SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR JUDAISM IN THE HELLENISTIC ERA
(ca 300 BCE - 200 CE) R. A. Kraft
[format adapted 9/2003 content needs updating]
1. Bibliographies and Bibliographical Surveys:
- some internet web pages (there are many more!):
- new Schürer = Schürer, Emil. The History of the Jewish
People in the Age of Jesus Christ. 3 vols. (1885-1911).
Revised and ed. by M.Black, G. Vermes, F. Millar, M. Goodman (1973-86).
- Marcus, R. "A Select Bibliography (1920-1945) of the Jews in
the Hellenistic-Roman Period." Proceedings of the American Academy
for Jewish Research 16 (1946/47) 91-181.
- Delling, G. Bibliographie zur jüdisch-hellenistischen und
intertestamentarischen Literatur 1900-1965. TU 106 (1969); 2nd ed 1975.
- PMR = Charlesworth, J. H. The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research.
SCS 7 (1976) [with a Supplement, SCS 7S (1979)].
- JLBBM = Nickelsburg, G. W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible
and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction (1981).
- JWSTP = Stone, M. E. (ed). Jewish Writings of the Second Temple
Period. Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad NT 2.2 (Fortress, 1984).
- EJMI = Kraft, R. A. and G. W. Nickelsburg (eds). Early Judaism
and its Modern Interpreters [since ca. 1945]. SP & Fortress, 1986
[the appendix lists additional bibliographical aids].
2. Collections of Various Sorts (texts, translations):
- AOT = The Apocryphal OT, ed. H. F. D. Sparks (1984) [ET of
25 representative pseudepigraphal texts].
- APOCRYPHA = A traditional name for the "deuterocanonical"
Jewish writings included in the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox OT but not
in the Protestant or Classical Jewish Bibles. For Greek texts, see below,
GREEK JEWISH SCRIPTURES. Translations are included in many standard Bible
editions (e.g. RSV) and in some commentary series. See also APOT (vol. 1,
- APOT = Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, ed. R. H.
Charles in 2 vols. (1913) [contains
a core collection of Pseudepigrapha in vol.2].
- CIJ = Corpus Inscriptionarum Judicarum: Recuéil des inscriptions
juives qui vont du IIIe siècle avant J.-C. au VIIe siècle de
notre ère, ed. J. B. Frey (Europe, 1936; Asia-Africa, 1952)
- CPJ = Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum, ed. V. Tcherikover and
A. Fuks (3 vols, 1957-64) [primarily Egypt].
- DENIS (A.-M) = Introduction aux Pseudépigraphes grecs
d'Ancien Testament (1970) [survey, with bibliography].
- EUSEBIUS = Preparation for the Gospel, books 7-9. Greek text
ed. K. Mras, GCS 43 (1954-56); ET by E. H. Gifford (1903). For listings of
these materials according to author/work cited, see DENIS.
- GREEK JEWISH SCRIPTURES (LXX/OG) = The so-called "Septuagint
(LXX)" is made up of
the ancient Greek Pentateuch (LXX proper) and various Old Greek (OG) translations
of the other portions of Greek Jewish Scriptures (LXX/OG), including APOCRYPHA,
some of which were composed originally in Greek.
The 2 vol. Greek ed. by A. Rahlfs (1934) is widely used.
ETs were published in the 19th century by L. L. Brenton and by C. Thomson.
For general background, see H. B. Swete, INTRODUCTION TO THE OT IN GREEK
S. Jellicoe, THE SEPTUAGINT AND MODERN STUDY (1968, with good bibliography).
Comprehensive bibliography to 1969 is found in S. Brock, C. Fritsch, S. Jellicoe,
BIBLIOGRAHPY OF THE SEPTUAGINT (Brill, 1973).
- JAMES (M.R.) = The Lost Apocrypha of the OT (1920) [classifies
materials according to connections with ancient persons; e.g. Adam, Isaiah,
Moses]. For various texts, see also his Apocrypha Anecdota I (1893)
and II (1897) = Texts and Studies 2.3 and 5.1.
- LEGENDS = Legends of the Jews by L. Ginzberg (6 vols., 1909-28;
index vol 7 by B. Cohen, 1938) [arranged in sequence of biblical history;
copious separate end notes in vols 5-6].
- OTP = The OT Pseudepigrapha, ed. by J. H. Charlesworth in
2 vols. (1983-85) [largest available
collection; ETs with introductory materials].
