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Form of the plural marker.

While LT is extremely regular in the formation of pluralsThe LT plural marker is , which may be pronounced differently depending on whether it follows a vowel, a nasal, or another stop: [hal], [gal], or [kal], respectively. ST has great variability, and speakers disagree as to what is `standard'.

The most common form of the plural in ST is () nga(l. The final retroflex lateral is not present in isolation, but when other suffixes are added, it appears:

This plural marker also appears in pronouns (cf. pronouns sec. ??), also with final lateral: () niinga(l). We will consider the final retroflex lateral to be part of the UNDERLYING FORM of the plural marker, which is deleted (not pronounced) before pause.

In some dialects, the () nga(l) form is only used following nouns that end in a nasal, e.g. maram maranga `trees'. Otherwise the plural marker is () ha(l), e.g. մ maneviha `wives'.

In some dialects, there are some `irregular' plurals, involving changes of the noun stem before plural:

ٽ payyan `boy' pasanga `boys'




Harold_F.Schiffman