1.2. (34) Moreover, Moses, after the seventh day was over begins to talk philosophically; and concerning the formation of man, says thus: That God took dust from the ground, and formed man, and inserted in him a spirit and a soul. This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that is red, because he was formed out of red earth, compounded together; for of that kind is virgin and true earth. (35) God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; (36) whereupon Adam knew her when she was brought to him, and acknowledged that she was made out of himself. Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa; but the name of this woman was Eve, which signifies the mother of all living [3.20].
1.3. (37) Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil; (38) and that when he brought Adam and his wife into this garden, he commanded them to take care of the plants. Now the garden was watered by one river, which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts. And Phison, which denotes a multitude, running into India, makes its exit into the sea, and is by the Greeks called Ganges. (39) Euphrates also, as well as Tigris, goes down into the Red Sea. Now the name Euphrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion, or a flower: by Tiris, or Diglath, is signified what is swift, with narrowness; and Geon runs through Egypt, and denotes what arises from the east, which the Greeks call Nile.
1.4. (40) God therefore commanded that Adam and his wife should eat of all the rest of the plants, but to abstain from the tree of knowledge; and foretold to them, that if they touched it, it would prove their destruction. (41) But while all the living creatures had one language, at that time the serpent, which then lived together with Adam and his wife, shewed an envious disposition, at his supposal of their living happily, and in obedience to the commands of God; (42) and imagining, that when they disobeyed them, they would fall into calamities, he persuaded the woman, out of a malicious intention, to taste of the tree of knowledge, telling them, that in that tree was the knowledge of good and evil; which knowledge, when they should obtain, they would lead a happy life; nay, a life not inferior to that of a god: (43) by which means he overcame the woman, and persuaded her to despise the command of God. Now when she had tasted of that tree, and was pleased with its fruit, she persuaded Adam to make use of it also. (44) Upon this they perceived that they were become naked to one another; and being ashamed thus to appear abroad, they invented somewhat to cover them; for the tree sharpened their understanding; and they covered themselves with fig-leaves; and tying these before them, out of modesty, they thought they were happier than they were before, as they had discovered what they were in want of. (45) But when God came into the garden, Adam, who was wont before to come and converse with him, being conscious of his wicked behavior, went out of the way. This behavior surprised God; and he asked what was the cause of this his procedure; and why he, that before delighted in that conversation, did now fly from it, and avoid it. (46) When he made no reply, as conscious to himself that he had transgressed the command of God, God said, "I had before determined about you both, how you might lead a happy life, without any affliction, and care, and vexation of soul; and that all things which might contribute to your enjoyment and pleasure should grow up by my providence, of their own accord, without your own labor and pains-taking; which state of labor and pains-taking would soon bring on old age, and death would not be at any remote distance: (47) but now thou hast abused this my good-will, and hast disobeyed my commands; for thy silence is not the sign of thy virtue, but of thy evil conscience." (48) However, Adam excused his sin, and entreated God not to be angry at him, and laid the blame of what was done upon his wife; and said that he was deceived by her, and thence became an offender; while she again accused the serpent. (49) But God allotted him punishment, because he weakly submitted to the counsel of his wife; and said the ground should not henceforth yield its fruits of its own accord, but that when it should be harassed by their labor, it should bring forth some of its fruits, and refuse to bring forth others. He also made Eve liable to the inconveniency of breeding, and the sharp pains of bringing forth children; and this because she persuaded Adam with the same arguments wherewith the serpent had persuaded her, and had thereby brought him into a calamitous condition. (50) He also deprived the serpent of speech, out of indignation at his malicious disposition towards Adam. Besides this, he inserted poison under his tongue, and made him an enemy to men; and suggested to them, that they should direct their strokes against his head, that being the place wherein lay his mischievous designs towards men, and it being easiest to take vengeance on him, that way. And when he had deprived him of the use of his feet, he made him to go rolling all along, and dragging himself upon the ground. (51) And when God had appointed these penalties for them, he removed Adam and Eve out of the garden into another place.
2.1. (52) ADAM and Eve had two sons: the elder of them was named
name, when it is interpreted, signifies a possession: the
was Abel, which signifies sorrow. They had also daughters [5.4]. (53)
two brethren were pleased with different courses of life: for Abel, the
younger, was a lover of
righteousness; and believing that God was present
at all his actions, he excelled in virtue; and his employment was that
of a shepherd. But Cain was
not only very wicked in other respects, but
was wholly intent upon getting; and he first contrived to
plough the ground.
He slew his brother on the occasion following : -- (54) They had
sacrifice to God. Now Cain brought the fruits of the earth, and of his
husbandry; but Abel brought milk, and the first-fruits of his flocks:
God was more delighted with the latter oblation, when he was honored with what grew
naturally of its own accord, than he
was with what was the invention of a covetous man, and gotten by
the ground; (55) whence it was that Cain was very angry that
Abel was preferred
by God before him; and he slew his brother, and hid his dead body, thinking
to escape discovery. But God, knowing what had been done, came
and asked him what was become of his brother, because he had not seen him
of many days; whereas he used to observe them conversing together at
times. (56) But Cain was in
doubt with himself, and knew not what answer to
give to God. At first he said that he was himself at a loss about his
disappearing; but when he was provoked by God, who pressed him
as resolving to know what the matter was, he replied, he was not
guardian or keeper, nor was he an observer of what he did. (57) But, in
God convicted Cain, as having been the murderer of his brother; and said,
"I wonder at thee, that thou knowest not what is become of a man whom
thou thyself hast destroyed." (58)
God therefore did not inflict the punishment
[of death] upon him, on account of his offering sacrifice, and thereby
making supplication to him not to be extreme in his wrath to him;
made him accursed, and threatened
his posterity in the seventh generation.
He also cast him, together with
his wife, out of that land. (59) And when he
was afraid that in wandering about he should fall among Wild beasts, and
by that means perish, God bid him not to entertain such a melancholy
and to go over all the earth without fear of what mischief he
from wild beasts; and
setting a mark upon him, that he might be known,
he commanded him to depart.
2.2. (60) And when Cain had
traveled over many countries, he, with his wife,
built a city, named Nod, which is a place so called, and there he settled
his abode; where also he had children. However, he did not accept of
punishment in order to amendment, but to increase his wickedness; for
only aimed to procure every thing that was for his own bodily pleasure,
though it obliged him to be injurious to his neighbors. He augmented
household substance with much wealth, by rapine and violence; he
his acquaintance to procure pleasures and spoils by robbery, and became
a great leader of men into wicked courses. He also introduced a change
in that way of simplicity wherein men lived before; and was the author
of measures and weights. And whereas they lived innocently and
while they knew nothing of such arts, he changed the world into cunning
craftiness. He first of all set boundaries about lands: he built
and fortified it with walls, and
he compelled his family to come together
to it; and called that city Enoch, after the name of his eldest
(63) Now Jared was the son of Enoch; whose son was Malaliel; whose son
whose son was Lamech; who had
seventy-seven children by two wives, Silla
and Ada. (64) Of those children by Ada, one was Jabal: he erected
loved the life of a shepherd. But Jubal, who was born of the same
with him, exercised himself in music;
and invented the psaltery
and the harp. But Tubal, one of his children
by the other wife, exceeded all
men in strength, and was very expert and
famous in martial performances. He procured what tended to the
of the body by that method; and first of all invented the art of
brass. (65) Lamech was also the father of a daughter, whose name was
And because he was so skillful in
matters of divine revelation, that he
knew he was to be punished for Cain's murder of his brother, he made
known to his wives. Nay, even while Adam was alive, it came to pass
the posterity of Cain became exceeding wicked, every one successivelydying, one after another, more
wicked than the former. They were intolerable
in war, and vehement in robberies; and if any one were slow to murder
yet was he bold in his profligate behavior, in acting unjustly, and
injuries for gain.
2.3. (67) Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the
our discourse must now be about him,) after Abel was slain, and Cain
away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a
vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty [5.3 LXX=Eusebius;
MT 130] years old;
after which time he lived other seven hundred [5.4 LXX=Eusebius; MT 800], and
then died. He had indeed
many other children,
but Seth in particular. As for
the rest, it would be tedious to name them;
I will therefore only endeavor to give an account of those that
from Seth. Now this Seth, when he
was brought up, and came to those years
in which he could discern what was good, became a virtuous man; and as
he was himself of an excellent character, so did he leave children
him who imitated his virtues.
All these proved to be of good dispositions. They also inhabited the
country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any
falling upon them, till they died. They also were the inventors of that
peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies,
their order. And that their inventions might not be lost before they
sufficiently known, upon Adam's prediction that the world was to be
at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence
quantity of water, they made two pillars,
the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries
on them both, that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by
flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries
to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick
erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day.
