Joe Cardwell reports (01ja2004):
I have gone through the section of Ryle's text that you gave me [xix-xx] and
made the appropriate adjustments. After that, I searched for the word nomoqesia
throughout Philo's works and studied each instance. I have divided the instances
in which I think that Philo was using the word nomoqesia
to refer to the Penteteuch from what I believe to be his other uses of that
word [see the final entries below]. Ryle also notes that Philo refers to the
Penteteuch using the word nomoV, but I have not yet
had the time to search out that word [!!].
Anyway, I have adjusted the references, numbered each instance as it was found in TLG, appended the beta code text and sometimes added some notes of my own. TLG found the word nomoqesia 43x in Philo, 31x that Philo used it to refer to the Penteteuch, 12x that Philo used it for something else [but apparently always associated with Moses?!] and once [#"41"] that Eusebius used it in his introduction to Philo's works.
**[RAK asks:] Did you search for plural forms as well? The evidence cited below seems to indicate that Philo reserves the word for Moses and his writings -- he is the nomoqethV par excellence! That's worth checking more closely. Also any verbal forms.
**[RAK comments:] Note that your ##1-16 are from the "allegorical commentary" series, and half of those use the pollaxou formula -- anything else characteristic about them, compared to the others?
(3) THE PENTATEUCH [or subsections thereof; edited by Joseph Cardwell, Jan 2004]:
Philo speaks repeatedly of the Pentateuch as "the Legislation," h nomoqesia
 De fuga et inventione 60 [De Profug. 11.1.555]
*KA/IN D' O( E)NAGH\S KAI\ A)DELFOKTO/NOS OU)DAMOU= TH=S NOMOQESI/AS A)POQNH/|SKWN EU(RI/SKETAI
 Legum allegoriarum 3.96 [31.1.106]
W(S KAI\ E)NARXO/MENOS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS E)DH/LWSEN EI)PW/N: KAI\
E)POI/HSEN O( QEO\S ...
 De cherubim 87 [26.1.154]
POLLAXOU= ME\N TH=S NOMOQESI/AS
[JC note: When pollaxou (and once, polloxoqi = "many places") is added to the genitive of nomoqesia (translated "many times throughout the law"), nomoqesia always means the Penteteuch. I have included all the instances of this particular combination just below.]
 De plantatione 117:
FHSIN EI)=NAI *MWUSH=S POLLAXOU= TH=S NOMOQESI/AS (&Exod. 20.10 al.$),
XOU= ME\N TH=S NOMOQESI/AS, MA/LISTA DE\ E)N TW=| KATALO/GW| TH=S TOU= PANTO\S
[+03] Quod deterius potiori insidiari soleat 80:
POLLAXOU= ME\N GA\R TH=S NOMOQESI/AS OU)SI/AN TH=S YUXH=S
Genesis 1:27 is referenced here.
[+05] De agricultura 2:
POLLAXOU=ME\N OU)=N TH=S NOMOQESI/AS TH\N U(PO/SXESIN E)PALHQEU/OUSAN EU(RH/SOMEN
Genesis 9:20 and its context is discussed in this passage.
[+07] De ebrietate 2:
POLLAXOU= GA\R TH=S NOMOQESI/AS OI)/NOU KAI\ TOU= GENNW=NTOS
This mostly likely refers to the five books of Moses as a whole, since Noah and his becoming drunk, a tale related in Genesis, is mentioned in this context. Otherwise, it might mean the legislation that Moses laid out to the people of Israel rather than the actual books themselves -- the Law and all its individual commandments rather than Moses' five books which contain more than simply rules and legislation. I prefer the former.
[+08] De sobrietate 7:
POLLAXOU= ME/NTOI TH=SNOMOQESI/AS KAI\ TOU\S H(LIKI/A
Genesis 21:14 and the surrounding context is discussed in this passage.
[+09] De confusione linguarum 3:
KAI/TOI TI/ DEI=TOU\S POLLAXO/QI TH=S NOMOQESI/AS E)SPARME/NOUS
[+10] De confusione linguarum 148:
KAI\ POLLAXOU= ME/NTOI TH=S NOMOQESI/AS UI(OI\ PA/LIN *)ISRAH\L
[+31] De specialibus legibus 4.44:
DIO\ POLLAXOU= PARAINEI=TH=S NOMOQESI/AS A)DI/KW| MHDENI\ SUNAINEI=N
-Philo speaks of "many places in the law" in which a particular command is enjoined. One example of this would be Exodus 23:1.