- PSEUDEPIGRAPHA = Various editions and translations. See above, AOT
[25 texts], APOT 2 [earliest ET collection], OTP [largest selection], and
- PsVTGr = Pseudepigrapha Veteris Testamenti Graece, ed. A.-M.
Denis and M. de Jonge (1964ff) [editions of various texts].
- REINACH (T.) = Textes d'auteurs grecs et romains relatifs au
Judaisme (1895; reprint 1963); see also the review by H. Willrich in Berliner
Philologische Wochenschaft 15 (1895), 987-989 [see now STERN, which replaces
REINACH for all practical purposes].
- RIESSLER (P.) = Altjüdaische Schriften ausserhalb der Bibel
(1928; reprint 1966) [German translations with brief end notes].
- STERN (M.) = Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism,
in 3 vols. (1974-84) [see also the older collection by REINACH].
- SYMBOLS = E. R. Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman
Period (12 vols., 1953-66) [art, etc.]. See also the Abridged Edition,
ed J.Neusner (1988).
3. General Reference Works, Series, etc.
- ABD = Abingdon Bible Dictionary (6 vols; spotty coverage, but extensive
- EJ = Encyclopaedia Judaica (1928-34)
- ERE = Hasting's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (12 vols., 1908-22).
- ERK = The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (13
vols., 1908-13), supplemented by the 20th Century Encyclopedia of Religious
Knowledge (2 vols., 1955), ed. L. Loetscher.
- HBD = Harper's Bible Dictionary [one volume, brief articles]
- IJApocry = International Journal of Apocrypha (1907-17; from 1905-1906
it was titled Deuterocanonica).
- JE = Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. I. Singer (12 vols., 1901-1906).
- LoebCL = The Loeb Classical Library; Greek and Latin texts with ET
on facing pages.
- PWRE = Real-Enxyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft,
ed. H. Pauli, G. Wissowa
and W. Kroll (1893 ff).
- RGG = Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. K. Galling et
al. (1957-62/3rd ed).
- SCS = Septuagint and Cognate Studies (Series of the IOSCS = International
Organiztion for Septuagint and Cognate Studies). Scholars Press.
- T&T = Texts and Translations: Pseudepigrapha Series. Scholars
4. Overall Treatments: History, Literature, Thought
2. JUDAISM OF A SEMITIC-HELLENISTIC ORIENTATION, ESPECIALLY IN PALESTINE AND
MESOPOTAMIA ("Eastern"/"Oriental" Judaism)
- Baron, S. A Social and Religious History of the Jews. 9 vol, 1952-??.
- Bickermann, E. "The Historical Foundations of Postbiblical Judaism."
Pp. 70-114 in The Jews, ed L. Finkelstein, vol 1 (1955/2, 1960/3). Reprinted
with added material in From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees: the Historical
Foundations of Post Biblical Judaism. 1962.
- Bousset, W. and H. Gressmann. Die Religion des Judentums in späthellenistischen
Zeitalter. 1926/3 (1903, 1906/2).
- Box, G. H. Judaism in the Greek Period from the Rise of Alexander the Great
to the Intervention of Rome (333 to 63 B.C.). 1932.
- Cohen, Shaye. From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. 1987.
- de Jonge, M. and S. Safrai (eds.). Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum:
I.1 The Jewish People in the First Century. Fortress, 1974. [10 volumes projected].
- Gafni, I. "The Historical Background," in JWSTP 1-31.
- Gowan, D. E. Bridge Between the Testaments. (1976) 1986\3.
- Gra%tz, H. History of the Jews. 11 vols. 1897-1911/?? (ET 1891).
- Guignebert, C. The Jewish World in the Time of Jesus. ET 1939 (repr. 1959).
- Hengel, M. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in their Encounter in Palestine
during the Early Hellenistic Period. ET by J. Bowden in 2 vols. Fortress,
- Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews (LoebCL; see also below II.1).
- Moore, G. F. Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: the Age
of the Tannaim. 3 vols. 1927-30.
- Neusner, Jacob. The Academic Study of Judaism. Scholars, 1982.
- Nickelsburg, G.W.E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah:
A Historical and Literary Introduction. Fortress, 1981.
- Nickelsburg, G.W.E. and M.E. Stone. Faith and Piety in Early Judaism: Texts
and Documents. 1983.
- Oesterley, The Jews and Judaism during the Greek Period: The Background
of Christianity. 1941.
