Possible Semiticisms in Paraleipomena Jeremiou

by Ann Elizabeth Purintun (October 1971),
with additional commentary from RAK and RelSt 735 in Fall 2001

For orientation to this sort of material and argumentation, see especially

  • Klaus Beyer, Semitische Syntax im Neuen Testament 1.1 (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1962, 1968\2), and RAK's 1963 review
  • Max Wilcox, The Semitisms of Acts (Oxford University Press 1965)
  • J.H.Moulton and W.F.Howard, A Grammar of New Testament Greek 2.3 (Word Formation, with an appendix on Semitisms in the NT) (T&T Clark 1929) and vol 3 (Syntax) by Nigel Turner (1963)
  • R.A.Martin, Syntactical Evidence of Semitic Sources in Greek Documents (SCS 3, Scholars 1974)
  • Emanuel Tov, The Text-critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Simor 1997\2), on translation technique in general (17-29)

    VOCABULARY (attested only in the longer version):

    6.6 "the Sufficient One" is coming :
    <gk>o( I(kano/s</gk> =? <hb>shaddai</hb>

    In LXX/OG translations, Gk ikanos frequently represents Hb DY (dday)

    For Hb Shaddai (=? asher ddai), see Gen 17.1 a', Ruth 1.20f, Ps 90/91.1 a's', Isa 13.6 a's't', Ezk 1.24 a's', 10.5 oi g', Job 21.15, 31.2, 39/40.32/2 (plus other passages of Job attributed especially to s' and also to t'); cf Jer 8.14 syr; also anonymous translations in Gen 43.14, 48.3, 49.25, Ex 6.3

    This seems to be a well attested literalistic "late" translation equivalent; does it ever occur in this sense in "native" Greek outside of a "biblically influenced" setting?

    7.29-30 "Have mercy on us, God-ZAR" :
    <gk>o( qeo\s ZAR</gk> =? <hb>el zar</hb>

    "...they were calling on a foreign God" :
    <gk>qeo\n a)llo/trion</gk>

    Hb ZR is not found in transliteration in available LXX/OG materials

    For Gk a)llo/trion = Hb ZUR see scattered passages in LXX/OG, but especially Ps 44(43).21(20) [of diety]; compare Ps 81(80).10(9) [also of deity, but Hb MT NeyBaR not ZaR]


    Intensive verbal constructions (only in longer version):

    7.30 "I cried with two-fold mourning"
    e)/klaion disso\n klauqmo/n
    Compare 2 Esdr 3.12-13

    8.10 "we have taken a solemn oath together"
    o(/rkw| w(rki/samen a)llh/lous
    Compare Ex 13.19

    9.3 "he prayed a prayer"
    hu)/cato eu)xh/n
    See 1 Sm 1.11 (following klai/ousa e)/klausen)

    9.10 "they wept bitterly"
    e)/klausan klauqmo\n pikro/n
    See Jdg 21.2 (AB), 1 Sm 1.10, 2 Sm 13.36

    9.22 "let us stone him with stones"
    li/qois liqobolh/swmen
    See Ex 19.13, 21.28, Lev 20.27, 24.15 (juridical idiom)

    <gk>e)k</gk> [=? <hb>min</hb> plus genitive = indefinite plural (only in longer version):

    5.35 "taking some of the figs"
    e)pa/ras e)k tw=n su/kwn

    7.29 "I found some of the people hung up"
    hu(/riskon e)k tou= laou= kremame/nous

    Relative pronoun completed by personal pronoun (only in longer version):

    9.6 "in whom all judgment was hidden"
    w(=| pa=sa kri/sis ke/kruptai e)n au)tw=|

    <gk>me/nein</gk> with supplementary participle (occurs a total of 8 or 9 times, in both longer and shorter versions):

    4.12 (l & s) "he remained sitting in a tomb"
    e)/meinen e)n mnhmei/w| kaqezo/menos

    5.13 (l & s) "he stayed there grieving"
    e)/meine lupou/menos

    9.1 (not s) "[they] were rejoicing and offering sacrifices"
    e)/meinan . . . xai/rontes kai\ a)nafe/rontes qusi/as
    Compare Judith 7.5 e)/menon fula/ssontes

    This exact construction is rare in LXX/OG; see e)/mein- plus infinitive in Isa 5.7. Check "late Greek" syntax.

    Idiomatic uses of <gk>poiei=n</gk> (only in longer version):

    6.8 "they are 66 years old"
    e(chkontae\c e)/th e)poi/hsan

    6.16 "let 15 days go by"
    poih/swsi -IE- h(me/ras

    7.33 "the entire time that we have spent here"
    o(/lon to\n xro/non o(\n e)poih=samen e)ntau=qa

    9.16 "to bear fruit"
    poih=sai karpo/n