3.1. (72) NOW this posterity of Seth continued to esteem God as the
the universe [see 4.26], and to
have an entire regard to virtue, for seven generations;
but in process of time they were
perverted, and forsook the practices of
their forefathers; and did neither pay those honors to God which were
them, nor had they any concern to do justice towards men. But for what
degree of zeal they had formerly shown for virtue, they now showed by
actions a double degree of wickedness, whereby they made God to be
enemy. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat
sons that proved unjust, and
of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their
strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the
of those whom the Grecians call giants. But Noah was very uneasy
they did; and being displeased at
their conduct, persuaded them to change
their dispositions and their acts for the better: but seeing they did
yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was afraid
they would kill him, together with his wife and children, and those
had married; so he departed out of that land.
3.2. (75) Now God loved this man for his righteousness: yet he not only condemned those other men for their wickedness, but determined to destroy the whole race of mankind, and to make another race that should be pure from wickedness; and cutting short their lives, and making their years not so many as they formerly lived, but one hundred and twenty only, he turned the dry land into sea; and thus were all these men destroyed: but Noah alone was saved; for God suggested to him the following contrivance and way of escape : - That he should make an ark of four stories high, three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits broad, and thirty cubits high. Accordingly he entered into that ark, and his wife, and sons, and their wives, and put into it not only other provisions, to support their wants there, but also sent in with the rest all sorts of living creatures, the male and his female, for the preservation of their kinds; and others of them by sevens. Now this ark had firm walls, and a roof, and was braced with cross beams, so that it could not be any way drowned or overborne by the violence of the water. And thus was Noah, with his family, preserved. Now he was the tenth from Adam, as being the son of Lamech, whose father was Mathusela; he was the son of Enoch, the son of Jared; and Jared was the son of Malaleel, who, with many of his sisters, were the children of Cainan, the son of Enos. Now Enos was the son of Seth, the son of Adam.
3.3. (80) This calamity happened in the six hundredth year of Noah's government, [age,] in the second month, called by the Macedonians Dius, but by the Hebrews Marchesuan: for so did they order their year in Egypt. But Moses appointed that · Nisan, which is the same with Xanthicus, should be the first month for their festivals, because he brought them out of Egypt in that month: so that this month began the year as to all the solemnities they observed to the honor of God, although he preserved the original order of the months as to selling and buying, and other ordinary affairs. Now he says that this flood began on the twenty-seventh [seventeenth] day of the forementioned month; and this was two thousand six hundred and fifty-six [Loeb 2,262; var 1,656 [indeed, the totals of ages given in the next section is 1,662 [var 1,656] for the 10 generations to the birth of Noah, plus 600 to the flood = 2,262 (var 2,256) ]; Africanus 2,262; Eusebius 2,242 (Heb 1,656)] years from Adam, the first man; and the time is written down in our sacred books, those who then lived having noted down, with great accuracy, both the births and deaths of illustrious men.
3.4. (83) For indeed Seth [230/330/130] was born when Adam  was in his two hundred and thirtieth year [(var 330) 5.3 LXX =Africanus ; MT 130], who lived nine hundred and thirty years. Seth begat Enos  in his two hundred and fifth year [5.6 LXX=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 105(=Jos var[335/435])]; who, when he had lived nine hundred and five [(=Eusebius);var twelve =LXX+MT 5.8 & 12] years, delivered the government to Cainan  his son, whom he had in his hundred and ninetieth year [5.9 LXX=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 90]. He lived nine hundred and twelve [(=Eusebius);vars five, ten; 5.12] years. Cainan, when he had lived nine hundred and ten years [(=Eusebius)], had his son Malaleel , who was born in his hundred and seventieth year [5.12 LXX=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 70]. This Malaleel, having lived eight hundred and ninety-five years [(=Eusebius)], died, leaving his son Jared , whom he begat when he was in his hundred and sixty-fifth year [5.15 LXX=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 65]. He lived nine hundred and sixty-two years [(=Eusebius)]; and then his son Enoch [1,122] succeeded him, who was born when his father was one hundred and sixty-two years old [5.18 LXX=Africanus & Eusebius=MT]. Now he, when he had lived three hundred and sixty-five years [(=Eusebius)], departed and went to God; whence it is that they have not written down his death. Now Mathusela [1,287], the son of Enoch, who was born to him when he was one hundred and sixty-five years old [5.21 LXX=Eusebius; MT 65], had Lamech [1,474] for his son when he was one hundred and eighty-seven years of age [5.25 LXX\var/=MT =Africanus?; Eusebius 167=LXX]; to whom he delivered the government, when he had retained it nine hundred and sixty-nine years [(=Eusebius)]. Now Lamech, when he had governed seven hundred and seventy-seven years [5.31 MT; LXX 753; (Eusebius 723)], appointed Noah [1,656/1,662], his son, to be ruler of the people, who was born to Lamech when he was one hundred and eighty-two [Loeb 188] years old [5.28 MT; LXX 188=Africanus & Eusebius], and retained the government nine hundred and fifty years [9.28(=Eusebius)]. These years collected together make up the sum before set down. But let no one inquire into the deaths of these men; for they extended their lives along together with their children and grandchildren; but let him have regard to their births only.
3.5. (89) When God gave the signal, and it began to rain, the water poured down forty entire days, till it became fifteen cubits higher than the earth [7.21]; which was the reason why there was no greater number preserved, since they had no place to fly to. When the rain ceased, the water did but just begin to abate after one hundred and fifty days, (that is, on the seventeenth day of the seventh month [8.4],) it then ceasing to subside for a little while. After this, the ark rested on the top of a certain mountain in Armenia; which, when Noah understood, he opened it; and seeing a small piece of land about it, he continued quiet, and conceived some cheerful hopes of deliverance. But a few days afterward, when the water was decreased to a greater degree, he sent out a raven, as desirous to learn whether any other part of the earth were left dry by the water, and whether he might go out of the ark with safety; but the raven, finding all the land still overflowed, returned to Noah again. And after seven days he sent out a dove, to know the state of the ground; which came back to him covered with mud, and bringing an olive branch [8.11]: hereby Noah learned that the earth was become clear of the flood. So after he had staid seven more days, he sent the living creatures out of the ark; and both he and his family went out, when he also sacrificed to God, and feasted with his companions. However, the Armenians call this place (APOBATHRION) The Place of Descent; for the ark being saved in that place, its remains are shown there by the inhabitants to this day.
3.6. (93) Now all the writers of barbarian histories make mention of this flood, and of this ark; among whom is Berosus the Chaldean. For when he is describing the circumstances of the flood, he goes on thus: "It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the Cordyaeans; and that some people carry off pieces of the bitumen, which they take away, and use chiefly as amulets for the averting of mischiefs." Hieronymus the Egyptian also, who wrote the Phoenician Antiquities, and Mnaseas, and a great many more, make mention of the same. Nay, Nicolaus of Damascus, in his ninety-sixth book, hath a particular relation about them; where he speaks thus: "There is a great mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, called Baris, upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the Deluge were saved; and that one who was carried in an ark came on shore upon the top of it; and that the remains of the timber were a great while preserved. This might be the man about whom Moses the legislator of the Jews wrote."
3.7. (96) But as for Noah, he was afraid, since God had determined to destroy mankind, lest he should drown the earth every year; so he offered burnt-offerings, and besought God that nature might hereafter go on in its former orderly course, and that he would not bring on so great a judgment any more, by which the whole race of creatures might be in danger of destruction: but that, having now punished the wicked, he would of his goodness spare the remainder, and such as he had hitherto judged fit to be delivered from so severe a calamity; for that otherwise these last must be more miserable than the first, and that they must be condemned to a worse condition than the others, unless they be suffered to escape entirely; that is, if they be reserved for another deluge; while they must be afflicted with the terror and sight of the first deluge, and must also be destroyed by a second. He also entreated God to accept of his sacrifice, and to grant that the earth might never again undergo the like effects of 'his wrath; that men might be permitted to go on cheerfully in cultivating the same; to build cities, and live happily in them; and that they might not be deprived of any of those good things which they enjoyed before the Flood; but might attain to the like length of days, and old age, which the ancient people had arrived at before.
3.8. (99) When Noah had made these supplications, God, who loved the man for his righteousness, granted entire success to his prayers, and said, that it was not he who brought the destruction on a polluted world, but that they underwent that vengeance on account of their own wickedness; and that he had not brought men into the world if he had himself determined to destroy them, it being an instance of greater wisdom not to have granted them life at all, than, after it was granted, to procure their destruction; "But the injuries," said he, "they offered to my holiness and virtue, forced me to bring this punishment upon them. But I will leave off for the time to come to require such punishments, the effects of so great wrath, for their future wicked actions, and especially on account of thy prayers. But if I shall at any time send tempests of rain, in an extraordinary manner, be not affrighted at the largeness of the showers; for the water shall no more overspread the earth. However, I require you to abstain from shedding the blood of men, and to keep yourselves pure from murder; and to punish those that commit any such thing. I permit you to make use of all the other living creatures at your pleasure, and as your appetites lead you; for I have made you lords of them all, both of those that walk on the land, and those that swim in the waters, and of those that fly in the regions of the air on high, excepting their blood, for therein is the life. But I will give you a sign that I have left off my anger by my bow [whereby is meant the rainbow, for they determined that the rainbow was the bow of God]. And when God had said and promised thus, he went away.