[+34] De virtutibus 15:
EI)SI\ KAI\ DIDASKALI/AI POLLAXOU= TH=S NOMOQESI/AS E)STHLITEUME/NAI
[+35] De virtutibus 22:
H(=S TA\ ME\N KAT' EI)RH/NHN E)/RGA POLLAXOU= TH=S NOMOQESI/AS U(/MNHSEN
Ryle's text continues here
 De fuga et inventione 178:
E)N A)RXH=| TH=S NOMOQESI/AS META\ TH\N KOSMOPOII/AN
But in one passage the book of Joshua appears to be included in "The Legislation,"
 De migratione Abrahami 182:
"Wherefore, even though it be said somewhere in the Law-book 'God in heaven above and on the earth below' ... " (Loeb refers to Deut 4.39, which has the same words as Josh 2.11b !)
KA)/N POU TH=S NOMOQESI/AS LE/GHTAI
quoting Josh. 2.11 [so Ryle, here and on p. 283; but see also to Deut 4.39 on p. 248, where Ryle lists Leg Alleg 3.4 [18.104.22.168 with a vague formula, "and in other places it/he witnesses saying"] and 3.82 [22.214.171.124 (no formula)] as citations of the same words in the Deut passage!].
[Ryle continues:] Philo sometimes refers to the whole Pentateuch as "The
Law," or o nomoV, e.g.
LE/GEI O( NO/MOS O(/TI "W)/FQH O( QEO\S AU)TW=|"
Gen. 12.7 quoted in Quod deterius potiori insidiari soleat 159: "
SUMPODI/SAS, W(/S FHSIN O( NO/MOS
Gen. 22.9 quoted in Quod deus sit immutabilis 4: "
O( GA\R NO/MOS <FHSI\N> O(/TI DIA\ TH=S MH/TRAS E)CEKE/NTHSE
Num. 25.8-11 quoted in De posteritate Caini 183: "
LE/GEI OU)=N O( NO/MOS, O(/TI PARABIASA/MENOI/ TINES A)NE/BHSAN E)PI\ TO\ O)/ROS
Deut. 1.43 quoted in Quod deus sit immutabilis 99: "
MA/RTUS D' O( NO/MOS E)N W)|DH=| MEI/ZONI
Deut. 32.15 quoted in De posteritate Caini 121: "
The expression "The Laws," oi nomoi, appears
also to stand for the Pentateuch in
De specialibus legibus 2.3:
"In the laws we read of one of our first founders, who are particularly admired for their wisdom, that he swore by the fear of his father ..." (Loeb, with Jacob identified from Gen 31.53)
A)NAGE/GRAPTAI/ TIS E)N TOI=S NO/MOIS TW=N A)RXHGETW=N KAI\ E)PI\
SOFI/A| MA/LISTA QAUMASQE/NTWN
[[Ryle xx]] where the reference is to Jacob.
See also the passage quoted below, under "(4) Genesis," from De Abrahamo 1 [1.2.1]:
"The first of the holy laws inscribed in five books is called and titled Genesis."
In the De vita Mosis 2.46-47, "Philo divides the Pentateuch first into history and law (commands and prohibitions); and then subdivides the history into the account of creation and to genealogikon, of which, he says, part refers to the punishment of the impious, part to the honour of the righteous. That is, he includes under to genealogikon all the primitive human history in the Pentateuch, without special reference to the contained genealogies" [Hort's Judaistic Christianity, p. 136]. The passage is as follows:
(46) TOU/TWN TOI/NUN TO\ ME/N E)STIN I(STORIKO\N ME/ROS,
TO\ DE\ PERI\ TA\S PROSTA/CEIS KAI\ A)PAGOREU/SEIS,
U(PE\R OU(= DEU/TERON LE/COMEN TO\ PRO/TERON
TH=| TA/CEI PRO/TERON A)KRIBW/SANTES.
(47) E)/STIN OU)=N TOU= I(STORIKOU=
TO\ ME\N PERI\ TH=S TOU= KO/SMOU GENE/SEWS,
TO\ DE\ GENEALOGIKO/N,
TOU=DE\ GENEALOGIKOU= TO\ ME\N PERI\ KOLA/SEWS A)SEBW=N,
TO\ D' AU)= PERI\ TIMH=S DIKAI/WN.