- Pfeiffer, R. H. A History of NT Times with an Introduction to the Apocrypha.
1949. [Excellent survey in ca. 230 pp.]
- Reicke, B. The NT Era: The World of the Bible from 500 B.C. to 100 A.D.
1965 (ET 1968). [Good bibliography, survey.]
- Russell, D. S. Between the Testaments. 1960.
- ________. The Jews from Alexander to Herod. 1967.
- Sanders, E.P. Judaism: Practice and Belief 63 BCE - 66 CE. Trinity Press
- Schiffman, Lawrence H. From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple
& Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV, 1991.
- Schalit, A. (ed.). The World History of the Jewish People.
I.6 The Hellenistic Age. Rutgers Univ., 1972.
I.7 The Herodian Period (ed. M. Avi-Yohah). 1975.
- Schlatter, A. Geschichte Israels von Alexander dem Grossen bis Hadrian.
1925/3 (1906); repr. 1972.
- Schürer, E. Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi.
4 vols. 1901-11/3-4 (= The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus
Christ. ET in 5 vols, 1886-??; abridged ed. of ET by N. N. Glatzer, 1961).
See also the "new Schürer" materials.
- Simon, M. Jewish Sects in the Time of Jesus Christ. 1960 (ET 1967; Fortress).
- Sloan, W. W. A Survey Between the Testaments. Littlefield-Adams, 1973??.
- Smallwood, E. Mary. The Jews Under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian.
SJLA 20. Brill, 1976.
- Tcherikover, V. Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews. ET S. Applebaum 1959/2
(Hebrew 1930); repr. 1966.
- Toombs, L. E. The Threshold of Christianity: Between the Testaments. Westminster,
1. Primary Sources (not exhaustive)
- NON-LITERARY REMAINS: see CIJ, CPJ, Archeological data from the period,
the material in SYMBOLS, etc. Some Samaritan papyri from the time of Alexander
the Great have been discovered at Wadi ed-Daliyeh near Jericho (see F.M. Cross
Jr., The Biblical Archeologist 26 [l963] 110-121).
See also E. Stern, Material Culture of the Land of the Bible in the Persian
Period 538-332 BC (Israel Exploration Soc., 1982).
- THE QUMRAN LITERATURE: This material embraces a number of categories
(commentary, hymns, laws, traditional history, apocalyptic, etc.), from the
perspective of one or more segments of Palestinian Judaism. Convenient ETs
of the main documents are available in various editions:
For introductory treatments of the subject, see
- F. Garcia Martinez and E. J. C. TIgchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study
Edition (2 vols, 1997-1998) [texts with translations, bibliography, other
- F. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated (1994, 1995\2),
- G. Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (l997 [1962\1]),
- M. Wise, M. Abegg, and E. Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation(1996);
- also still useful is the older, freer translation (with a topic index)
T.H. Gaster, The Dead Sea Scriptures (1976\3; Doubleday).
For a summary of scholarly discussions to 1982, see EJMI.
- Allegro, J. M. The Dead Sea Scrolls (1965\2; Penguin);
- Burrows, M. The Dead Sea Scrolls (1955) & More Light on the Dead
Sea Scrolls (Viking, 1958)
- Cross, F. M., Jr. The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical
Studies (Doubleday, 1961\2);
- Dimant, D. "Qumran Sectarian Literature," in JWSTP 483-550.
- Fitzmyer, J. Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Paulist
- Ringgren, H. The Faith of Qumran (Fortress, 1963).
- VanderKam, J. The Dead Sea Scrolls Today (1994)
An extensive bibliography of literature on Qumran to 1969 is provided by B.
Jongling in the series Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 7 (Brill,
See also the journals, Revue de Qumran and Qumran, and the ORION web page
References to the Essenes by ancient authors are collected by A. Adam, Antike
Berichte über die
Essener (Kleine Texte 182, 1961).
- PROTO-RABBINIC MATERIALS/TRADITIONS: Although Rabbinic Judaism has
not left any unambiguous sources from the period prior to the mid-second century
CE, it is probable that the various Rabbinic compilations (TARGUMS, TALMUDS,
and the like) sometimes provide useful information about the earlier period,
and vice-versa; see especially below on PIRKE AVOT and on the MISHNA, and
G. F. Moore's classic book on Judaism (listed above). The Rabbinic sages from
the first two centuries of the common era are called "Tannaim" and
their outlook stands very close to what we know of the first century Pharisees.
