E. PAST AND FUTURE (Eschatological Aspects)

1. Revealed Things

2. History divided into 'Era of Wrath' and 'Era of Favor'

(a) 'Era of Wrath!

(b) 'Era of Wickedness'

(c) 'Era of Favor?

3. Requital

(a) 'The Final Era <hb>qes</>.

(b) Dominion of Belial

(c) 'Time of Visitation Inquisition' <hb>pequdah</>

(d) Final Judgment

(e) 'Day of Requital’

(f) Spirits and angels also will be judged

(g) 'Messianic Travail

(h) Conflagration (Ekpyrosis)

(i) Messianic Era of Forty Years

(j) War against Belial, Gog, etc.

(k) Other Disasters

4. Rewards:

(a) Renewal (Rebirth) of the World

(b) Eternal Peace

(c) Sevenfold Light

(d) Prophetic Forerunner of Messianic Age

(e) Messianic 'Star

(f) 'Faithful Shepherd will arise

(g) Interpreter of the Law will arise

(h) New Covenant will be concluded

(i) God records deeds of men for reward or punishment

(j) Righteous will acquire crown of glory'

(k) Righteous will acquire robe of majesty

(l) Righteous will unite in triumphant song

(m) Future Community will be the true temple of God

(n) New Jerusalem

(o) Other Rewards

[[+ Treasure]]



(View of History and Eschatological Ideas/Expectations)

1. Revealed Things

M 1.9 (concerning the regulated times [calendar])

2. History divided into 'Era of Wrath (Sin, Wickedness)' and

'Era of Favor'

(a) 'Era of Wrath!

CD 1.5; 20:15; H 11.28; pHos, b 1.12, H 7.21

Cp. Zeph. 1.2-3 (Day of Wrath), and cp. Talmud, B.B. 10a, Shab.

11a; Ab.Zar. 18b, for Wrath' as an eschatological term. Cp. also

Ecclus. 48.10.

(b) 'Era of Wickedness'

CD 6.10,14; 12.23; 14.19; 15.7,10; 20.23 (Era of Perfidy')

Cp. Enoch 22.12; 80.2.

(c) 'Era of Favor?

H 15.15; 7.19; frag. 9.8; 1QFestival Prayers 1.1.1-4; 3.2.5

Cp. Isa. 61.2 ('Year of favor'). The Samaritans likewise divide

history into the 'Era of God's Turning Away (Fanutah) and that of

His 'Favor' (Rahutah)

3. Requital

(a) 'The Final Era <hb>QS</>.

S 3.23; 4.18, 25; CD 4.9,10; 19.10; 20.15; pHab 7.2

(b) Dominion of Belial

S 1.18

(c) 'Time of Visitation Inquisition' <hb>PQWDH</>

S 3.18; 4.18-19, 26; H 5.16 (final), 9.17 (of this punishment)

(d) Final Judgment

S 4.20, H 14.29

(e) 'Day of Requital’ (Revenge)

S 9.23

Based on Deut. 32.35, read as in LXX and Sam.

(f) Spirits and angels also will be judged

H 15.28-29

(g) 'Messianic Travail (Birth Pains)

H 11.3-18

For the expression 'pangs of the Messiah,' cp. Talmud, Shab.

118a; Sanh. 98b; Mat. 24.8; Mark 13.8-9; I Thess. 5.3. Cp. also

Enoch 62.4.

Described: Jubilees 20.11-25; Or. Sib. 2.154f.; II Esdras 5-6;

Mat. 24.6-29; Rev. chs. 6-9; Talmud, Sanh. 96b-97a.

(h) Conflagration (Ekpyrosis)

H 4.3, 6, 13; M 14.17-18 Cp. also S 2.8

Cp. Mal. 3.19 (4.1); Dan. 7.10f.; Psalms of Solomon 15.14f.;

Enoch 67.6; 98.3; 108.3; Test. Zebulun 2.38; Or. Sib.,

2.253f.,296; 3.542,689; 4.176; Luke 17.28; II Peter 3.6ff.;

II Thess. 1.7f.; Rev. 19.20; 20.10,14f.; 21.8.

