`IGUR 11.338 Tombstone Inscription

Religious Studies 735 Realia (Fall 2007) Class Project
Transcribe, translate, and annotate [new notes in red] this Roman tombstone inscription


H   ·   X

[Sarah's draft]

To the Heroes Beneath


Subterranean (or Chthonic or "of the underworld")

for Annia Theraidis  
who was (my) own companion (omit who was)
a good and excellent woman  
and loving her husband alone well beloved
and benevolent to all (omit to all)
T(itos) Kornelios Poubli-  
anos, my dear for a memorial
goodbye and you farewell, also you

See IGUR 11.338: L[uigi]. Moretti, Inscriptiones Graecae Urbis Romae. Rome, 1968-1979 [first published in Riv. Fil. Class., 86 (1958) p.178 sq, as noted below in green].

"Ara ex marmore [altar made of marble] [without any inventory number]
alta 1,01, lata 0,52, crassa 0,24; litterae 0,03 [3.1 cm, 1st/2nd century]. [metric dimensions; stone and letters]
In aetomate aquila alis expansis. [decoration at top: eagle with wings stretched out [negli acroteri, palmette]; note also in the transcription of line 6, reference is made to "(urceus)" and "(patera)" on either side, that is, the image of a pitcher on the left side of the stone, and of a patera plate on the right (barely visible in the image, but at the level of line 3)]
In horto Musei Nationalis Romani [location: in the garden/courtyard of the National Museum]

descripsi et edidi, Riv. Fil. Class., 86 (1958) p.178 sq. (= SEG XVII 468). [publications]
[transcription: Η(ρωσι) Χ(θονίοις) /Αννίαι θηραίδι / τῆ ἰδία συμβίωι / ἀγαθῆ καὶ ἀσυνκρί / τω καὶ μόνη φιλάνδρω / (urceus) καὶ φιλανθρόπωι [sic] (patera) / Τ(ίτος) Κορνήλιος Πουβλι / ανὸς μνίας χάριν· / χαίρετε· καὶ σύ ] [combined diacritics and iota subscripts need adding]
L. 1: compendium H X hic tantum occurrit. -- [unique occurrance of the H X abbreviation (unless the restoration of Θ before X in IGUR 2.403, 2.511 and 2.814 is wrong), equivalent to Θ X (θεοῖς χθονίοις) in IGUR 2.523, IG 2.5020 (spelled out; Athens) and IG 14.30 (spelled out, Syracuse), 14.49 (abbrev., Syracuse); see also 14.457; and most frequently Θ Κ (θεοῖς καταχθονίοις) -- see e.g. IG 2.13225 (abbreviated), 13226 (full), Att.Ag 17.1040 (full) (all from Athens), and hundreds more!; but reversed Κ Θ in Apam./Pylai 8, IGUR 2.305 (the variant θεοῖς ἐπιχθονίοις also occurs in IGUR 2.531 and 2.649, θεοῖς ὑποχθονίοις in 2.747) -- and D M (Diis Manibus) in Latin inscriptions; see also Θ Η (θεοῖς ηρωσιν) in IGUR 2.504 [IG 14.1572, 1795, 2257]; Θ Δ (θεοῖς δαίμοσιν) also is found (e.g. IGUR 2.297 and 2.997, spelled out in 2.700), and Θ Μ (Θεοῖς Μνήμασι) in IGUR 2.610 (spelled out in 2.922). This terminology is unattested in the papyri.]

[line2 and passim: note use of midpoints to separate words]

[line 3: the first two letters seem to have been added (followed by the midpoint), along with the iota adscript at the end; of 28 occurrences of this description on the Packard Humanities Institute CD-ROM with inscriptions, all but three use the definite article (exceptions are IGUR 2.323 [Rome], Smyrn. 812 [Ionia], and MAMA 7.460 [Phrygia]); a "W" shaped omega is used here, unlike two in the "classic" form later on the stone; lunate sigma is used here and throughout. Significance for dating?]

[line 4: this combination of adjectives is rare]

L. 5: de adiectivi μόνος vi et usu cfr. nr. 565. 946. 972; praeterea J. et L. Robert, Bull. epigr. 1959 nr. 524; Hellenica, XIII,  p.216 n. -- [discussion of this use of MONOS; note that there is no indication of spacing (no midpoint marking is visible) between KAI and MONH]
L. 7 [=6]: φιλάνθροπος [sic] id est εὐσεβὴς περὶ . . . ἀνθρώπους (nr. 591 [IG 14.1664]). See M.N.Tod, "Laudatory epithets in Greek Epitaphs," Ann. Brit. School Athens 46 (1951) 182-190 -- [interpretation; note also that the initial KAI (not followed by a midpoint?) and the final I in this line seem to be secondary additions]

[line 7: T. Kornelios Publianos is otherwise unknown]

[line 8: μνίας (or μνείας) χάριν is very frequent in such inscriptions, sometimes followed immediately by χαῖρε (6 such examples on the PHI disk) or χαίρετε (see further below)]

[line 9:] De formula χαίρετε ( vel χαῖρε)· καὶ σύ, infra nr. 376. 489. 542. 725. 804." [is the use of the plural verb significant? Normally the "farewell" is addressed  to the deceased, which in this instance should be in the singular. Frequently the "and to you" is added with specific reference to the "passerby" (usually singular) or to "whomever you may be" (again singular). It seems unlikely that the plural "farewell" here is addressed to the "heroes," since presumably the deceased has joined them. It also seems unlikely that the KAI SU refers to the deceased, given the numerous parallels that refer explicitly to the onlooker. The two exact parallels on the PHI disk have no explicit reference to any plural addressees -- IG (Macedonia, 2nd ce) and TAM 4.1.282 (Asia Minor), although Caria.Strat. 107*5 and SB 1.662 (Alexandria?) have χαίρετε πάροδοι (farewell, passers-by) instead of the more usual χαῖρε παρόδιτα (singular). Moretti thinks it is a farewell from the deceased to those passing by (see above), with the καὶ σύ as their reply, and notes that the more normal form in Roman Greek inscriptions is χαῖρε (singular) καὶ σύ (he refers to the index of IG 14, p.763). This seems quite unlikely, in view of the well attested pattern: name of deceased (and of the sponsor), statement that this is a memorial (line 8), farewell to the deceased (often by name), added farewell to the viewer. Note that KAI and SU are not marked as separate words here; it might also be possible to read this line as χαῖρε τε καὶ σύ, reading the τε as an enclitic. Moretti's interpretation would make sense only if clear precedent could be shown for the "farewell" sentiment being understood as the deceased addressing the reader/viewer, rather than the dedicator/inscriber addressing the deceased. But the repetition of farewells in such formulae (e.g. χαῖρε· χαῖρε καὶ σύ), often with the deceased name also included with the first "farewell," suggests that the initial "farewell" is understood to be directed to the deceased (sometimes even specified as ὴρως, sometimes also with χρήστε -- noble hero), and the second one (often with καὶ σύ) to the bypasser and/or viewer.]


SEG 17 ["14" sic PHI disk].468: Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Leiden, 1923-1971 then Amsterdam, 1979- to date