[[note continuation of passage as explanation of why Moses began the nomoqesia in this manner!]]
Nomoqesia [more passages from Joe C, not in Ryle at this point]
[+04] Quod deterius potiori insidiari soleat 178: "
OU) GA\R QA/NATON AU)TOU=DIA\ PA/SHS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS
Genesis 4 is referred to in this passage.
[+11] De migratione Abrahami 14: "
OU)=N O( I(EROFA/NTHS MI/AN TH=S NOMOQESI/AS O(/LHN I(ERA\N BI/BLON *)ECAGWGH\N
[+16] De somniis 1.237: "
KAI\ SXEDO\N DU/O EI)SI\N AU(=TAI MO/NAI AI( TH=S NOMOQESI/AS PA/SHS O(DOI/
-Numbers 23:19 and Deuteronomy 8:5 are referred to in the context.
[+18] De Josepho 28: "
SXEDO\N GA\R TA\ PA/NTA H)\ TA\ PLEI=STA TH=S NOMOQESI/AS A)LLHGOREI=TAI.
[+22] De vita Mosis 2.38: "
O(/PER E)PI\ TAU/THS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS OU)/FASI SUMBH=NAI
[+23] De vita Mosis 2.47: "
OU(= DE\ XA/RIN E)NQE/NDE TH=S NOMOQESI/AS H)/RCATO
[+25] De vita Mosis 2.291: "
O(\KAQA/PER E)N TW=| ZW/|W| KEFALH\ TH=S O(/LHS NOMOQESI/AS E)STI/N
[+29] De specialibus legibus 2.104: "
QRWPI/AS, H(\N A(/PANTI ME/REI TH=S NOMOQESI/AS SUNUFAI/NEIN A)CIOI= TOI=S E)NTUGXA/NOUSI
-- This could mean the law-portion of Moses' books as opposed to the Penteteuch as a whole, but I opt for the latter.
[+32] De specialibus legibus 4.72: "
O( PA=SAN SXEDO/N TI TH\N NOMOQESI/AN PEPLHRWKW\S
-The passage implicated by Philo is Exodus 23:3. It is possible that Moses speaks of the legislative portion of the Penteteuch here.
[+36] De virtutibus 99: "
A)\N EI)/POI TW=N MH\ XEI/LESIN A)/KROIS A)POGEUSAME/NWN TH=S NOMOQESI/AS
[+37] De virtutibus 119: "
DIA\ PA/SHS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS O( I(ERW/TATOS PROFH/THS KATASKEUA/ZEIN, O(MO/NOIAN,
[+39] Quod omnis probus liber sit 57: "
LO/GON W(/SPER A)PO\ PHGH=S TH=S *)IOUDAI/WN NOMOQESI/AS, E)N H(=| DUOI
-As Yonge's translation indicates in a note, the context of this statement is a reference to the story of Esau and Jacob in which Isaac gave Jacob was given the blessing of the first-born and Esau a subservient position with respect to his younger brother. Philo is attempting to show that a statement by Zeno was actually taken from the Jewish Law, that is, in this case, the five books (here, Genesis 27-28) of Moses.
[+40] De vita contemplativa 78: "
NOMOQESI/A DOKEI= TOI=S A)NDRA/SI TOU/TOIS E)OIKE/NAI ZW/|W| KAI\ SW=MA ME\N E)/XEIN
-The context is the discussion of the Theraputae.
[+42] Quaestiones in Genesim 1.68: "
[...] || KAI\ DEIKNU\S DI' O(/LHS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS W(S PAR'
The Greek in TLG seems to lack a lot -- so I imagine, hence the label "fragment."
[+43] Quaestiones in Genesim 2.54a: "
GA\R O)/NTWN KEFALAI/WN A(\ KEI=TAI DIA\ PA/SHS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS,
[+44] Quaestiones in Genesim 3.3: "
OU)=N H( QEI/A NOMOQESI/A TRO/PON TINA\ ZW=|ON H(NWME/NON, H(\N O(/LHN
-Philo appears at this point to be discussing how one must interpret the Law as an unified work. Without an English translation for this one to aid my decision-making, it is a little difficult to decide. But it does appear to be the Penteteuch.
