Perfective Past Tense


Read the following sentences:

É. me& kagX kaPyo. I cut a paper.

Ê. me& kagXo kaPya. I cut papers.

Ë. me& kerI kapI. I cut a mango.

Ì. me& kerIAo kapI. I cut mangos.

Í. me& keXu& kaPyu&. I cut a banana.

Î. me& keXa& kaPya&. I cut bananas.

Ï. rme=e kagX kaPyo. Ramesh cut a paper.

Ð. rme=e kagXo kaPya. Ramesh cut papers.

Ñ. rme=e kerI kapI. Ramesh cut a mango.

ÉÈ. rme=e kerIAo kapI. Ramesh cut mangos.

ÉÉ. rme=e keXu& kaPyu&. Ramesh cut a banana.

ÉÊ. rme=e keXa& kaPya&. Ramesh cut bananas.

ÉË. nImaAe kagX kaPyo. Nima cut a paper.

ÉÌ. nImaAe kagXo kaPya. Nima cut papers.

ÉÍ. nImaAe kerI kapI. Nima cut a mango.

ÉÎ. nImaAe kerIAo kapI. Nima cut mangos.

ÉÏ. nImaAe keXu& kaPyu&. Nima cut a banana.

ÉÐ. nImaAe keXu& kaPyu&. Nima cut bananas.

B. In perfective sentences, if a verb is transitive, use pronoun from the following set.

Singular Plural

1st person me& Ame, Aap8e

2nd person te& tme

3rd person te8e teAoAe, tem8e

In addition the subject noun in such constructions, takes - Ae as the examples from Ï to ÉÐ above show.

C. In such sentences, the verb must agree with the object in gender and number. Look at the sentences given at the top of this page. In 1 kagX is masculine and singular, therefore the verb kapvu& is kaPyo while in 2 it is masculine and plural, therefore the verb is kaPya. In the similar manner, in 5 keXu& is neutral and singular, the verb is kaPyu& whereas in 6, it is neutral and plural the verb is changed to kaPya&. We have seen earlier that the feminine forms do not take plural marker - Ao, therefore the verbal forms of 3 and 4 do not show singular plural contrast.

Exercise: 1

  1. I read a book.
  2. Lata wrote a letter.
  3. Shankar made a house.
  4. You (sg.) drew a picture.
  5. Karen ate Indian food.
  6. We (inclusive) ate bananas.
  7. You (pl.) purchased apples.
  8. The boy read letters.
  9. We (exclusive) saw a village.
  10. My brother asked a question.