For further information and discussions, see especially:
- Blackman, Philip. Mishnayoth. 7 vols. Judaica Press, 1983.
- Montefiore, C.G., and H. Loewe. A Rabbinic Anthology. Schocken, 1974.
- Neusner, Jacob. Judaism: the Evidence of the Mishnah.
- ________. The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew. 6 vol. KTAV, 1981.
- Saldarini, A. [essay in EJMI].
- Strack, H. L. Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash. Atheneum, 1931.
- Urbach, Ephraim. The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs. 2 vol. Magnes
1.1 HISTORY, QUASI-HISTORY, RELIGIOUS LEGEND: Numerous writings
present themselves as though dealing with Jewish "history," sometimes
expanding or revising biblical materials, sometimes recording other folk
traditions or speaking of more recent events, sometimes creating "historical"
accounts for specific purposes; for an overview, see G.W.E.Nickelsburg in
JWSTP chs. 2-3, and H. Attridge in JWSTP chs 4-5:
JOSEPHUS, Antiquities of the Jews (from creation to the start of
the revolt in 64-73 ce) and Jewish War (on the causes and course
of the revolt). Greek text ed. B. Niese (7 vols, 1890-94; repr. 1955). LoebCL
text and ET by H.St.J. Thackeray, R. Marcus, and L. Feldman (9 vols, 1926-65).
An often reprinted ET by W. Whiston appeared first in 1737. For general
- Attridge, H.W. "Josephus and His Works," in JWSTP ch.5.
- Feldman, L.H. & Gohei Hata, Josephus, Judaism and Christianity (1987)
[anthology of articles].
- Rajak, Tessa. Josephus: The Historian and His Society.Fortress, 1983.
- Thackeray, H.St.J. Josephus: the Man and the Historian (1929).
- See also the bibliographies by Delling (982ff), and by Feldman, L.H. Scholarship
on Philo and
Josephus, 1937-1962 (published originally as a series in Classical World
54-55, l960/62; reprinted separately in 1963);
Schreckenberg, H. Bibliographie zu Flavius Josephus (1968).
- On the medieval Hebrew material attributed to "Josippon (ben
Gurion)," see the ed by D. Flusser (2 vols, 1978-80, in Hebrew); also
a text with Latin trans. by J.F. Bnerthaupt (1910), and the Ethiopic version
ed. M.Kamil, Zênâ Aihûd: Geschichte der Juden (1937).
[See Flusser's article in Feldman-Hata, Josephus, 386-97.]
- 1 MACCABEES (Delling 1741ff, APOCRYPHA); records the occasion and
results of the Maccabean revolt to the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 bce);
2 MACC (below, III.1) has parallel material.
BIBLICAL ANTIQUITIES of ps-Philo (Delling 2177ff);Latin text ed.
G. Kisch (1949); ET by M.R. James (1917). Traces Israel's history from creation
to the death of Saul.
JUBILEES, or the Little Genesis (Delling 2153ff; PSEUDEPIG.); supplements
the material in Genesis-Exodus, with apocalyptic interests at points; emphasis
on Jewish solar calendar.
TESTAMENTS OF THE XII PATRIARCHS (Delling 2078ff; PSEUDEPIG.); the
last words of the tribal patriarchs (Jacob's sons).Similar 'testaments'
attributed to other famous persons
also are preserved--e.g. TESTAMENT OF JOB (Delling 2042ff), the Greek text
of which has recently been edited by S. Brock (PsVTGr 2, 1967). For a general
survey of "Testaments," see J.J. Collins in JWSTP ch.8.
ASSUMPTION (or Testament) OF MOSES (Delling 2060ff; PSEUDEPIG.);
claims to preserve the last words of Moses.
LIVES OF THE PROPHETS (Delling 2144ff; Greek text ed. C.C. Torrey,
JBL Monograph Series (1946).
MARTYRDOM OF ISAIAH (Delling 2052ff; PSEUDEPIG.); now incorporated
into a work known as the Ascension of Isaiah.
LETTER OF JEREMIAH (Delling 1729ff; APOCRYPHA); against idolatry.
BARUCH (Delling 1729ff; APOCRYPHA); Israel's guilt, divine wisdom,
PARALIPOMENA JEREMIAH (Or, Rest of the Words of Baruch) (Delling
2139ff; RIESSLER); tells of last days of Jerusalem, Jeremiah with the exiles
of Babylon (!), return of the exiles.