References that do not seem to be limited specifically to the Pentateuch text in whole or in part:
[+13] De congressu eruditionis gratia [Preliminary Studies] 120:
"But why note such examples as these [cf Gen 15.18-20], when the holy and divine law is summed up by Moses in precepts which are ten in all, statutes which are the general heads, embracing the vast multitude of particular laws, the roots, the sources, the perennial fountains of ordinances containing commandments positive and prohibitive for the profit of those who follow them?" (Loeb).
... TH\N GA\R I(ERA\N KAI\ QEI/AN NOMOQESI/AN DE/KA TOI=S SU/MPASI LO/GOIS *MWUSH=S A)NAGE/GRAFEN ...
--Not the text of the Penteteuch as such, but God's law/legislation in general as organized through the Decalogue.
[+17] De Abrahamo 5:
(Before looking at specific laws, let us look at the models from which they are copies. These are the humans who lived good and blameless lives, whose virtues are recorded in the most holy writings for the reader to imitate,) "for in these men we have laws endowed with life and reason, and Moses extolled them for two reasons. First he wished to show that the enacted ordinances are not inconsistent with nature; and secondly that those who wish to live in accordance with the laws as they stand have no difficult task, seeing that the first generations before any at all of the particular statutes was set in writing followed the unwritten law with perfect ease, so that one might properly say that the enacted laws are nothing else than memorials of the life of the ancients, preserving to a later generation their actual words and deeds." (Loeb)
KAI\ A)GRA/FW| TH=| NOMOQESI/A|, PRI/N TI TH\N A)RXH\N A)NAGRAFH=NAI TW=N E)N ME/REI
-- "Unwritten" law to which the Patriarchs in Genesis adhered before the laws came to be inscribed by Moses.
[+19] De vita Mosis 2.2: "Moses will be found to have displayed,
and more than displayed, combined in his single person, not only these two faculties
-- the kingly and the philosophical -- but also three others, one of which is
concerned with law-giving, the second with the high priest's office, and the
last with prophecy." (Loeb)
H( ME\N PRAGMATEU/ETAI PERI\ NOMOQESI/AN, H( | DE\ PERI\ A)RXIERWSU/NHN, H( DE\ TELEUTAI/A PERI\ PROFHTEI/AN
--Law in general, as associated with Moses' career (see also #38 below).
[+24] De vita Mosis 2.51:
"Again [Moses] considered that to begin his writings with the foundation of a man-made city was below the dignity of the laws, and, surveying the greatness and beauty of the whole code with the accurate discernment of his mind's eye, and thinking it too good and godlike to be confined within any earthly walls, he inserted the story of the genesis of the "Great City" [the entire cosmos], holding that the laws were the most faithful picture of the world-polity." (Loeb)
PRO\S TO\ ME/GEQOS KAI\ KA/LLOS TH=S O(/LHS NOMOQESI/AS A)KRIBESTA/TH| O)/YEI
-- Not simply the Pentateuch, but as Yonge would put it, the "legislative system." [Does this capture Philo's Platonic vision of law/laws?]
[+20] De vita Mosis 2.25:
"That the sanctity of our legislation has been a source of wonder not only to the Jews but also to all other nations, is clear both from the facts already mentioned and those which I proceed to state." (Loeb)
*TO\ DE\ TH=S NOMOQESI/AS I(EROPREPE\S W(S OU) PAR' *)IOUDAI/OIS MO/NON
A)LLA\ KAI\ PARA\ PA=SI TOI=S A)/LLOIS TEQAU/MASTAI,
Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish whether Philo speaks of the Penteteuch as a whole, or of the legislative part of the Penteteuch. In the context Philo is attempting to demonstrate how all peoples have benefited from the laws of Moses because of their goodness and righteousness. In so speaking, he causes my mind to think of the commandment portion of the books alone rather than the Penteteuch as a whole. However, that might be a false distinction, should Philo consider the narrative to be propitious toward righteousness as well (which he seems to do). I would say that at this point he means to speak of the commandment portion of the Penteteuch, rather than the Penteteuch in its entirety, because in section 45, he says that he moves on to tell of virtues other than that of making rules that Moses exhibited in his writings.
