Word order



1.      Following are the normal word order patterns in Gujarati.


A.     NP internal word order


a.       Adjective + Noun




1.     saro 2okro

‘a good boy.’


2.     sarI 2okrI

‘a good girl.’


3.     saru& 2okru&

‘a good child.’


b.      Possessive constructions


In possessive constructions, there is a possessor + possessee word order. Moreover, the possessor takes a genitive case -n\. Examples:


1.     rmano 2okro

‘Rama’s son.’


2.     rmanI 2okrI

‘Rama’s daughter.’


3.     rmanu& 2okru&

‘Rama’s child.’


B.     Postpositions phrase


The postposition phrases have noun + postposition structure. In many cases, the nouns take case markers. Examples:


1.      4ebl wpr / 4eblnI wpr

‘On the table.’


2.      za6 nIce / za6nI nIce

‘Under the tree.’


3.      3rnI A&dr

‘In the house.’


A quick comparison of the structure of Gujarati postposition phrase with the structure of English preposition phrase will be helpful. Consider the following:


4ebl                wpr



‘on                  the table’



C.     Sentential word order


a.       Verb + auxiliary


Auxiliary verb always follows the main verb. Examples:


1.     rma W&3e 2e.

‘Rama is sleeping.’


2. lIla kerI kaptI htI.

‘Lila was cutting a mango.’


Notice the difference between English and Gujarati:


rma          W&3e      2e.



‘Rama is      sleeping.’




b.      Subject + Predicate


Predicate could be a noun or an adjective or an adjective + noun. Examples:


1.     rme= i=xk 2e.

‘Ramesh is a teacher.’


2.     rma de`av6I 2e.

‘Rama is beautiful.’


3.     rma de`av6I 2okrI 2e.

‘Rama is a beautiful girl.’


c.       Subject + Intransitive verb


1.     nyna hse 2e.

‘Nayna is laughing.’


2.     inleq hSyo.

‘Nilesh laughed.’


3.     kml hsto hto.

‘Kamal was laughing.’


d.      Subject + Transitive verb


Main verb follows the object. Examples:


1.     hu& keXu& `aw& 2u&.

‘I am eating a banana.’


2.     mInaAe keXu& `a0u&.

‘Mina ate a banana.’


3.     mnhr keXu& `ato hto.

‘Manahar was eating a banana.’


Notice the difference between English and Gujarati:


mnhr               keXu&                   `ato                hto.




‘Manahar     was             eating           a banana.’




e.      Subject + Ditransitive verb


In sentences with ditransitive verb indirect object + direct object is a normal order. Example:


1.     rmaAe kmlne cop6I AapI.

‘Rama gave a book to Kamal.’


2.     mInle nynne m&idr btaVyu&.

‘Minal showed a temple to Nayan.’


3.     ivmle nynne cop6I moklI.

‘Vimal sent a book to Nayan.’


Comparison with English sentences:

a.       rmaAe               kmlne              cop6I              AapI.




‘Rama         gave   a book         to Kamal.’


b.       rmaAe               kmlne              cop6I              AapI.



‘Rama         gave   Kamal          a book.