DANIEL Cycle (Delling 1834ff; biblical book and APOCRYPHA); various
tales glorifying Daniel; also some additional apocalyptic works.
TOBIT (Delling 1689ff; APOCRYPHA); set in Nineveh, piety vindicated.
JUDITH (Delling 1673ff; APOCRYPHA); God delivers Israel from Assyrian(!)
threat through courage of pious Judith.
see also such works as the ADAM AND EVE cycle (PSEUDEPIG.) or the
GENESIS APOCRYPHON (Qumran).
1.2 BIBLICAL TRANSLATIONS: The story of who made translations into
what languages at what times and places is still unclear. Almost certainly
there was translational activity from Hebrew and Aramaic into Greek in Palestine
before the middle second century CE, as attested by the stories about "Aquila"
and "Theodotion," but now even more clearly with the Nahal Hever
Minor Prophets Roll (DJD 8, ed. E. Tov).
1.3 BIBLICAL COMMENTARY and ANTHOLOGIZING: Qumran provides various
examples of selfconscious collecting and interpreting of specially revered
literature, as in the "pesharim" and the "testimonia/florilegia"
collections. Probably this is also the category for the "sayings of
Moses" (1QDM) and the "blessings of the fathers" (4QPatrBl).
1.4 ETHICAL AND RELIGIOUS LORE: As in the scriptural collections
of Proverbs, and works like Job and Ecclesiastes (parts of which may come
from the Hellenistic period), Judaism maintained a strong interest in such
materials (see also some of the above; for a survey of such "Wisdom
Literature," see M. Gilbert in JWSTP ch.7).
WISDOM OF JOSHUA BEN SIRA (Or Jesus son of Sirach) (Delling 1631ff.;
APOCRYPHA); also called 'Ecclesiasticus' and 'Sirach' -- practical advice
from 3rd century bce Palestine.
PIRKE ABOTH (PSEUDEPIG.); sayings of Palestinian Jewish sages from
pre-Christian times remembered in the Rabbinic-Pharisaic tradition and preserved
in the Talmud.
1.5 COMMUNITY LAW:
MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE or COMMUNITY RULE (Qumran); rules of
MISHNA (ET by H. Danby, 1933); early Palestinian material preserved
in the Rabbinic-Pharisaic Talmud.
1.6 HYMNS AND PRAYERS: see also the scriptural Psalms, some of which
may come from the hellenistic period. Some of the other literature also
contains hymns and prayers; see D. Flusser in JWSTP 551-578 for a general
THE HYMNS OF QUMRAN, and the extra-canonical Psalms.
PSALMS OF SOLOMON (Delling 2195ff; PSEUDEPIG.)
PRAYER OF MANASSEH (Delling 1856f; APOCRYPHA).
1.7 AUTOBIOGRAPHY: Josephus' short, apologetic account of his life
(Vita) is preserved.
1.8 LETTERS: See P.S. Alexander in JWSTP ch.14 for a survey.
1.9 APOCALYPSES (see M.E. Stone in JWSTP ch.10 and also IV below):
It is not always possible to determine where these materials originated,
or when, or in what language. Those listed below probably were composed
in a Semitic langauge. Several other apocalypses might be added to this
list; the material in Daniel 7-12 also has its place here.
1 ENOCH (Delling 1925ff; PSEUDEPIG.) an anthology of of materials
associated with the names Enoch, Methusaleh, Noah, often dealing with apocalyptic
matters. Greek frags. being edited by M. Black (PsVTGr3).
2 BARUCH (Delling 2017ff; PSEUDEPIG.); revelations mediated by
4-5-6 EZRA (Delling 1987ff; PSEUDEPIG.) and RSV APOCRYPHA under
'2 Esdras'); revelations mediated through or associated with Ezra.
See also the apocalyptic material in such works as the BOOKS OF ADAM
AND EVE, the MOSES cycle, the WAR SCROLL from QUMRAN, as well
as later material such as 3 ENOCH (medieval Hebrew; ed. H. Odeberg,
1928; repr. 1970) and the non-canonical apocalypses attributed to Daniel
(ed. F. Macler, 1895).
