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WH-INTERROGATIVES + -um.

The clitic ˣ when affixed to noun phrases generally means `and, even, too'. When affixed to WH-interrogatives, the meaning is all-inclusive, or universal.

Not all -e words can be combined with ˣ um, however. * enda + um `which' and * edum `which thing' do not occur. Instead, where one would expect edu + ˣ um, we get ͧԣ ellaam `all, everything'. Since enda has to be followed by a noun, the expected enda + Noun + um is replaced by ͧ ellaa + Noun + ˣ um. E.g.:

ͧ ֥ ellaa viitt-le-y-um `in all houses'

When ͧ ... ˣ ellaa ... um modifies a `count' noun, that noun must be in the plural (or at least be an unmarked plural, as above), as in English. When ͧ ... ˣ ellaa ... um modifies a mass noun, it follows the Noun and is then realized as ͧԣ ellaam, e.g. paal-ellaam `all the milk', ԣ uur-ellaam `the whole town'. ͧ ellaa uur-um also occurs, but means `all the townbf s'. ellaarum is used with animates and means `all people'. `Every' as an adjective is otherwise realised as ovvoru `each, every', e.g. ovvoru samayam `every time, sometimes'. `Everyday' denam or ovvoru naalu.

Some of the other -e + ˣ um types do not occur at all, e.g. * eppadiyum and * evvalavum.



Harold_F.Schiffman