Leviticus. Versions whose Leviticus text is not complete, such as Pal, are placed at the end of the source list. 

                                    4. Apparatus I 

      The evidence for a variant is always given in a special order: a) the uncial mss in alphabetic order, b) the papyri in numerical order, c) the witnesses of  O*ʾ mss, d) the witnesses of C*ʾ, e) the remaining text families (cf Section B I supra), in alphabetic order, f) the codices mixti, g) the rest of the Greek witnesses in the following order: N.T. witnesses, Phil, followed by the other Greek Patristics in alphabetic order, h) the Latin texts in numerical order, followed by the Latin Fathers in alphabetic order. The Latin witnesses are (except for unique readings of a Father) always introduced by a raised Lat, i) the remaning versions in alphabetic order, and j) other witnesses or commentaries.

      Over against the Genesis edition only the notation of the Latin witnesses has changed. The various text types, such as LaK, LaI, etc. could not be used, and the designation La in Leviticus is only used to indicate that all Latin witnesses agree (cf Section A II 1. supra). This change was necessary since up to the present no critical edition of the Vetus Latina for Leviticus has appeared, and so no secure basis of the classification of Latin witnesses according to text types is possible (cf Section A II 1 supra.). For the same reason it was necessary to record the witness of the Latin Fathers immediately after the Latin mss. For the changes in the notation which the Pentateuch editions have in common over against the other editions of the Göttingen Septuaginta, see Genesis 64. 

                                    5. Apparatus II 

      The theory that underlies the second apparatus was explained above under B II. Unless otherwise stated the recorded variants are throughout marginal readings. Readings of the younger translators which are found in the commentary texts of catena mss are designated by a raised comm, (for ex. 77comm). Should such a reading be attributed to a certain Father, his name would be added, (for ex 77commTht). Readings within the catenas which are not in a commentary, are noted by a raised cat (for ex. 77cat). 

                              D Signs and Abbreviations 

-  = up to, for ex. Lat codd 94-96 =Lat codd 94 95 96 or  

            also used to indicate mss within a group, for ex. 44-125-610 or

            Lat codd 94-96 =Lat codd 94 95 96 

C-16 Mss deviating from a group are shown by a raised minus 

  sign, so C-16 means all of C except 16. Similarly Aeth-F

            means all the Aeth texts except F.    

C(-\16)   indicates that ms 16 has a larger omission than the other

            members of C. E.g. C-320 in Lev 1,14 (om κάρπωμα προσφέρῃ 320) 

*  = the original reading of a ms. 

c  = later corrections 

(*), (c) means that within a larger omission the ms does not have the

         original or corrected variant (e.g. 77(c)

c pr m (c pr m) = a correction of the first hand. 

c1   =  the first corrector 

c2  = the second corrector 

s  refers to the suppletor of a ms,. for ex. 46s An s cannot

         contrast with an *   

txt  means a textual reading in mss   

mg  = a marginal reading in mss 

<>(mg) means that a marginal reading does not contrast with a reading in text, since the txt has a larger omission, e.g. 77(mg) 

txt*,txtc, mg*, mgc are used if a txt- or margin- shows a correction 

te  refers to readings in the text of editions 

ap  refers to readings (variants) in the apparatus of editions 

cat(in App.2) means the reading comes from the Catena of a Catena ms 

<>comm(in App.2)  means the reading from Catena attributed to a particular Church Father, for ex 77comm<>

vid  means the reading is uncertain, for ex 31(vid) 

vid  refers to a reading in which it is uncertain whether it deals

            with a corrected or an original text 

(?)                 refers to uncertain words or symbols

ms(s)             refers to codex(-ices) of the Vulgate

Lat                 introduces a series of Latin Fathers

þ]³  indicates line change 

þ|3  indicates  a page or column change 

  a dot under a letter means that the letter cannot be read   with certainty                    

+, add          indicates a plus

>, om           indicates an omission

                indicates omission due to homoioteleuton

(ν )              means that the enclosed letter is omitted in various mss, for ex εστι(ν)

[...]               shows that three letters cannot be read in a ms.

