A.     Read the following sentences:


1.     mhe= trt do6yo.

‘Mahesh ran immediately.’


2.     tme kyarey kerI `a0I 2e?

‘Have ever eaten a mango?’


3.     me& rate mo6e / mo6a su0I kam kyuR&.

‘I work till late night.’


4.     hu& vhelI W5I.

‘I got up early.’


5.     ik=or vhelo W5yo.

‘Kishor got up early.’


6.     mhe=e kerI vhelI kapI.

‘Mahesh cut a mango early.’


7.     hu& `ato hto Ae4lama& mhe= AaVyo.

‘While I was eating, Mahesh came.’


8.     tme kal9I kam =£ kro.

‘You start your work from tomorrow.’


9.     jemtem krIne me& kam pu£ kyuR&.

‘I finished this work after working hard.’


10. Aavta Agaw mne fon krje.

‘Inform me on telephone before you come.’


11. mhe=e 0Ime 0Ime potanu& gi8t su0ayuR&.

‘Mahesh improved his mathematics gradually.’


12. tme mne badma& mXjo.

‘See me after (this work is done).’


The underlined words in the above sentences are the adverbs. Look at them closely and you will notice the variety. In 1 trt ‘immediately’ is a simple word, in 2 kyare y ‘ever’ is a phrase with kyare ‘when’ and y, an emphasis marker. In 3, we find a variation between mo6e / mo6a ‘late’. The speakers are free to use either or. In 4 and 5 vhelI, vhelo ‘early’ agree with the subject in gender and number, while in 6 the same agrees with kerI, the object in gender and number. In 7, Ae4lama& ‘while’ is a combination of Ae4lu& ‘this mush’ and -ma&, ‘in’. In 9, we have jem and tem combined together. In 11, 0Ime is used twice. We call such pattern ‘reduplication’. In addition to this, the adverbs do not always occur at a fix place. Consider the following example for “I was visiting the temple frequently:


13. hu& Avarnvar m&idre jto hto.


14. Avarnvar hu& m&idre jto hto.


15. hu& m&idre Avarnvar jto hto.


16. hu& m&idre jto hto, Avarnvar.


We can place the adverb at the end of the sentence if preceded by a pause.


The adverbs are very complex in the language. This does not mean that you should give them up. I have the following guideline for you:


1.      Remember that some adverbs are simple some complex.

2.      Most of the adverbs have ‘adverb + postpostion’ pattern.

3.      There are some, which are ‘reduplicated.’

4.      We can also divide the adverbs into two: (1) variable and (2) invariable.

5.      The variable change in terms of the gender and number of the subject or object.

6.      They agree with subject only if the object is not available to them.

7.      We change the place of the adverbs to emphasis a specific aspect of the meaning.

8.      In normal case, the adverb is placed before the verb.


Exercise: When you read the conversations, focus on the adverbs and try to understand them in terms of the guiding rules given above.