Berosus (quoted in Seneca, Nat Qu. 2.29,1) predicted a final


On non-Semitic parallels, ep. C. Clemen, Primitive Christianity

and Its Non-Jewish Sources (1912), 161f.; M. Eliade, The Myth of

the Eternal Return (1954), 87-88; R. Mayer, Ist die biblische

Vorstellung vom Weltenbrand eine Entlehnung aus dem Parsismus?


(i) Messianic Era of Forty Years

4QpPs 2.7-8; 4Ezra 7

Cp. Apoc. Esdras 13.23--25; Talmud, Sanh. 99a; Midrash

Tehillirn xc, ß393. Possibly based on Ps. 95.10 (cp. Yalqut

Shime'oni in loc.).

(j) War against Belial, Gog, etc.

H 11.28, 35f.; 14.29ff.; 10.34-35; M passim (especially,

1.1, 10-11, 13-14), Flor 1.19

Cp. Test. Levi, V.27; of Dan, 2.10-11; John 12.31; II Cor. 6.15.

Gog and Magog: Isa. 25.6; Zech. 14.2. Cp. Or. Sib. 3.319,

519,632f.; 5.101; Syriac Apoc. Baruch 70.7-10; Pal. Targum to

Num. 9.6; 24.17; Enoch 56; 90.16; Assurn. Mosis 8.1ff.; II Esdras

5.6; 13.33f-; Mishnah, 'Eduyoth 2.10. The basic notion occurs

already in Theopompus quoted by Plutarch, De Is., 47.

(k) Specific Aspects of the War

ablution after victory M 14.3

cavalry M 6.8-17

exhortation before battle M 15.6ff.

prayer before battle M 10.2-14.2

prayer , high priest'3, before battle M 15.4-6

priests role of M 7.9ff.

song of return M 14.2

song of victory M 14.2-18

standards, military M 3.12-v.2

testudo ('tower') M 9.10ff.

troops, age of M 7.1-9

trumpets M 3.1-11

trumpet signals M 7.9-9.9

weapons, described M 5.2-6.6

(l) Other Disasters:

(1) shafts of perdition loosed H 11.16, 27-28

(2) doors of perdition opened H 11.8; 14.24

(3) traps of perdition sprung H 11.26

(4) dispersal of wicked H 12.26


4. Rewards:

(a) Renewal (Rebirth) of the World (New Creation)

S 4.25; H 11.13-14; 13.11-13

Cp. Test. Abraham; Jubilees i.29; Enoch 72.1; IV Ezra 5.45; Mat.

19.28; Jewish 'Burial Kaddish'; Manichaean: F. W. K. Malter,

Handschriftenreste, 2.15 (employing the Iranian term frasagard).

Renewal (rebirth) is also an element of.mystical experience; cp.

George Fox, Journal, ed. N. Penny (1911), 1, ch. 2. 'Now was I

come up in spirit through the Flaming Sword into the Paradise of

God. All things were new.'

(b) Eternal Peace

S 2.4; H 19.27, 5.24; 15.1.6; 18.30; Ber 3.5,21

(c) Sevenfold Light

H 15.24

Cp. Talmud, Sanhedrin 91b (sevenfold Messianic sun); Midrash

Konen 24-25 (based on Isa. 3o.26). Cp. also Isa. 6o.19; Rev.

21.23, 25; 22.6; Odes of Solomon, 21.5; Slav. Enoch 66.8.

(d) Prophetic Forerunner of Messianic Age

S 9.11

Based on Deut. 18.18 and Mal. 3.1ff. (Cp. Ecclesiasticus 48.10.)