[...16...]         means that in the ms, 16 letters cannot be read

...] αι, αι[...    means that only αι can be read in a ms

[ωσ]ει           means that ωσ is conjectured

<>                 means a symbol added contrary to the tradition

{}                  means a symbol omitted contary to the tradition

×  ÷ (~)  are asterisk and obelus 

                 means metobelus

↓  refers to Apparatus II 

MT  = the Masoretic text 

MTL = the text of BHS 

Q  = A Qumran text 

absc = abscissus

App = apparatus

cf    = confer

cod(d) = codex (-dices)

corr = correctura

c var cum variis (lectionibus)

del   = deletus

dess = desunt 

dittogr = dittographia

ed(d) = editio (-tiones)

ex corr = correctura

ex par = ex parallelis locis

fin  - finis

hab         = habe(n)t [contains]

haplogr   = haplolographia [written only once, causing omission]

homoiar  = homoiarcton [similar beginning, causing omission]

inc         = incertus [uncertain]

init        = initium [beginning]

litt         = littera(e) [letter(s)]

Lev = textus criticus


litt         = littera(e) [letter(s)]

mend    = mendose [in error]

metob   = metobelus [Hexaplaric symbol]

ms(s)   = manuscriptum (-ta)

mutil    = mutilatum [mutilated]

omn codd = omnes codices [all codices]

pap         = papyrus

pl           = plures [many]

plur        = pluraliter [in the plural]

pr          = praemittit (-tunt) [placed before]

praec praecedens (re text reference within a verse)

praef      = praefatio [preface]

pr m      = prima manus [first (original) hand]

ras         = rasura [erasure]

relict      = relictus [left behind]

rell        = reliqui [remaining witnesses]

rescr     = rescriptus [written over previous text]

s          = sine [without]

s ind     = sine indice [without an index]

s nom   = sine nomine [without a name, unattributed]

s ss       = sequens, sequentes (for pages) [following]

scr        = scripsit (-serunt) [written]

sed hab  = sed habe(n)t [but contains]

sing        = singulariter [singularly]

spat        = spatium [space]

sq           = sequens (re text reference within a verse) [following]

sup lin     = supra lineam [above the line]

sup ras    = supra rasuram [over an erasure]

superscr  = superscripsit [written over]

tr            = transposuit (-suerunt) [transposed]

ult           = ultimus [last, final]

vers(s)    = versio (-ones) [version]

vid         = ut videtur [apparently]

                        Recensions and Ms-Groups 

O = G-58-476-426(from 16s)

      376* = 376 + 426  Should this be 3761? or a symbol? & sim

oI = 15-64-381-618-708

      64* = 64 + 708  381* = 381 + 610

oII = 29-72-82-707

      72* = 72 + 707

O*ʾ = Ο + oI + oII  O* =O) + oI  O’ = O + oII   oI’ = oI + oII 

C = 16-46-77-131-500-529-739

      16* = 16 + 46  77* = 77 + 131  500* = 500 + 739

cI = 57-73-320-413-528-550-552-761

      57* = 57 + 413  73* = 73 + 320  528* = 528 + 761  550* = 550 + 552

cII = 52-313-414-417-422-551-615

52* = 52 + 615  414* - 414 + 551

C*ʾ = C + cI + cII  C* = C + cI  C’ = C + cII  cI’ = cI + cII 

b = 19-108-118-314-537

      19* = 19 + 108  118* = 118 + 314 

d = 44-106-106=125=610

44* = 44 + 106  107* = 107 + 610  125* = 135 + 107 

f = 53-56-129-246-664

      53* = 53 + 664  56* = 56 + 246 

n = 54=75=127-458-767

      54* = 54 + 127  75* = 75 + 458 

s = 30-85-130-321-343-344-346-730

      30* = 30 + 730  85* = 85 + 130  321* = 321 + 346  343* = 343 + 344 

t = 74-76-84-134-370 

x = 71-509-527-619

      71* = 71 + 619 

y = 121-318-392 

z = 68-120-122-126-128-407-628-630

      68* = 68 + 122  120* = 120 + 407  126* = 126 + 128  628* = 628 + 630 


Aeth     = Ethiopic version

Arab     = Arabic version (Paris, Bibl. Nat., Arab 9)