1.10 APOLOGETIC LITERATURE: the best preserved example from Palestinian
Judaism is Josephus AGAINST APION, written in a Greek setting (see
below, part 3)
2. General Modern Treatments
- Bevan, J. Jerusalem under the High Priests (1904)
- Bonsirven, J. Palestinian Judaism in the Time of Jesus Christ (1964 ET;
an abridged form of his 2 vol. French ed. of 1935)
- Foerster, W. Palestinian Judaism in NT Times (ET 1964; see now the 1965\4
- Ho%lscher, G. Palästina in der persischen und hellenistischen Zeit (1903)
- Jeremias, J. Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus (1963\3; ET 1969)
- Zeitlin, S. The History of the Second Jewish Commonwealth (1933)
3. Some Particular Aspects
- Bickerman, E. J. The God of the Maccabees: Studies on the Meaning and Origin
of the Maccabean Revolt. Ed. J. Neusner. SJLA 32. Brill, 1979
- Eddy, S. K. The King is Dead: Studies in Near Eastern Resistance to Hellenism,
334-31 BC. University of Nebraska, 1961.
- Finkelstein, L. The Pharisees: the Sociological Background of their Faith
(2 vols. 1962\3; 1938,
- Fishbane, M. Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. Clarendon, 1985.
- Gaster, M. The Samaritans (1925)
- Hengel, M. Die Zeloten (1961)
- Lieberman, S. Greek in Jewish Palestine (1942)
- ________, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (1950)
- MacDonald, J. The Theology of the Samaritans (1965)
- Mason, Steve. Flavius Josephus on the Pharisees. Brill, 1991.
- Montgomery, J. A. The Samaritans (1907; repr. 1964)
- Neusner, J. A History of the Jews in Babylonia (5 vols, 1965-69)
- Perowne, S. The Life and Times of Herod the Great (1956)
- Thomas, J. Le mouvment baptiste en Palestine et Syrie (1935)
- Vermes, Geza. Scripture and Tradition in Judaism: Haggadic Studies. SPB
4. Brill, 1973\2.
- Wacholder, B.Z. Eupolemus ...A Study of Graeco-Judean Literature. KTAV,
- Wellhausen, J. Pharisäer und Saduzäer (1927)
3. JUDAISM OF PRIMARILY GREEK-HELLENISTIC ORIENTATION
1. Primary Sources (not exhaustive)
- In addition to the material listed in 1.2 see W.N. Stearns, Fragments from
Graeco-Jewish Writers (1908); O. Stählin, "Die hellenistisch-jüdische
Litteratur," in W. von Christ - W. Schmid, Geschichte der Griechisches
Litt. 2.1 (1920\6).
- NON-LITERARY REMAINS
In addition to CIJ, CPJ, SYMBOLS, and Archaeological data in general, see
J. Gray, "The Jewish Inscriptions in Greek and Hebrew at Tocra, Cyrene
and Barce," in A. Rowe, Cyrenaican Expedition of the University of Manchester
(1952), 43-59, and the material listed in Delling, 470ff.
- 1.1 HISTORY, QUASI-HISTORY, RELIGIOUS LEGEND
Several lost writings in this category are mentioned and cited by EUSEBIUS
and other ancient sources (see DENIS, JAMES, RIESSLER). The following examples
have been preserved:
2 MACCABEES (Delling 1741ff; APOCRYPHA); based on the history
by Jason of Cyrene, deals with the occasion and initial success (to 161 bce)
of the Maccabean revolt.
3 MACCABEES (Delling 1818ff; in Charles' APOCRYPHA, but
not RSV); miraculous preservation of Alexandrian Jews during persecution ca
LETTER OF ARISTEAS (Delling 1194ff; PSEUDEPIG.); story of
events surrounding the translating of Torah into Greek (LXX) ca. 250 bce.
- 1.2 BIBLE TRANSLATIONS (see also above, in part 2): the legendary
"Septuagint" (Greek Pentateuch) and its Old Greek companions provide
evidence for the study of Judaism in the Greek world.
- 1.3 BIBLE COMMENTARY and QUOTATION: Philo (see below) provides us
with our best examples of Greek biblical commentary, in both a relatively
straightforward presentation in the QUESTIONS IN GENESES and EXODUS an in
more "allegorical" forms in his many treatises on biblical themes.
- 1.4 APOLOGETIC AND PHILOSOPHIC WRITINGS
Actually, much of the literature from this period has apologetic interest,
although it may fit into other
categories (e.g. LETTER OF ARISTEAS). Some of the more obvious examples are
ARISTOBULUS (Eusebius); a pre-Philonic Alexandrian
WISDOM OF SOLOMON (Delling 1518ff; APOCRYPHA); on the excellencies
of "Wisdom," the awesomness of the Exodus, etc.
