This form of the verb withoutPNG is often called the PAST ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE or AVP for short. With most verbs there is no problem in its formation, but verbs which have past markers É¨ -in-, we find, instead of the expected participle, e.g., * ÂÔõ´Õí vaanginu `having bought, after buying', that they have the form ÂÔõ´Õ vaanki without í nu. Furthermore, a few verbs, namely ÈÞ aaku `become' and Ø½Ô poo `go' have, instead of the expected * aanu and * poonu the forms È² aay and Ø½Ô²(É) pooy(i). These sentences translate as `after verbing' in English but there is no `word' meaning `after' in the Tamil sentences because this notion is given by the construction. The two actions are understood to be CONSECUTIVE.