3.9. (104) Now when Noah had lived three hundred and fifty years
after the Flood,
and that all that time happily, he died, having lived the number of
hundred and fifty years [(=Eusebius)]. But let
no one, upon comparing the lives of the
ancients with our lives, and with the few years which we now live,
that what we have said of them is false; or make the shortness of our
at present an argument, that neither did they attain to so long a
of life, for those ancients were beloved of God, and [lately] made by
himself; and because their food was then fitter for the prolongation of
life, might well live so great a number of years: and besides, God
them a longer time of life on account of their virtue, and the good use
they made of it in astronomical and geometrical discoveries, which
not have afforded the time of foretelling [the periods of the stars]
they had lived six hundred years; for the great year is completed in
interval. Now I have for witnesses to what I have said, all those that
have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks and barbarians; for
Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian History, and Berosus, who collected the
Chaldean Monuments, and Mochus, and Hestieus, and, besides these,
the Egyptian, and those who composed the Phoenician History, agree to
I here say: Hesiod also, and Hecatseus, Hellanicus, and Acusilaus; and,
besides these, Ephorus and Nicolaus relate that the ancients lived a
years. But as to these matters, let every one look upon them as he
4.1. (109) Now the sons of Noah were three, - Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge [5.32, 9.18=Eusebius]. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. Now the plain in which they first dwelt was called Shinar [10.10 (Ham), 11.2]. God also commanded them to send colonies abroad [10.32], for the thorough peopling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. But they were so ill instructed that they did not obey God; for which reason they fell into calamities, and were made sensible, by experience, of what sin they had been guilty: for when they flourished with a numerous youth, God admonished them again to send out colonies; but they, imagining the prosperity they enjoyed was not derived from the favor of God, but supposing that their own power was the proper cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not obey him. Nay, they added to this their disobedience to the Divine will, the suspicion that they were therefore ordered to send out separate colonies, that, being divided asunder, they might the more easily be oppressed.
4.2. (113) Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand [10.8]. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers !
4.3. (115) Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them divers languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion. The Sibyl also makes mention of this tower, and of the confusion of the language, when she says thus: "When all men were of one language, some of them built a high tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language; and for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon." But as to the plain of Shinar, in the country of Babylonia, Hestiaeus mentions it, when he says thus: "Such of the priests as were saved, took the sacred vessels of Jupiter Enyalius, and came to Shinar of Babylonia."
5.1. (120) AFTER this they were dispersed abroad, on account of their languages, and went out by colonies every where; and each colony took possession of that land which they light upon, and unto which God led them; so that the whole continent was filled with them, both the inland and the maritime countries [10.5, 10.32, 11.9]. There were some also who passed over the sea in ships, and inhabited the islands: and some of those nations do still retain the denominations which were given them by their first founders; but some have lost them also, and some have only admitted certain changes in them, that they might be the more intelligible to the inhabitants. And they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations. For when in after-ages they grew potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity; giving names to the nations that sounded well (in Greek) that they might be better understood among themselves; and setting agreeable forms of government over them, as if they were a people derived from themselves.
6.1. (122) Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet [10.2], the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the Grecians, are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called. Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants. Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, the son of Japhet, Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are now the Aeolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta. Cethimus possessed the island Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews: and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it has been called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim. And so many nations have the children and grandchildren of Japhet possessed. Now when I have premised somewhat, which perhaps the Greeks do not know, I will return and explain what I have omitted; for such names are pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers; for our own country language does not so pronounce them: but the names in all cases are of one and the same ending; for the name we here pronounce Noeas, is there Noah, and in every case retains the same termination.6.2. (130) The children of Ham [10.6] possessed the land from Syria [10.11] and Amanus, and the mountains of Libanus; seizing upon all that was on its sea-coasts, and as far as the ocean, and keeping it as their own. Some indeed of its names are utterly vanished away; others of them being changed, and another sound given them, are hardly to be discovered; yet a few there are which have kept their denominations entire. For of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Chusites. The memory also of the Mesraites is preserved in their name; for all we who inhabit this country [of Judea] called Egypt Mestre, and the Egyptians Mestreans. Phut also was the founder of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself: there is also a river in the country of Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we may see the greatest part of the Grecian historiographers mention that river and the adjoining country by the apellation of Phut: but the name it has now has been by change given it from one of the sons of Mesraim, who was called Lybyos. We will inform you presently what has been the occasion why it has been called Africa also. Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, inhabited the country now called Judea, and called it from his own name Canaan. The children of these [four ?10.7 (Cush)] were these: Sabas, who founded the Sabeans; Evilas, who founded the Evileans, who are called Getuli; Sabathes founded the Sabathens, they are now called by the Greeks Astaborans; Sabactas settled the Sabactens; and Ragmus the Ragmeans; and he had two sons, the one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, a nation of the western Ethiopians, and left them his name; as did Sabas to the Sabeans: but Nimrod [10.8], the son of Chus, staid and tyrannized at Babylon, as we have already informed you. Now all the children of Mesraim, being eight in number, possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name of one only, the Philistim; for the Greeks call part of that country Palestine. As for the rest, Ludieim, and Enemim, and Labim, who alone inhabited in Libya, and called the country from himself, Nedim, and Phethrosim, and Chesloim, and Cephthorim, we know nothing of them besides their names; for the Ethiopic war which we shall describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities were overthrown. The sons of Canaan were these: Sidonius [10.15], who also built a city of the same name; it is called by the Greeks Sidon; Amathus [10.18] inhabited in Amathine, which is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians named it Epiphania, from one of his posterity: Arudeus [10.18?] possessed the island Aradus: Arucas [10.17?] possessed Arce, which is in Libanus. But for the seven others, [Eueus,] Chetteus [10.15], Jebuseus, Amorreus, Gergesus [10.16], Eudeus [??], Sineus [10.17], Samareus [10.18], we have nothing in the sacred books but their names, for the Hebrews overthrew their cities; and their calamities came upon them on the occasion following.
6.3. (140) Noah, when, after the deluge, the earth was resettled in its former condition, set about its cultivation; and when he had planted it with vines [9.20], and when the fruit was ripe, and he had gathered the grapes in their season, and the wine was ready for use, he offered sacrifice, and feasted, and, being drunk, he fell asleep, and lay naked in an unseemly manner. When his youngest son [9.24] saw this, he came laughing, and showed him to his brethren; but they covered their father's nakedness. And when Noah was made sensible of what had been done, he prayed for prosperity to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not curse him, by reason of his nearness in blood, but cursed his prosperity: and when the rest of them escaped that curse, God inflicted it on the children of Canaan. But as to these matters, we shall speak more hereafter.
6.4. (143) Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons [10.22], who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians. Of the four sons of Aram [10.23], Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. Sala was the son of Arphaxad [10.24]; and his son was Heber, from whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews. Heber begat Joetan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries [10.25]; for Phaleg among the Hebrews signifies division. Now Joctan, one of the sons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad, Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, Ebal, Abimael, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilat, and Jobab [10.26-29]. These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it. And this shall suffice concerning the sons of Shem.
6.5. (148) I will now treat of
the Hebrews. The son of Phaleg, whose father
Was Heber, was Ragau; whose son was Serug, to whom was born Nahor; his
son was Terah, who was the father of Abraham [11.16-26], who accordingly was the tenth
from Noah, and was born in the two hundred and ninety-second year after
the deluge [Eusebius 942 (Heb 292)]; for Terah begat Abram in his seventieth year
[11.26=Eusebius]. Nahor begat Haran
[MT Terah =Eusebius] when he was one hundred and twenty years old [MT 29 (Eusebius 79) ];
Nahor was born to Serug in
his hundred and thirty-second year [MT 30; Eusebius 130]; Ragau had Serug at one
thirty [MT 32; Eusebius 135]; at the same age also Phaleg had Ragau [MT 30; Africanus & Eusebius 130]; Heber
begat Phaleg in his
hundred and thirty-fourth year [=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 34]; he himself being begotten by
he was a hundred and thirty years old [=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 30], whom Arphaxad had for
his son at
the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his age [=Africanus & Eusebius; MT 35]. Arphaxad was the
son of Shem,
and born twelve years [MT 2=Eusebius, 11.10] after the deluge. Now Abram had two
and Haran: of these Haran left a son, Lot; as also Sarai [MT Iscah] and Milcha his
daughters; and died among the Chaldeans, in a city of the Chaldeans,
Ur; and his monument is shown to
this day. These married their nieces.