Arm      = Armenian version

Co       = Coptic version

                  Bo = Bohairic version

                  Sa = Sahidic Version

La = Old Latin version

Pal = Palestinian-Syriac version

Pesch = Peshitta

Sam = Samaritan Pentateuch

Syh = Syro-hexaplaric version

        SyhB = Text ed. Baars

        SyhG = text ed. Goshen-Gottstein

        SyhT = Ms from Tur *Abdin

Tar = Targums   NB differently arranged in Exodus Intro

            TarO = Onkelos Targum

            Vulg = Vulgate

                  TarP = Neofiti Targum 

Later Greek translations (Apparatus II)

α'      = Aquila

σ'      = Symmachus

θ'      = Theodotion

οἱ λ'  = οἱ λοιποί [the others, beside those mentioned]

οἱ γ'  = οἱ τρεῖς [the three -- Aquila, Theodotion, Symmachus]

οἱ ο'  = οἱ ἑβδομήκοντα [the seventy (LXX/OG)]

ὁ ἑβρ'   = ὁ Ἑβραῖος [the "Hebrew"]

τὸ ἑβρ' = τὸ ἑβραϊκόν [the "Hebraicon" version]

γρ' = γράφεται

ἄλλος, ἄλλοι, ἕτερος = unknown sources 

Printed Editions 

Ald        = Aldina

Compl   = Complutensis

Sixt       = Sixtina

Gr         = Grabe

Ra         = Rahlfs

Ra.        = Conjectures of Rahlfs

<>Literature and Collections 

APF = Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete

Barh = Abu ‘l-Farag - Barhebraeus’ Scholia on the O.T. Ed. by


BHS = Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, fasc.2 Exodus et Leviticus, praep.

                   G.Quell. Stuttgart 1966

BK  = Berliner Klassikertexte aus den Staatlichen Museen Berlin

<>Br.-M. = The Old Testament in Greek according to the Text of Codex
Vaticanus ed. by A.E.Brooke and N.McLean, vol.I part II, Cambridge

CSCO  = Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium

Deuteronomium = Deuteronomium, edidit J.W.Wevers, Göttingen 1977

Field = Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, ed. Fr. Field, Oxonii 1875

<>Frede, Verzeichnis  = H.J.Frede, Kirchenschriftsteller, Verzeichnis u. Sigel (Vetus Latina Teil I,1),3, neubearb. u.. erw. Aufl. von B.Fischer,Verzeichnis der Sigel für Kirchenschriftsteller. Freiburg i.Br. 1981 <>

GCS = Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei
(Berliner Ausgabe)

Genesis  = Genesis, edidit J.W.Wevers, Göttingen 1974

Gr  = Septuaginta Interpretum tomus I, ed. J.E.Grabe, Oxonii 1707

<>Hesych  = Hesychii Alexandrii Lexicon recensuit et emendavit Kurt Latte.
Hauniae 1953, 1966

H.-P. = Vetus Testamentum Graecum cum variis lectionibus, tom.I, Oxonii 1798

<>Huber = K.Huber, Untersuchungen über den Sprachcharakter des
griechischen Leviticus. Giessen 1916

Ish    = Commentaire d’Isho’dad de Merv sur l’Ancien Testament. II. Exode-Deutéronome, édité par C. van den Eynde CSCO 176 (Scriptores Syri
 Tome 80). Louvain 1958

