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Obstinate Negative: Vb. + ԥع- maatteen-nkatu.

The future negative 1st person singular, when followed by the quotative verb ͨ (e)n in its finite form, i.e. -nkadu, Ԩ ngraan, nnaaru, etc., gives the meaning `refuse to VB'. For example:

Since it is possible for inanimate objects to be the subject of these sentences, it is not feasible to call this a quotative form, i.e., the literal meaning, `the x says it won't y' is not a possible semantic interpretation here. Rather, the meaning `x refuses to y' is to be preferred. Note that thePNG marker attached to maatt- is always 1st person singular in form, i.e., Ψ -een. It never agrees with the subject---only thePNG of the `quotative' verb agrees with the subjects.

ˤ ԥع- uppu varamaatteen-ngadu `the salt refuses to come out (of the shaker)'

Note that the tense of the verb -n- can be past or present:

Future does not occur.

This tendency for the LT quotative verb ͨ to function as a marker of various morphological and syntactic processes indicates that it is in the process of being grammaticalized, and is not always to be treated as a lexical verb in ST.The LT form is ͨ en and the AVP form is ͨ enru, the change to retroflex nn is predictible. What is not predictible is the loss of the initial vowel e, which reinforces the notion that this verb is being grammaticalized. Like aspectual verbs that hve been grammaticalized from lexical verbs, the phonological rules governing their derivation has changed.





next up previous
Next: The Obstinate Negative Up: Negative forms Previous: Simultaneous negative plus



Harold_F.Schiffman