Nabor married Milcha, and Abram married Sarai. Now Terah hating Chaldea,
on account of his mourning for Ilaran, they all removed to Haran
where Terah died, and was buried,
when he had lived to be two hundred and
five years old [11.32]; for the
life of man was already, by degrees, diminished,
and became shorter than before, till the birth of Moses; after whom the
term of human life was one hundred and twenty years, God determining it
to the length that Moses happened to live. Now Nahor had eight
Milcha; Uz and Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Azau, Pheldas, Jadelph, and
These were all the genuine sons of Nahor; for Teba, and Gaam, and
and Maaca, were born of Reuma his concubine: but Bethuel had a
Rebecca, and a son, Laban
7.1. (154) Now Abram, having no son of his own, adopted Lot, his brother Haran's son [11.27, 12.5], and his wife Sarai's brother; and he left the land of Chaldea [12.4 (Haran)] when he was seventy-five years old, and at the command of God went into Canaan [12.4], and therein he dwelt himself, and left it to his posterity. He was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, That there was but one God, the Creator of the universe; and that, as to other [gods], if they contributed any thing to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according to his appointment, and not by their own power. This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun, and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus: - "If [said he] these bodies had power of their own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain, that in so far as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to Him that commands them, to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honor and thanksgiving." For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans, and other people of Mesopotamia, raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and at the command and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of Canaan. And when he was there settled, he built an altar [12.7-8], and performed a sacrifice to God.
7.2. (158) Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming him, when he says thus: "In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man righteous and great, and skillful in the celestial science." But Hecataeus does more than barely mention him; for he composed, and left behind him, a book concerning him. And Nicolaus of Damascus, in the fourth book of his History, says thus: "Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans: but, after a long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. Now the name of Abram is even still famous in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a village named from him, The Habitation of Abram."
8.1. (161) NOW, after this, when a famine had invaded the land of Canaan, and Abram had discovered that the Egyptians were in a flourishing condition, he was disposed to go down to them [12.10], both to partake of the plenty they enjoyed, and to become an auditor of their priests, and to know what they said concerning the gods; designing either to follow them, if they had better notions than he, or to convert them into a better way, if his own notions proved the truest. Now, seeing he was to take Sarai with him, and was afraid of the madness of the Egyptians with regard to women, lest the king should kill him on occasion of his wife's great beauty, he contrived this device : - he pretended to be her brother, and directed her in a dissembling way to pretend the same, for he said it would be for their benefit [12.11-13]. Now, as soon as he came into Egypt, it happened to Abram as he supposed it would; for the fame of his wife's beauty was greatly talked of; for which reason Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, would not be satisfied with what was reported of her, but would needs see her himself, and was preparing to enjoy her [12.14-15]; but God put a stop to his unjust inclinations, by sending upon him a distemper [12.17], and a sedition against his government. And when he inquired of the priests how he might be freed from these calamities, they told him that this his miserable condition was derived from the wrath of God, upon account of his inclinations to abuse the stranger's wife. He then, out of fear, asked Sarai who she was, and who it was that she brought along with her. And when he had found out the truth, he excused himself to Abram, that supposing the woman to be his sister, and not his wife, he set his affections on her, as desiring an affinity with him by marrying her, but not as incited by lust to abuse her. He also made him a large present in money [12.16, 13.2], and gave him leave to enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation his virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been before.
8.2. (166) For whereas the Egyptians were formerly addicted to different customs, and despised one another's sacred and accustomed rites, and were very angry one with another on that account, Abram conferred with each of them, and, confuting the reasonings they made use of, every one for their own practices, demonstrated that such reasonings were vain and void of truth: whereupon he was admired by them in those conferences as a very wise man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to him. He communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for before Abram came into Egypt they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also.
8.3. (169) As soon as Abram was come back into Canaan, he parted the land between him and Lot [13.9], upon account of the tumultuous behavior of their shepherds [13.7], concerning the pastures wherein they should feed their flocks. However, he gave Lot his option, or leave, to choose which lands he would take; and he took himself what the other left, which were the lower grounds at the foot of the mountains; and he himself dwelt in Hebron [13.18], which is a city seven years more ancient than Tunis of Egypt. But Lot possessed the land of the plain, and the river Jordan, not far from the city of Sodom, which was then a fine city, but is now destroyed, by the will and wrath of God [13.11-13], the cause of which I shall show in its proper place hereafter.
9.1.(171) AT this time, when
the Assyrians had the dominion over Asia, the people
of Sodom were in a flourishing
condition, both as to riches and the number
of their youth. There were five kings that managed the affairs
county: Ballas [= LXX var; MT Bera], Balaias [var Bareas, cf MT],
Sunabanes [var Senabar], and Summoboros, with the king of Balenos
each king led on his own troops: and the Assyrians made war upon them;
and, dividing their army into four parts, fought against them. Now
part of the army had its own commander; and when the battle was joined,
the Assyrians were conquerors, and imposed a tribute on the
kings of the
Sodomites, who submitted to this slavery twelve years [14.4]; and so long they
continued to pay their tribute: but on the thirteenth year they
and then the army of the
Assyrians came upon them [14.5], under their commanders
Amraphel, Arioch, Chodorlaomer, and Tidal [14.1]. These kings had laid waste all
Syria, and overthrown the offspring of the giants. And when they were
over against Sodom, they pitched their camp at the vale called the Slime
14.10 φρέατα ἀσφάλτου),
for at that time there were pits in that place; but now, upon the
destruction of the city of Sodom, that vale became the Lake
as it is called. However, concerning this lake we shall speak more
Now when the Sodomites joined
battle with the Assyrians, and the fight
was very obstinate, many of them were killed, and the rest were carried
captive; among which captives was Lot, who had come to assist the Sodomites
10.1. (176) WHEN, Abram heard of their calamity, he was at once afraid for Lot his kinsman [14.14], and pitied the Sodomites, his friends and neighbors; and thinking it proper to afford them assistance, he did not delay it, but marched hastily, and the fifth night fell upon the Assyrians, near Dan, for that is the name of the other spring of Jordan; and before they could arm themselves, he slew some as they were in their beds, before they could suspect any harm; and others, who were not yet gone to sleep, but were so drunk they could not fight, ran away. Abram pursued after them, till, on the second day, he drove them in a body unto Hoba, a place belonging to Damascus; and thereby demonstrated that victory does not depend on multitude and the number of hands, but the alacrity and courage of soldiers overcome the most numerous bodies of men, while he got the victory over so great an army with no more than three hundred and eighteen of his servants [14.14], and three of his friends [14.13 & 24]: but all those that fled returned home ingloriously.
10.2. (179) So Abram, when he had saved the captive Sodomites, who had been taken by the Assyrians, and Lot also, his kinsman, returned home in peace. Now the king of Sodom met him at a certain place, which they called The King's Dale, where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him [14.17-18]. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God [14.18]: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. Now this Melchisedec supplied Abram's army in an hospitable manner, and gave them provisions in abundance; and as they were feasting, he began to praise him, and to bless God for subduing his enemies under him. And when Abram gave him the tenth part of his prey, he accepted of the gift: but the king of Sodom desired Abram to take the prey, but entreated that he might have those men restored to him whom Abram had saved from the Assyrians, because they belonged to him [14.19-21]. But Abram would not do so; nor would make any other advantage of that prey than what his servants had eaten; but still insisted that he should afford a part to his friends that had assisted him in the battle. The first of them was called Eschol, and then Enner, and Mambre [14.22-24].
10.3. (183) And God commended his virtue, and said, Thou shalt not however lose the rewards thou hast deserved to receive by such thy glorious actions [15.1]. He answered, And what advantage will it be to me to have such rewards, when I have none to enjoy them after me?[15.2-3] - for he was hitherto childless. And God promised that he should have a son, and that his posterity should be very numerous; insomuch that their number should be like the stars [15.4-5]. When he heard that, he offered a sacrifice to God, as he commanded him. The manner of the sacrifice was this : - He took an heifer of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a ram in like manner of three years old, and a turtle-dove, and a pigeon and as he was enjoined, he divided the three former, but the birds he did not divide. After which, before he built his altar, where the birds of prey flew about [15.11], as desirous of blood, a Divine voice came to him, declaring that their neighbors would be grievous to his posterity, when they should be in Egypt, for four hundred years; during which time they should be afflicted, but afterwards should overcome their enemies, should conquer the Canaanites in war, and possess themselves of their land, and of their cities [15.12-16].
10.4. (186) Now Abram dwelt near the oak called Ogyges [περὶ τὴν Ὠγύγην καλουμένην δρῦν; cf. 13.18, 14.13, 18.1] -- the place belongs to Canaan, not far from the city of Hebron [13.18]. But being uneasy at his wife's barrenness, he entreated God to grant that he might have male issue; and God required of him to be of good courage, and said that he would add to all the rest of the benefits that he had bestowed upon him, ever since he led him out of Mesopotamia, the gift of children. Accordingly Sarai, at God's command, brought to his bed one of her handmaidens, a woman of Egyptian descent, in order to obtain children by her [16.2]; and when this handmaid was with child, she triumphed, and ventured to affront Sarai [16.4-5], as if the dominion were to come to a son to be born of her. But when Abram resigned her into the hand of Sarai, to punish her, she contrived to fly away [16.6], as not able to bear the instances of Sarai's severity to her; and she entreated God to have compassion on her. Now a Divine Angel met her, as she was going forward in the wilderness, and bid her return to her master and mistress, for if she would submit to that wise advice, she would live better hereafter; for that the reason of her being in such a miserable case was this, that she had been ungrateful and arrogant towards her mistress [16.7-9]. He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael [16.15]; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother's prayer.