JThSt    = Journal of Theological Studies

<>Lagarde = Librorum VT canonicorum pars prior graece Pauli de Lagarde studio et sumptibus, Gottingae 1883

Leviticus  = Leviticus, edidit J.W.LS   = A Greek-English Lexicon by H.Wevers, Göttingen 1986

LS          = A Greek-English Lexicon by H.G.Liddel and R.Scott. A New Edition by H.S.Jones. Oxford 1940

Mayser   = E.Mayser, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemäerzeit. I (2nd Edition revised by H.Schmoll) Berlin 1970. I 2 & 3 (2nd ed.) 1938, 1936 II 1 1926, II 2 1933/34, II 3 1934

MSU  = Mitteilungen des Septuaginta Unternehmens, Berlin 1909ff.

Numeri = Numeri, edidit J.W.Wevers. Göttingen 1981

<>SamAram  = Pentateuchus Samaritanus Ad fidem Librorum Manuscriptorum apud Nablusianus Repertorium edidit H. Petermann, Fasc. Leviticus.Berlin 1883

SC  = Sources Chrétiennes

<>Schleusner = Novus Thesaurus philologico-criticus sive Lexicon in LXX..., ed. J.Fr.Schleusner, Lipsiae 1820/21Schwyzer= E.Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik auf der Grundlage von Karl Brugmanns griechischer Grammatik. Handbuch der Alter­tumswissenschaft. II.1.Band I:3.Aufl. Band II:2.Aufl. Munich 1959

Swete     = The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint, Vol.1. Cambridge 1887

TECC     = Textos y Estudios “Cardinal Cisneros”  

Thack     = H.St.J.Thackeray, A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint, vol.1. Cambridge 1909

THGD = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Deuteronomy, MSU XIII, Gottingen 1978.

THGG     = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Genesis. MSU XI. Göttingen 1974

THGL      = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Leviticus. MSU XIX. Göttingen 1986          

THGN     = J.W.Wevers, Text History of the Greek Numbers. MSU XIX Göttingen 1982

TU  = Texte und Untersuchungen

Wackernagel = Kleine Schriften von Jacob Wackernagel. 2 Bände. Göttingen 1953

Walters  = P.Walters [Katz], The Text of the Septuagint. ed. by D.W.Gooding. Cambridge 1973

We.  = Conjectures by the editor 

 Text Editions and Other Literature 

Ayuso Marazuela, T., La Vetus Latina Hispana. II.El Octateucho. TECC 6 Madrid 1967

Baars, W., New Syro-hexaplaric Texts. Leiden 1968

<>Bibliothecae Pierpont Morgan Codices Coptici photographice expressi. Rome1922

Billen, A.V., The Old Latin Texts of the Heptateuch. Cambridge 1927

<>Bischoff, B., Neue Materialien zum Bestand und zur Geschichte der
altlateinischen Bibelüberzetzungen, Studi e Testi 121. Città del Vaticano
1946, 407-410

Boyd, O., The Octateuch in Ethiopic, Pt.II. Exodus and Leviticus. Bibliotheca Abessinica: Studies concerning the Languages, Literature and History of Abyssinia, ed. by E. Littmann IV. Leiden 1911

Ceriani, A.M., Pentateuchi et Iosue quae ex prima scriptura supersunt in cod. Ambros. graeco seculi fere V. Monumenta sacra et profana 3. Milan 1864

<>Ciasca, A., Sacrorum Bibliorum fragmenta copto-sahidica Musei Borgiani iussu  et sumptibus S. Congregationis de Propaganda Fide edita. Tom, I. Rome 1885 <>

Díez Macho, A., Levitico, Neophyti 1: Targum Palestinense ms de la Bibioteca Vaticana Tomo III. Madrid 1971

De Rieu, G.N., Codices Graeci et Latini photographice depicti, Tom. I: V.T.