[+21] De vita Mosis 2.31:
"The great man [Ptolemy Philadelphus], having conceived an ardent affection for our laws, determined to have the Chaldean translated into Greek, and at once dispatched envoys to the high priest and king of Judaea, both offices being held by the same person, explaining his wishes and urging him to choose by merit persons to make a full rendering of the Law into Greek." (Loeb)
O( DH\ TOIOU=TOS ZH=LON KAI\ PO/QON LABW\N TH=S NOMOQESI/AS H(MW=N
This reference ultimately refers to the Penteteuch, since that is what Ptolemy Philadelpus was ordering to be translated. However, since I have decided that the statement above refers to the legislation rather than to the literary work itself, I have decided that this statement does as well, considering their proximity.
[+26] De decalogo 81:
"So then [God] gave no place in his sacred code of laws to all such setting up of other gods ..." (Loeb)
A)NELW\N OU)=N E)K TH=S I(ERA=S NOMOQESI/AS PA=SAN TH\N TOIAU/THN E)KQE/WSIN
-God's law in general? But in a discussion of the decalogue commandment against "other gods."
[+27] De decalogo 154:
"... The ten commandments are summaries of the special laws which are recorded in the sacred books and run through the whole of the legislation." (Loeb)
OI( DE/KA LO/GOI KEFA/LAIA NO/MWN EI)SI\ TW=N E)N EI)/DEI PAR' O(/LHN TH\N NOMOQESI/AN E)N TAI=S I(ERAI=S BI/BLOIS A)NAGRAFE/NTWN
-The exact use of the preposition para in the phrase par' olhn thn nomoqesian is a little ambiguous. I take it to mean the laws in particular rather than the Penteteuch, and the phrase just after is en tais ierais biblois to refer to the Penteteuch, or the whole Hebrew Scriptures in general. Nomoqesian might refer to the Penteteuch, however (who knows -- I might become a scholar after all in the fact that I'm not committing to much on this).
[+28] De specialibus legibus 1.319:
"Furthermore, he banishes from the sacred legislation the lore of occult rites and mysteries and all such imposture and buffoonery." (Loeb, with a note referring to Deut 23.17-18 LXX)
PRO\S TOU/TOIS E)/TI TA\ PERI\ TELETA\S KAI\ MUSTH/RIA KAI\ PA=SAN TH\N TOIAU/THN TERQREI/AN KAI\ BWMOLOXI/AN E)K TH=S I(ERA=S A)NAIREI= NOMOQESI/AS,
-It might be the Penteteuch as a whole, but I take it to be the legislative portion.
[+30] De specialibus legibus 2.164:
"But not only is the legislation in a sense a lesson on the sacred office, not only does a life led in conformity with the laws necessarily confer priesthood or rather high priesthhood in the judgment of truth, but there is another point of special importance." (Loeb)
XWRI\S DE\ TOU= TH\N NOMOQESI/AN TRO/PON TINA\ DIDASKALI/AN I(ERWSU/NHS EI)=NAI
-A particular injunction in the Mosaic law. [Actually, Philo is depicting the entire Jewish nation when observing certain prescribed rites as doing priestly service for the entirety of humankind. Wow.]
[+33] De specialibus legibus 4.132:
"... I have assigned and attached to each of the [decalogue] heads what was appropriate to them throughout the whole legislation." (Loeb)
E(KA/STW| TW=N GENW=N E)C A(PA/SHS TH=S NOMOQESI/AS TA\ OI)KEI=A PROSE/NEIMA KAI\ PROSE/FUSA.
-The legislation of Moses as contained in the Penteteuch and organized under the decalogue headings (see also above #27).
[+38] De praemiis et poenis = De exsecrationibus 53:
"Moses ... gained ... four special rewards, the offices of king, legislator, prophet and high priest." (Loeb; but better, "...the functions of ruling, legislating, prophesying, and serving as high priest"))
TETTA/RWN A)/QLWN E)CAIRE/TWN TUGXA/NEI, [TUXW\N] BASILEI/AS, NOMOQESI/AS, PROFHTEI/AS, A)RXIERWSU/NHS
-Moses' gift of lawgiving (see also #19 above).
[+"41"] Hypothetica or Apologia pro Judaeis -- the introduction to Philo's material by Eusebius in Prep Evang 8.5.11 referring to "the legislation according to Moses."
[[end of Joe Cardwell file]