10.5. (191) The forementioned son was born to Abram when he was
old [16.16]: but when he was ninety-nine [17.1], God appeared to him,
and promised him
that he Should have a son by Sarai [17.16], and commanded that his name
be Isaac [17.19]; and showed him, that from this son should spring
and kings, and that they should
obtain all the land of Canaan by war, from
Sidon to Egypt. But he charged him, in order to keep his
with others, that they should be circumcised in the flesh of their
and that this should be done on the eighth day after they were born: the
reason of which circumcision I will explain in another place.
inquiring also concerning Ismael [17.18], whether he should live or not, God
to him that he should live to be very old, and should be the
great nations [17.20]. Abram therefore gave thanks to God for these blessings;
and then he, and all his family, and his son Ismael, were
the son being that day thirteen years of age, and he ninety-nine
11.1. (194) ABOUT this time the Sodomites grew proud, on account of their riches and great wealth; they became unjust towards men, and impious towards God, insomuch that they did not call to mind the advantages they received from him: they hated strangers, and abused themselves with Sodomitical practices. God was therefore much displeased at them, and determined to punish them for their pride, and to overthrow their city, and to lay waste their country, until there should neither plant nor fruit grow out of it [18.20-21].
11.2. (196) When God had thus resolved concerning the Sodomites, Abraham, as he sat by the oak of Mambre, at the door of his tent, saw three angels [18.1-2]; and thinking them to be strangers, he rose up, and saluted them, and desired they would accept of an entertainment, and abide with him; to which, when they agreed, he ordered cakes of meal to be made presently [18.6]; and when he had slain a calf, he roasted it, and brought it to them, as they sat under the oak [18.8]. Now they made a show of eating; and besides, they asked him about his wife Sarah, where she was; and when he said she was within, they said they would come again hereafter, and find her become a mother [18.9-10]. Upon which the woman laughed [18.12], and said that it was impossible she should bear children, since she was ninety years of age, and her husband was a hundred. Then they concealed themselves no longer, but declared that they were angels of God; and that one of them was sent to inform them about the child, and two of the overthrow of Sodom [see LXX var at 18.16]
11.3. (199) When Abraham heard this, he was grieved for the Sodomites; and he rose up, and besought God for them, and entreated him that he would not destroy the righteous with the wicked. And when God had replied that there was no good man among the Sodomites; for if there were but ten such man among them, he would not punish any of them for their sins, Abraham held his peace. And the angels came to the city of the Sodomites, and Lot entreated them to accept of a lodging with him; for he was a very generous and hospitable man, and one that had learned to imitate the goodness of Abraham. Now when the Sodomites saw the young men to be of beautiful countenances, and this to an extraordinary degree, and that they took up their lodgings with Lot, they resolved themselves to enjoy these beautiful boys by force and violence; and when Lot exhorted them to sobriety, and not to offer any thing immodest to the strangers, but to have regard to their lodging in his house; and promised that if their inclinations could not be governed, he would expose his daughters to their lust, instead of these strangers; neither thus were they made ashamed.
11.4. (202) But God was much displeased at their impudent behavior, so that he both smote those men with blindness, and condemned the Sodomites to universal destruction. But Lot, upon God's informing him of the future destruction of the Sodomites, went away, taking with him his wife and daughters, who were two, and still virgins; for those that were betrothed to them were above the thoughts of going, and deemed that Lot's words were trifling. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot's wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day. Now he and his daughters fled to a certain small place, encompassed with the fire, and settled in it: it is to this day called Zoar, for that is the word which the Hebrews use for a small thing. There it was that he lived a miserable life, on account of his having no company, and his want of provisions.
11.5. (205) But his daughters, thinking that all mankind were
to their father,
though taking care not to be perceived. This they did, that human kind
might not utterly fail: and they bare sons; the son of the elder was
Moab, Which denotes one derived from his father; the younger bare
which name denotes one derived from a kinsman. The former of whom was
father of the Moabites, which is even still a great nation; the latter
was the father of the Ammonites; and both of them are inhabitants of
And such was the departure of Lot from among the Sodomites.
Ant 9.(10.3).215-227 // 2 Kgs 14.29f // 2 Chr 26.1ff ]]
[[This follows an insertion by Josephus of the story of Jonah]]
9.10.3.(215) When Jeroboam the king [not mentioned in 2 Chr 25-26
(the Chronicler ignores much of the Northern Kingdom history)] had
passed his life in great happiness,
had ruled forty years [2Kgs 14.23 MT 41 years], he died, and was buried
in Samaria, and his son
Zachariah took the kingdom [2Kgs 14.29]. After the same manner did
Uzziah [also called Azariah in 2Kgs 15], the son of
Amaziah, begin to reign over the
two tribes in Jerusalem, in the fourteenth
year of the reign of Jeroboam [2Kgs 15.1 MT 27th year]. He was born of
Achi(al)a [2Kgs = 2 Chr MT Yecholia; OG 2Kgs Xaleia, 2Chr Iexalia or
Xaaia], his mother, who
was a citizen of Jerusalem. He was a good man, and by nature righteous
and magnanimous, and very
laborious in taking care of the affairs of his
kingdom. [The following material is parallelrd in 2Chr 26 but
not in 2Kgs] He made an expedition also against the Philistines, and
them in battle, and took the cities of Gitta [2Chr "Gath"] and Jamnia
[2Chr "Jabneh"], and brake down
their walls; after which expedition he assaulted those Arabs that adjoined
to Egypt. He also built a
city upon the Red Sea, and put a garrison into
it. He, after this, overthrew
the Ammanites, and appointed that they should
pay tribute. He also overcame all
the countries as far as the bounds of
Egypt, and then began to take care of Jerusalem itself for the rest of
his life; for he rebuilt and repaired all those parts of the wall which
had either fallen down by length
of time, or by the carelessness of the
kings, his predecessors, as well as all
that part which had been thrown
down by the king of Israel, when he took his father Amaziah prisoner,
entered with him into the city [see 2Chr 25.23].
Moreover, he built a great many towers,
of (one hundred and) fifty cubits
high, and built walled towns in desert
places, and put garrisons into them, and dug many channels for
of water. He had also many beasts for labor, and an immense number of cattle;
for his country was fit for pasturage. He was also given to
and took care to cultivate the ground, and planted it with all sorts of
plants, and sowed it with all sorts of seeds. He had also about
army composed of chosen men, in number three hundred and seventy
thousand [2Chr 26.13 MT 307,500],
who were governed by general officers and captains of thousands, who
men of valor, and of unconquerable strength, in number two thousand
[2Chr 26.12 MT 2,600]. He
also divided his whole army into bands, and armed them, giving every
a sword, with brazen bucklers
and breastplates, with bows and slings; and
besides these, he made for them many engines of war for besieging of
such as cast stones and darts, with
grapplers, and other instruments of
9.10.4.(222) While Uzziah was in this state, and making preparation [for futurity], he was corrupted in his mind by pride, and became insolent, and this on account of that abundance which he had of things that will soon perish, and despised that power which is of eternal duration (which consisted in piety towards God, and in the observation of the laws); so he fell by occasion of the good success of his affairs, and was carried headlong into those sins of his father, which the splendor of that prosperity he enjoyed, and the glorious actions he had done, led him into, while he was not able to govern himself well about them. Accordingly, when a remarkable day was come, and a general festival was to be celebrated, he put on the holy garment, and went into the temple to offer incense to God upon the golden altar, which he was prohibited to do by Azariah the high priest, who had fourscore priests with him, and who told him that it was not lawful for him to offer sacrifice, and that "none besides the posterity of Aaron were permitted so to do." And when they cried out that he must go out of the temple, and not transgress against God, he was wroth at them, and threatened to kill them, unless they would hold their peace. In the mean time a great earthquake shook the ground and a rent was made in the temple, and the bright rays of the sun shone through it, and fell upon the king's face, insomuch that the leprosy seized upon him immediately. And before the city, at a place called Eroge, half the mountain broke off from the rest on the west, and rolled itself four furlongs, and stood still at the east mountain, till the roads, as well as the king's gardens, were spoiled by the obstruction. Now, as soon as the priests saw that the king's face was infected with the leprosy, they told him of the calamity he was under, and commanded that he should go out of the city as a polluted person. Hereupon he was so confounded at the sad distemper, and sensible that he was not at liberty to contradict, that he did as he was commanded, and underwent this miserable and terrible punishment for an intention beyond what befitted a man to have, and for that impiety against God which was implied therein. So he abode out of the city for some time, and lived a private life, while his son Jotham took the government; after which he died with grief and anxiety at what had happened to him, when he had lived sixty-eight years, and reigned of them fifty-two; and was buried by himself in his own gardens.