   Graece. Codicis Sarraviani-Colbertini quae supersunt in Bibliothecis

   Leidensi Parisiensi Petropolitana phototypice edita. Leiden 1897

von Gall, A., Der hebräische Pentateuch der Samaritaner. Leipzig 1918

Gerhäuser, W., and Rahlfs,A., Münchener Septuaginta-Fragmente, MSU I. Berlin


Goshen-Gottstein,  M.H., The Bible in the Syropalestinian Version, Part I

   Pentateuch and Prophets. Jerusalem 1973

-- Neue Syrohexaplafragmente, Biblica 37(1956), 162-183

Grenfell, B.F. and Hart, A.S., The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part X. London 1914

Gwynn, J., Remnants of the Later Syriac Vesions of the Bible, Part II: Old

   Testament. London 1909

Harris, J.Rendel, Biblical Fragments of Mount Sinai no.15. London 1890

Hyvernat,H., Album de Paléographie Copte. Paris 1880

de Lagarde, P., Bibiotheca Syriaca. Göttingen 1892

-- Die Pariser Blätter des Codex Sarravianus, Semitica II, Abh.d.Königl. Ges.d.Wiss. zu Göttingen 25. Göttingen 1879

<>Lefort, L.Th., Les Manuscrits Coptes de l’Universitè de Louvain. Louvain 1940 <>

von Lemm, O., Sahidische Bibelfagmente, Bulletin de l’Akadémie Impériale desSciences de Saint Pétersbourg, Ve Série, XXV 4. St.-Pétersbourg 1906

<>Marcos, N. Fernández and Sáenz-Badillos,A., Theodoreti Cyrensis Quaestiones in Octateuchum, Editio Critica. TECC 17. Madrid 1979 <>

Fragments de la version thébaine de l’Ancien Testament, Mém. publ. par les membres de la mission arch. fr. au Caire, fasc 1. Paris 1892

Ranke,E., Par palimpsestorum Wirceburgensium Antiquissimae Veteris Testamenti versionis Latinae fragmenta. Vienna 1871

Rhodes,J.F., The Arabic Versions of the Pentateuch in the Church of Egypt. Leipzig 1921

Robert,U., Pentateuchi versio latina antiquissima e codice Lugdunensi. Paris 1881

<>Sanz, P.,Griechische literarische Papyri christlichen Inhalts I. Mitteilungen der Nationalbibliothek in Wien. N.S. IV Folge Baden b. Wien 1946, 13-16 <>

Schleifer, J., Sahidische Bibel-Fragmente aus dem British Museum zu London
II. Sitzungsb. Kais.A.d.W.in Wien, philos.-hist. Kl. 164,6, Vienna 1911 <>

Skehan, P.W., The Qumran Manuscripts and Textual Criticism, Suppl. to Vetus Testamentum IV. Leiden 1957, 155-157

Sperber,A., The Bible in Aramaic based on Old Manuscripts and Printed Texts. Vol.1, The Pentateuch according to Targum Onkelos. Leiden 1959

Till, W.C., Saidische Fragmente des Alten Testaments, Le Muséon 50(1937), 181-184

Tischendorf.C., Monumenta sacra inedita, Nova Collectio 1. Leipzig 1855

-- ibidem, Nova collectio 3. Leipzig 1860

<>Vööbus, A., The Pentateuch in the Version of the Syro-Hexapla. A facsimile edition of a Midyat Ms.discovered 1964. CSCO 369. Louvain 1975

Wessely, C., Griechische und koptische Texte theol. Inhalts I. Studien zur Paläographie und Papyruskunde IX, Leipzig 1909

Wevers, J.W., A Note on Scribal Error, Canadian Journal of Linguistics 17 (1972), 185-190

Ziegler,L., Bruchstücke einer vorhieronymianischen Übersetzung des Pentateuch aus einem Palimpseste des K.Hof- und Staatsbibliothek zu München. Munich 1883

Zohrab,J., ed. Astuaca�uncw Matean Hin ew Nor Ktaktaranacw (Holy Writings of the Old and New Testaments) Venice 1805