4 MACCABEES (Delling 1168ff; PSEUDEPIG.) on the rule of
reason over passion, with examples from scriptures and from the martyrs during
the struggle with Antiochus IV.
PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA (Delling 629ff). Greek text ed. L. Cohn
and P. Wendland (6 vols., 1896-1915; index added by Leisegang, 1930). Loeb
text and ET by F. Colson and G.H.
Whittaker (10 vols., 1929-62), with 2 supplementary volumes of the Armenian
portions by R. Marcus (1953). In general, see also
JOSEPHUS, Against Apion (see above, on Josephus)
- Borgen, P. "Philo of Alexandria," in JWSTP 233-282.
- Bréhier, É. Les idées philosophiques et religieuses de Philon (1928);
- Drummond, J. Philo Judaeus, or the Jewish Alexandrian Philosophy in
its Development and Completion. (2 vols., 1888);
- Goodenough, E.R. Introduction to Philo Judaeus (1962\2; 1940);
- _______, The Politics of Philo Judaeus (1938);
- Sandmel, S. Philo of Alsxandria: An Introduction. 1979.
- Williamson, Ronald. Jews in the Hellenistic World: Philo. Cambridge
- Wolfson, H.A. Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam, (1947);
For recent literature, see R. Radice and D. Runia, Philo of Alexandria:
an Annotated Bibliography 1937-1986. Brill, 1988;also L.H. Feldman Scholarship
on Philo and Josephus, 1937-1962 (1963).
- 1.5 APOCALYPTIC
Most of the apocalyptic literature soon was translated into Greek. Some of
it may have originated
in Greek such as
2 ENOCH (Delling 1975ff; PSEUDEPIGR.)
3 BARUCH (Delling 2022ff; PSEUDEPIG.: JAMES, Anecdota II),
new ed. of Greek text by J.-C. Picard (PsVTGr 2, 1967).
See also below, SIBYLLINE ORACLES, Delling 2026ff., as well as section IV
- 1.6 IMITATIONS AND FABRICATIONS OF HELLENISTIC LITERATURE
Jewish authors produced several writings in which their apologetic was loosely
veiled under the name of a non-Jewish author or in a non-Jewish type of literature.
See the discussion by H. Willrich, Urkundenfälschung in der hellenistisch-jüdischen
Literatur (1924), and the entries for ps-Phocylides ps-Hecataeus, ps-Heraclites,
etc. in DENIS.
Also the SIBYLLINE ORACLES, books 3-5 (Delling 1902ff; PSEUDEPIG,);
a collection of oraclular utterances, many of which are apocalyptic.
- 1.7 FRAGMENTS OF DRAMA, EPIC POETRY
See EUSEBIUS (DENIS, RIESSLER) for such figures as Ezekiel the writer
of tragedy and others.
2. General Treatments (see further Delling 227ff.)
- Bevan, E.R. "Hellenistic Judaism," in The Legacy of Israel ed.
Bevan & C. Singer (1927), 29-67.
- Bickerman, E.J. The Jews in the Greek Age. Harvard, 1988.
- Friedlander, M. Die Juden in der vorchristlichen griechischen Welt (1897).
- Juster, J. Les Juifs dans l'Empire romaine: leur condition juridique, économique,
et sociale (2 vols., 1914).
- Kraft, R. A. "Judaism on the World Scene," in The Catacombs and
the Colosseum, ed Benko and O'Rourke. Judson, 1971.
- Marcus, R. "The Hellenistic Age," in Great Ages and Ideas of the
Jewish People, ed. L. W. Schwarz (1956).
- _________, "Hellenistic Jewish Literature," in The Jews (ed. L.
Finkelstein, vol. 2, 1948), 1955\2, l960\3, 745-783; also under the same title
in The Jewish People, Past and Present (ed. S.W. Baron et al , 40-53).
- Radin, M. Jews among Greeks and Romans (1915).
- Rostovzoff, M. Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World (3 vols.,
- Willrich, H. Judaica: Forschungen zur hellenistisch-jüdischen Geschichte
und Litteratur (1900).
3. Some Particular Aspects (see Delling #227ff.)
- Askowith, D. Toleration of Jews under Julius Caesar and Augustus (1915).
- Bell, H.I. Jews and Christians in Egypt (1924).
- Fuchs, L. Die Juden Ägyptens in ptolemäischer und römischer Zeit (1924).