[[The earthquake story (alluded to in Amos 1.1 and Zech 14.5) is
also told by Eusebius, Demonstratio evangelica
Ozias is described as at first having been righteous, and then it is
related that he was lifted up in mind, and dared to offer sacrifice to
God himself, and that his face became leprous in consequence.
This is what the
Book of Kingdoms presents [sic; see 2 Chron 26.16ff]. But
Josephus also carefully studied the "outside" Judaic "deuteroseis" [pl] accurately (καὶ τὰς
ἔξωθεν ἰουδαϊκὰς δευτερώσεις
ἀπηκριβωκώς), being a Hebrew of the Hebrews, so hear his
description of the events of
those times. He tells how: "Though the priests urged Ozias to go out of
the Temple and not to break the law of God, he angrily threatened them
with death, unless they held their peace. And meanwhile an earthquake
shook the earth, and a bright light shone through a breach in the
Temple, and struck the king's face, so that at once it became leprous.
And before the city at the place called Eroga, the western half of the
Mount was split asunder, and rolling four stadia stopped at the eastern
mountain, so as to block up the royal approach and gardens."
For rabbinic references, see Ginzberg, Legends 4.262 and notes in 6.357f]]
to Ant 12, to test the
relationship of Josephus' narrative to 1-2 Macc; first impression is
that Josephus relies on 1 Macc thought by thought, but has only
12.1.(1) NOW when Alexander, king of Macedon, had put an end to the
of the Persians, and had settled
the affairs in Judea after the forementioned
manner, he ended his life [1 Macc 1.1-7]. And as his government
fell among many [1.8], Antigonus
obtained Asia, Seleucus Babylon; and of the other nations which were
Lysimachus governed the Hellespont, and Cassander possessed Macedonia;
as did Ptolemy the son of Lagus seize upon Egypt. And while these
ambitiously strove one against another, every one for his own
it came to pass that there were continual wars, and those lasting wars
too; and the cities were sufferers, and lost a great many of their
in these times of distress, insomuch that all Syria, by the means of
the son of Lagus, underwent the reverse of that denomination of Savior,
which he then had. He also seized upon Jerusalem, and for that end made
use of deceit and treachery; for as he came into the city on a sabbath
day, as if he would offer sacrifices
he, without any trouble, gained the city, while the Jews did not oppose
him, for they did not suspect him to be their enemy; and he gained it
because they were free from suspicion of him, and because on that day
were at rest and quietness; and when he had gained it, he ruled over it
in a cruel manner. Nay, Agatharchides of Cnidus, who wrote the acts of
Alexander's successors, reproaches us with superstition, as if we, by
had lost our liberty; where he says thus: "There is a nation called
the nation of the Jews, who inhabit a city strong and great, named
These men took no care, but let it come into the hands of Ptolemy, as
willing to take arms, and thereby they submitted to be under a hard
by reason of their unseasonable superstition." (7) This is what
relates of our nation. [see Aristeas 11] But when
Ptolemy had taken a great many captives,
both from the mountainous parts of Judea, and from the places about
and Samaria, and the places near Mount Gerizzim, he led them all into
settled them there. (8) And as he knew that the people of Jerusalem
faithful in the observation of oaths and covenants; and this from the
they made to Alexander, when he sent an embassage to them, after he had
beaten Darius in battle; so he distributed many of them into garrisons,
and at Alexandria gave them equal privileges of citizens with the
themselves; and required of them to take their oaths, that they would
their fidelity to the posterity of those who committed these places to
their care. (9) Nay, there were not a few other Jews who, of their own
went into Egypt, as invited by the goodness of the soil, and by the
of Ptolemy. (10) However, there were disoders among their posterity,
to the Samaritans, on account of their resolution to preserve that
of life which was delivered to them by their forefathers, and they
contended one with another, while those of Jerusalem said that their
was holy, and resolved to send their sacrifices thither; but the
were resolved that they should be sent to Mount Gerizzim.
[[Josephus seems to have a source other than 1 Macc for this letter!
The ideas are similar, but the words are almost entirely different. Two
translations from a semitic version? The Greek of 1 Macc seems less
convoluted than that of Josephus. See Ant 13.166ff for the letter (to the
Lacedaemonians! but called "Spartans" in the context [as in 1 Macc],
and only here in Ant) to
which this is a response (// 1M 12.1ff, to the Spartans)]]
. . . . [ the narrative paralleling 1 Macc closely
starts at 12.242]
12.5.1.(237) [see 2M 4.7 ?] ABOUT this time, upon the death of Onias the high priest, they gave the high priesthood to Jesus his brother; for that son which Onias left [or Onias IV.] was yet but an infant; and, in its proper place, we will inform the reader of all the circumstances that befell this child. But this Jesus, who was the brother of Onias, was deprived of the high priesthood by the king, who was angry with him, and gave it to his younger brother, whose name also was Onias; for Simon had these three sons, to each of which the priesthood came, as we have already informed the reader. This Jesus changed his name to Jason, but Onias was called Menelaus. Now as the former high priest, Jesus, raised a sedition against Menelaus, who was ordained after him, the multitude were divided between them both. And the sons of Tobias took the part of Menelaus, but the greater part of the people assisted Jason; and by that means Menelaus and the sons of Tobias were distressed, and retired to Antiochus, and informed him that they were desirous to leave the laws of their country, and the Jewish way of living according to them, and to follow the king's laws, and the Grecian way of living [2M 4.10]. Wherefore they desired his permission to build them a Gymnasium at Jerusalem [2M 4.12]. And when he had given them leave, they also hid the circumcision of their genitals, that even when they were naked they might appear to be Greeks. Accordingly, they left off all the customs that belonged to their own country, and imitated the practices of the other nations.
12.5.2.(242) [1M 1.16, 2M 5.1] Now Antiochus, upon the agreeable situation of the affairs of his kingdom, resolved to make an expedition against Egypt, both because he had a desire to gain it, and because he contemned the son of Ptolemy, as now weak, and not yet of abilities to manage affairs of such consequence; so he came with great forces to Pelusium, and circumvented Ptolemy Philometor by treachery, and seized upon Egypt. He then came to the places about Memphis; and when he had taken them, he made haste to Alexandria, in hopes of taking it by siege, and of subduing Ptolemy, who reigned there. But he was driven not only from Alexandria, but out of all Egypt, by the declaration of the Romans, who charged him to let that country alone; according as I have elsewhere formerly declared. I will now give a particular account of what concerns this king, how he subdued Judea and the temple; for in my former work I mentioned those things very briefly, and have therefore now thought it necessary to go over that history again, and that with great accuracy.
5.3.(246) King Antiochus returning out of Egypt for fear of the Romans, made an expedition against the city Jerusalem; and when he was there, in the hundred and forty-third year of the kingdom of the Seleucidse, he took the city without fighting, those of his own party opening the gates to him. And when he had gotten possession of Jerusalem, he slew many of the opposite party; and when he had plundered it of a great deal of money, he returned to Antioch [1M 1.20-28].5.4.(248) Now it came to pass, after two years [1M 1.29], in the hundred forty and fifth year, on the twenty-fifth day of that month which is by us called Chasleu [1M 1.54 (15th day) & 59], and by the Macedonians Apelleus, in the hundred and fifty-third olympiad, that the king came up to Jerusalem, and, pretending peace, he got possession of the city by treachery; at which time he spared not so much as those that admitted him into it, on account of the riches that lay in the temple; but, led by his covetous inclination, (for he saw there was in it a great deal of gold, and many ornaments that had been dedicated to it of very great value,) and in order to plunder its wealth, he ventured to break the league he had made. So he left the temple bare, and took away the golden candlesticks, and the golden altar [of incense], and table [of shew-bread], and the altar [of burnt-offering]; and did not abstain from even the veils, which were made of fine linen and scarlet. He also emptied it of its secret treasures, and left nothing at all remaining; and by this means cast the Jews into great lamentation, for he forbade them to offer those daily sacrifices which they used to offer to God, according to the law. And when he had pillaged the whole city, some of the inhabitants he slew, and some he carried captive, together with their wives and children, so that the multitude of those captives that were taken alive amounted to about ten thousand [(2M 5.14)]. He also burnt down the finest buildings; and when he had overthrown the city walls, he built a citadel in the lower part of the city, for the place was high, and overlooked the temple; on which account he fortified it with high walls and towers, and put into it a garrison of Macedonians [1M 1.29-40]. However, in that citadel dwelt the impious and wicked part of the [Jewish] multitude, from whom it proved that the citizens suffered many and sore calamities. And when the king had built an idol altar upon God's altar [1M 1.54], he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to adore those whom he took to be gods; and made them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village [1M 1.54], and offer swine upon them every day. He also commanded them not to circumcise their sons [1M 1.43-48], and threatened to punish any that should be found to have transgressed his injunction. He also appointed overseers, who should compel them to do what he commanded [1.51]. And indeed many Jews there were who complied with the king's commands, either voluntarily, or out of fear of the penalty that was denounced [1.52]. But the best men, and those of the noblest souls, did not regard him, but did pay a greater respect to the customs of their country than concern as to the punishment which he threatened to the disobedient; on which account they every day underwent great miseries and bitter torments; for they were whipped with rods, and their bodies were torn to pieces, and were crucified, while they were still alive, and breathed [1M 1.62-63]. They also strangled those women and their sons whom they had circumcised, as the king had appointed, hanging their sons about their necks as they were upon the crosses [1M 1.60-61 (2M 6.10)]. And if there were any sacred book of the law found, it was destroyed, and those with whom they were found miserably perished also [1M 1.56-57].