Samaritans identify him with Moses Redivivus; Jews, with Elijah

(Talmud, Menahoth 45a; B.M. 3a; Aboth de Rabbi Nathan 24.4)

Cp. I Macc. 14.41; 4.46; Mat. 11.14; 17.10ff.; Mark 9.11f.; John

1.45; 5.46; 6.14; 7.40; Acts 7.37; Rev. 11.3ff.

Often alternates with priestly forerunner. (Note that both Moses

and Elijah were priests.) Cp. Test. Levi, v.13-20; Heb. 3.1; 4-

15ff-; 5.4,10; 6.20.

(e) Messianic 'Star'

DD 7.18-19

Based on Num. 24.17. Cp. Test. Levi, 5-15; Judah, 4.20;

Samaritan Liturgy, ed. Cowley, 2.88 Heh 10; 92.17; 96.32; (all

by Abisha b. Pinehas, d. 1376).

On Messiah(s) more generally, see



11QMelch.; 4Q246; 4Q285; 4Q541; 4Q521 (cf. Duhaime Conf. 1997)

4QMessianic Apocalypse (4Q521, GM 394)

Messiahs of Aaron and Israel: CD 14.19; 19.11

(f) 'Faithful Shepherd will arise

1QFestival Prayers 3.2.8

Based on Isa. 63.11. Cp. Heb. 13.20. 'Shepherd of souls': I Peter

2.25. Cp. also John,10,11,14; I Peter 5.4.

Enoch 90.17-27 speaks of God as the Master Shepherd who will

deliver his flock from the seventy evil shepherds.

(g) Interpreter of the Law will arise

4QFlor 1.11

(h) New Covenant will be concluded

1QFestival Prayers 3.2.6; S 8.10

Based on Jer. 31.31-34. For the true meaning, see above,

pp. 4,24.

The Covenant will be inscribed on human hearts:

H 18.27; 4.23. Cp. Jer. 31.33; Rom. 2.14f. (Stoic parallel adduced

in Feine, Der Romerbrief [1903], 95ff.

On the "Covenant" idea in general, see also

S 1.7 (of kindness), 1.16 (establish), 1.24 (enter), 4.22

(everlasting); CD 12.11 (of Abraham)

(i) God records deeds of men for reward or punishment

H 9.23-24; 16.10

Cp. Dan. 7.10; II Esdras 6.20; Rev. 20.12; Slavonic Enoch 50.1;

Odes of Solomon 9.12; Apoc. Baruch 24.1. Rabbinic parallels in L.

Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, v.128, n.141.

Iranian parallel: Yasna 31.13-14; 32.6 (record kept by Ahura


(j) Righteous will acquire crown of glory'

S 4.7; H 17.24

Odes of Solomon 9.11; 1 Peter 5.4; Dctr. 6.1[?]; Mandaean:

Lidzbarski, Mand. Lit., 4f.,29,108,177,243,267.

Initiants in mystery cults sometimes received a crown:

Apuleius, Met. 11.24; Tertallian, Cor. :15a; Praescr. haer. 40.

Was this a prefiguration of the heavenly crown which awaited


(k) Righteous will acquire robe of majesty and eternal light

S 4.8

Cp. Enoch 62.16; Slavonic Enoch .22.8.

(l) Righteous will unite in triumphant song

H 19.5,14, 24-25

Cp. TB Sanhedrin 19b: 'All the prophets will then intone a song in concert'; Yalqut, Isa. 296. Iranian parallel: Bundahesh 31,

(m) Future Community will be the true temple of God

S 8.5f.; Flor 1.6.

Cp. I Cor. 3.16-17; Eph. 2.20-22. Cp. also Heb. 8.2;

Barnabas 3.12.

(n) New Jerusalem

2QNew Jerusalem

Cp. Revelation 3.12; 21.2.

(o) Other Rewards

(1)Everlasting healing H 17.24

(2)Everlasting strength H 17.24

(3)Will stand in presence of God forever H 15.31

(4)Endless glory H 19.27

(5)Salvation and justice revealed CD 20.20

(6)Resurrection of dead 4QMessianic Apocalypse 2.2.12; H 19.12