- Goodenough, E.R. By Light, Light: The Mystic Gospel of Hellenistic Judaism.
1935 (see review by A.D.Nock).
- Guterman, S.L. Religious Toleration and Persecution in Ancient Rome (1951).
- Hirschberg, H.Z. A History of Jews in North Africa: from Antiquity to our
Time (2 vols., Hebrew, 1965).
- Kraabel, A.T. Judaism in Western Asia Minor under the Roman Empire, with
a Preliminary Study of the Jewish Community at Sardis in Lydia. Harvard Dissertation,
- Kraeling, C.H. "The Jewish Community at Antioch," JBL 51 (1932),
- La Piana, G. "Foreign Groups at Rome during the First Centuries of
the Empire," Harv TR 20 (1927), 183-394.
- Leon, Harry G. The Jews of Ancient Rome (1960).
- Rachmuth, "Die Juden in Nord Africa bis zur Invasion der Araber,"
MGWJ 1 (1906), 22ff.
- Staehlin, F. Der Antisemitismus des Altertums (1905).
- Tcherikover, V.A. "Introduction" to CPJ (Jews in Egypt).
- Vogelstein, H. and P. Rieger, Geschichte der Juden in Rom (1895), ET 1940.
- Wendland, P. Die hellenistische-römische Kultur in ihren Beziehungen su
Judentum und Christentum: Die urchristlichen Literaturformen (1912\2-\3).
- Wilcken, U. Zum Alexandrinischen Antisemitismus (1909).
4. SOME SPECIAL TOPICS (see further Delling, passim).
1. Art (see Delling, #502ff.; and esp. SYMBOLS).
- Hachlili, R. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology. Brill, 1988.
2. Chronology, Chronography
- Adler, William. Time Immemorial: Archaic History and its Sources in Christian
Chronography from Julius Africanus to George Syncellus. Dumbarton Oaks, 1989.
- Wacholder, B.Z. Essays on Jewish Chronology and Chronography. KTAV, 1974.
3. Eschatology and Apocalyptic Literature (Delling 1858ff.)
- Bloch, J. On the Apocalyptic in Judaism (Jew.Q.Rev. Monogr. Ser. 2, 1954).
- Burkitt, F.C. Jewish and Christian Apocalypses (1914).
- Hanson, P.D. The Dawn of Apocalyptic: The Historical and Sociological Roots
of Jewish Apocalyptic Eschatology Fortress, 1975.
- Klausner, J. The Messianic Idea in Israel (ET 1955).
- Rowley, H. H. The Relevance of Apocalyptic (1963\2)  (1965\3).
- Russell, D. S. The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic (1964).
- Silver, A.H. The History of Messianic Speculation in Israel.
- Vielhauer P. in Hennecke-Schneemelcher, NT Apocrypha 2, 579-641.
- Volz, P. Die Eschatologie der jüdischen Gemeinde im neutestamentlichen
Zeitalter: nach den Quellen der rabbinischen, apocalyptischen und apokryphen
Literatur dargestellt (1903, 1934\2; repr. 1966).
- Weinel, H. "Die Spatere christliche Apokalyptik," EUCHARISTERION:
Studien zur Religion und Literatur des AT & NT, Festschr. Gunkel 2 (1923),
141-173 [FRLANT 36].
4. Ethics and Theology
- Hughes, H. M. The Ethics of Jewish Apocryphal Literature (1909).
- Wicks, H. J. The Doctrine of God in the Jewish Apocryphal and Apocalyptic
5. Gnosticism and Judaism
- Pearson, B. A. "Jewish Sources in Gnostic Literature" in JWSTP
- Scholem, G. Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition.
6. Magic (see Delling, 2212 ff.)
- Gaster, M. Studies and Texts in Folklore, Magic, ... KTAV repr.
- Trachtenberg, J. Jewish Magic and Superstition: a Study in Folk Religion.
7. Pagan Attitudes to Judaism (see Delling, #547ff.; and esp. REINACH
now superceded by STERN).
8. Synagogues and Worship
- Gager, J.G. Moses .... Abingdon, 1972.
- Ellenbogen, I. Der jüdischen Gottesdienst (1924\2,1931\3).
- Gutmann, J. (ed). The Synagogue: Studies in Origins, Archaelolgy and Architecture.
- Mann, J. The Bible as Read and Preached in the Old Synagogue (1940; repr.