5.5.(257) When the Samaritans saw the Jews under these sufferings, they no longer confessed that they were of their kindred, nor that the temple on Mount Gerizzim belonged to Almighty God. This was according to their nature, as we have already shown. And they now said that they were a colony of Medes and Persians; and indeed they were a colony of theirs. So they sent ambassadors to Antiochus, and an epistle, whose contents are these: "To king Antiochus the god, Epiphanes, a memorial from the Sidonians, who live at Shechem. Our forefathers, upon certain frequent plagues, and as following a certain ancient superstition, had a custom of observing that day which by the Jews is called the Sabbath. And when they had erected a temple at the mountain called Gerrizzim, though without a name, they offered upon it the proper sacrifices. Now, upon the just treatment of these wicked Jews, those that manage their affairs, supposing that we were of kin to them, and practiced as they do, make us liable to the same accusations, although we be originally Sidonians, as is evident from the public records. We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and Savior, to give order to Apollonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbance, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation, and from their customs; but let our temple, which at present hath no name at all be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. If this were once done, we should be no longer disturbed, but should be more intent on our own occupation with quietness, and so bring in a greater revenue to thee." When the Samaritans had petitioned for this, the king sent them back the following answer, in an epistle: "King Antiochus to Nicanor. The Sidonians, who live at Shechem, have sent me the memorial enclosed. When therefore we were advising with our friends about it, the messengers sent by them represented to us that they are no way concerned with accusations which belong to the Jews, but choose to live after the customs of the Greeks. Accordingly, we declare them free from such accusations, and order that, agreeable to their petition, their temple be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius." He also sent the like epistle to Apollonius, the governor of that part of the country, in the forty-sixth year, and the eighteenth day of the month Hecatorabeom
6.1.(265) [1M 2.1-13] NOW at this time there was one whose name was Mattathias, who dwelt at Modin, the son of John, the son of Simeon, the son of Asamoneus, a priest of the order of Joarib, and a citizen of Jerusalem. He had five sons; John, who was called Gaddis, and Simon, who was called Matthes, and Judas, who was called Maccabeus, and Eleazar, who was called Auran, and Jonathan, who was called Apphus. Now this Mattathias lamented to his children the sad state of their affairs, and the ravage made in the city, and the plundering of the temple, and the calamities the multitude were under; and he told them that it was better for them to die for the laws of their country, than to live so ingloriously as they then did.
6.2.(268) [1M 2.15-48] But when those that were appointed by the king were come to Modin, that they might compel the Jews to do what they were commanded, and to enjoin those that were there to offer sacrifice, as the king had commanded, they desired that Mattathias, a person of the greatest character among them, both on other accounts, and particularly on account of such a numerous and so deserving a family of children, would begin the sacrifice, because his fellow citizens would follow his example, and because such a procedure would make him honored by the king. But Mattathias said he would not do it; and that if all the other nations would obey the commands of Antiochus, either out of fear, or to please him, yet would not he nor his sons leave the religious worship of their country. But as soon as he had ended his speech, there came one of the Jews into the midst of them, and sacrificed, as Antiochus had commanded. At which Mattathias had great indignation, and ran upon him violently, with his sons, who had swords with them, and slew both the man himself that sacrificed, and Apelles the king's general, who compelled them to sacrifice, with a few of his soldiers. He also overthrew the idol altar, and cried out, "If," said he," any one be zealous for the laws of his country, and for the worship of God, let him follow me." And when he had said this, he made haste into the desert with his sons, and left all his substance in the village. Many others did the same also, and fled with their children and wives into the desert, and dwelt in caves. But when the king's generals heard this, they took all the forces they then had in the citadel at Jerusalem, and pursued the Jews into the desert; and when they had overtaken them, they in the first place endeavored to persuade them to repent, and to choose what was most for their advantage, and not put them to the necessity of using them according to the law of war. But when they would not comply with their persuasions, but continued to be of a different mind, they fought against them on the sabbath day, and they burnt them as they were in the caves, without resistance, and without so much as stopping up the entrances of the caves. And they avoided to defend themselves on that day, because they were not willing to break in upon the honor they owed the sabbath, even in such distresses; for our law requires that we rest upon that day. There were about a thousand, with their wives and children, who were smothered and died in these caves; but many of those that escaped joined themselves to Mattathias, and appointed him to be their ruler, who taught them to fight, even on the sabbath day; and told them that unless they would do so, they would become their own enemies, by observing the law [so rigorously], while their adversaries would still assault them on this day, and they would not then defend themselves, and that nothing could then hinder but they must all perish without fighting. This speech persuaded them. And this rule continues among us to this day, that if there be a necessity, we may fight on sabbath days. So Mattathias got a great army about him, and overthrew their idol altars, and slew those that broke the laws, even all that he could get under his power; for many of them were dispersed among the nations round about them for fear of him. He also commanded that those boys which were not yet circumcised should be circumcised now; and he drove those away that were appointed to hinder such their circumcision.
6.3.(279) [1M 15.49-69] But when he had ruled one year, and was fallen into a distemper, he called for his sons, and set them round about him, and said, "O my sons, I am going the way of all the earth; and I recommend to you my resolution, and beseech you not to be negligent in keeping it, but to be mindful of the desires of him who begat you, and brought you up, and to preserve the customs of your country, and to recover your ancient form of government, which is in danger of being overturned, and not to be carried away with those that, either by their own inclination, or out of necessity, betray it, but to become such sons as are worthy of me; to be above all force and necessity, and so to dispose your souls, as to be ready, when it shall be necessary, to die for your laws; as sensible of this, by just reasoning, that if God see that you are so disposed he will not overlook you, but will have a great value for your virtue, and will restore to you again what you have lost, and will return to you that freedom in which you shall live quietly, and enjoy your own customs. Your bodies are mortal, and subject to fate; but they receive a sort of immortality, by the remembrance of what actions they have done. And I would have you so in love with this immortality, that you may pursue after glory, and that, when you have undergone the greatest difficulties, you may not scruple, for such things, to lose your lives. I exhort you, especially, to agree one with another; and in what excellency any one of you exceeds another, to yield to him so far, and by that means to reap the advantage of every one's own virtues. Do you then esteem Simon as your father, because he is a man of extraordinary prudence, and be governed by him in what counsels be gives you 2.65]. Take Maccabeus for the general of your army, because of his courage and strength, for he will avenge your nation, and will bring vengeance on your enemies [2.66-68]. Admit among you the righteous and religious, and augment their power."
6.4.(2850 When Mattathias had thus discoursed to his sons, and had
God to be their assistant, and to recover to the people their former
he died a little afterward, and was buried at Modin; all the people
great lamentation for him [1M 2.69-70]. Whereupon his son Judas took
upon him the administration
of public affairs, in the hundred fbrty and sixth year; and thus, by
ready assistance of his brethren, and of others, Judas cast their
out of the country, and put those of their own country to death who had
transgressed its laws, and purified the land of all the pollutions that
were in it [3.1-2].
7.1. [3.10] WHEN Apollonius, the general of the Samaritan forces, heard this, he took his army, and made haste to go against Judas, who met him, and joined battle with him, and beat him, and slew many of his men, and among them Apollonius himself, their general, whose sword being that which he happened then to wear, he seized upon, and kept for himself; but he wounded more than he slew, and took a great deal of prey from the enemy's camp, and went his way. [3.13] But when Seron, who was general of the army of Celesyria, heard that many had joined themselves to Judas, and that he had about him an army sufficient for fighting, and for making war, he determined to make an expedition against him, as thinking it became him to endeavor to punish those that transgressed the king's injunctions. He then got together an army, as large as he was able, and joined to it the runagate and wicked Jews, and came against Judas. [3.16] He came as far as Bethhoron, a village of Judea, and there pitched his camp; upon which Judas met him; and when he intended to give him battle, he saw that his soldiers were backward to fight, because their number was small, and because they wanted food, for they were fasting, he encouraged them, and said to them, that victory and conquest of enemies are not derived from the multitude in armies, but in the exercise of piety towards God; and that they had the plainest instances in their forefathers, who, by their righteousness, exerting themselves on behalf of their own laws, and their own children, had frequently conquered many ten thousands, - for innocence is the strongest army. [3.23] By this speech he induced his men to contenm the multitude of the enemy, and to fall upon Seron. And upon joining battle with him, he beat the Syrians; and when their general fell among the rest, they all ran away with speed, as thinking that to be their best way of escaping. So he pursued them unto the plain, and slew about eight hundred of the enemy; but the rest escaped to the region which lay near to the sea.
7.2. [3.27] When king Antiochus heard of these things, he was very angry at what had happened; so he got together all his own army, with many mercenaries, whom he had hired from the islands, and took them with him, and prepared to break into Judea about the beginning of the spring. But when, upon his mustering his soldiers, he perceived that his treasures were deficient, and there was a want of money in them, for all the taxes were not paid, by reason of the seditions there had been among the nations he having been so magnanimous and so liberal, that what he had was not sufficient for him, he therefore resolved first to go into Persia, and collect the taxes of that country. [3.32] Hereupon he left one whose name was Lysias, who was in great repute with him governor of the kingdom, as far as the bounds of Egypt, and of the Lower Asia, and reaching from the river Euphrates, and committed to him a certain part of his forces, and of his elephants, and charged him to bring up his son Antiochus with all possible care, until he came back; and that he should conquer Judea, and take its inhabitants for slaves, and utterly destroy Jerusalem, and abolish the whole nation. And when king Antiochus had given these things in charge to Lysias, he went into Persia; and in the hundred and forty-seventh year he passed over Euphrates, and went to the superior provinces.
7.3. [3.38] Upon this Lysias chose Ptolemy, the son of Dorymenes, and Nicanor, and Gorgias, very potent men among the king's friends, and delivered to them forty thousand foot soldiers, and seven thousand horsemen, and sent them against Judea, who came as far as the city Emmaus, and pitched their camp in the plain country. There came also to them auxiliaries out of Syria, and the country round about; as also many of the runagate Jews. And besides these came some merchants to buy those that should be carried captives, (having bonds with them to bind those that should be made prisoners,) with that silver and gold which they were to pay for their price. [3.42] And when Judas saw their camp, and how numerous their enemies were, he persuaded his own soldiers to be of good courage, and exhorted them to place their hopes of victory in God, and to make supplication to him, according to the custom of their country, clothed in sackcloth; and to show what was their usual habit of supplication in the greatest dangers, and thereby to prevail with God to grant you the victory over your enemies. So he set them in their ancient order of battle used by their forefathers, under their captains of thousands, and other officers, and dismissed such as were newly married, as well as those that had newly gained possessions, that they might not fight in a cowardly manner, out of an inordinate love of life, in order to enjoy those blessings. When he had thus disposed his soldiers, he encouraged them to fight by the following speech, which he made to them: "O my fellow soldiers, no other time remains more opportune than the present for courage and contempt of dangers; for if you now fight manfully, you may recover your liberty, which, as it is a thing of itself agreeable to all men, so it proves to be to us much more desirable, by its affording us the liberty of worshipping God. Since therefore you are in such circumstances at present, you must either recover that liberty, and so regain a happy and blessed way of living, which is that according to our laws, and the customs of our country, or to submit to the most opprobrious sufferings; nor will any seed of your nation remain if you be beat in this battle. Fight therefore manfully; and suppose that you must die, though you do not fight; but believe, that besides such glorious rewards as those of the liberty of your country, of your laws, of your religion, you shall then obtain everlasting glory. Prepare yourselves, therefore, and put yourselves into such an agreeable posture, that you may be ready to fight with the enemy as soon as it is day tomorrow morning."
7.4. And this was the speech which Judas made to encourage them. [4.1] But when the enemy sent Gorgias, with five thousand foot and one thousand horse, that he might fall upon Judas by night, and had for that purpose certain of the runagate Jews as guides, the son of Mattathias perceived it, and resolved to fall upon those enemies that were in their camp, now their forces were divided. When they had therefore supped in good time, and had left many fires in their camp, he marched all night to those enemies that were at Emmaus. So that when Gorgias found no enemy in their camp, but suspected that they were retired, and had hidden themselves among the mountains, he resolved to go and seek them wheresoever they were. [4.6] But about break of day Judas appeared to those enemies that were at Emmaus, with only three thousand men, and those ill armed, by reason of their poverty; and when he saw the enemy very well and skillfully fortified in their camp, he encouraged the Jews, and told them that they ought to fight, though it were with their naked bodies, for that God had sometimes of old given such men strength, and that against such as were more in number, and were armed also, out of regard to their great courage. [4.13] So he commanded the trumpeters to sound for the battle; and by thus falling upon the enemies when they did not expect it, and thereby astonishing and disturbing their minds, he slew many of those that resisted him, and went on pursuing the rest as far as Gadara, and the plains of Idumea, and Ashdod, and Jamnia; and of these there fell about three thousand. Yet did Judas exhort his soldiers not to be too desirous of the spoils, for that still they must have a contest and battle with Gorgias, and the forces that were with him; but that when they had once overcome them, then they might securely plunder the camp, because they were the only enemies remaining, and they expected no others. [4.19] And just as he was speaking to his soldiers, Gorgias's men looked down into that army which they left in their camp, and saw that it was overthrown, and the camp burnt; for the smoke that arose from it showed them, even when they were a great way off, what had happened. When therefore those that were with Gorgias understood that things were in this posture, and perceived that those that were with Judas were ready to fight them, they also were affrighted, and put to flight; but then Judas, as though he had already beaten Gorgias's soldiers without fighting, returned and seized on the spoils. He took a great quantity of gold, and silver, and purple, and blue, and then returned home with joy, and singing hymns to God for their good success; for this victory greatly contributed to the recovery of their liberty.
7.5. [4.26] Hereupon Lysias was confounded at the defeat of the army which he had sent, and the next year he got together sixty thousand chosen men. He also took five thousand horsemen, and fell upon Judea; and he went up to the hill country of Bethsur, a village of Judea, and pitched his camp there, where Judas met him with ten thousand men; and when he saw the great number of his enemies, he prayed to God that he would assist him, and joined battle with the first of the enemy that appeared, and beat them, and slew about five thousand of them, and thereby became terrible to the rest of them. Nay, indeed, Lysias observing the great spirit of the Jews, how they were prepared to die rather than lose their liberty, and being afraid of their desperate way of fighting, as if it were real strength, he took the rest of the army back with him, and returned to Antioch, where he listed foreigners into the service, and prepared to fall upon Judea with a greater army.
7.6. [4.36] When therefore the generals of Antiochus's armies had been beaten so often, Judas assembled the people together, and told them, that after these many victories which God had given them, they ought to go up to Jerusalem, and purify the temple, and offer the appointed sacrifices. But as soon as he, with the whole multitude, was come to Jerusalem, and found the temple deserted, and its gates burnt down, and plants growing in the temple of their own accord, on account of its desertion, he and those that were with him began to lament, and were quite confounded at the sight of the temple; so he chose out some of his soldiers, and gave them order to fight against those guards that were in the citadel, until he should have purified the temple. When therefore he had carefully purged it, and had brought in new vessels, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar [of incense], which were made of gold, he hung up the veils at the gates, and added doors to them. He also took down the altar [of burnt-offering], and built a new one of stones that he gathered together, and not of such as were hewn with iron tools. [4.52] So on the five and twentieth day of the month Casleu, which the Macedonians call Apeliens, they lighted the lamps that were on the candlestick, and offered incense upon the altar [of incense], and laid the loaves upon the table [of shew-bread], and offered burnt-offerings upon the new altar [of burnt-offering]. Now it so fell out, that these things were done on the very same day on which their Divine worship had fallen off, and was reduced to a profane and common use, after three years' time; for so it was, that the temple was made desolate by Antiochus, and so continued for three years. This desolation happened to the temple in the hundred forty and fifth year, on the twenty-fifth day of the month Apeliens, and on the hundred fifty and third olympiad: but it was dedicated anew, on the same day, the twenty-fifth of the month Apeliens, on the hundred and forty-eighth year, and on the hundred and fifty-fourth olympiad. And this desolation came to pass according to the prophecy of Daniel, which was given four hundred and eight years before; for he declared that the Macedonians would dissolve that worship [for some time].
7.7. [4.59] Now Judas celebrated the festival of the restoration of the sacrifices of the temple for eight days, and omitted no sort of pleasures thereon; but he feasted them upon very rich and splendid sacrifices; and he honored God, and delighted them by hymns and psalms. Nay, they were so very glad at the revival of their customs, when, after a long time of intermission, they unexpectedly had regained the freedom of their worship, that they made it a law for their posterity, that they should keep a festival, on account of the restoration of their temple worship, for eight days. And from that time to this we celebrate this festival, and call it Lights. I suppose the reason was, because this liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us; and that thence was the name given to that festival. [4.60] Judas also rebuilt the walls round about the city, and reared towers of great height against the incursions of enemies, and set guards therein. He also fortified the city Bethsura, that it might serve as a citadel against any distresses that might come from our enemies.