by Robert A. Kraft (University of Pennsylvania)

   \1/This paper was originally presented at the SBL 1993 Pseudepigrapha Symposium, Washington DC, and has not appeared in hardcopy publication before this.

Books associated with Enoch are frequently mentioned, often in passing, in the surviving literatures of early Judaism and early Christianity, and it is not always possible to determine whether the references or allusions are to works that have survived under the name of Enoch (especially in the library called “1 Enoch,” or the “2 Enoch” materials). This investigation attempts to explore the several “Enoch” references in the surviving witnesses to the “Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.”\2/ An appendix listing the occurrences (with variations) of the terms ἔγνων (I know) and ἀνέγνων (I read) and related passages is provided as well.

\2/  The textual information is drawn from the editions of R. H. Charles (The Greek Versions of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Edited from nine MSS together with The Variants of the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and Some Hebrew Fragments [Oxford: Clarendon, 1908]) and M. deJonge (The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: a Critical Edition of the Greek Text [Leiden: Brill, 1978]). Note that the TLG text (as of July 2008) is that of M. de Jonge, Testamenta xii patriarcharum (2nd ed.; Pseudepigrapha veteris testamenti Graece 1; Leiden: Brill, 1970) 1–86.

1. The Text-critical (Recension-critical) Problems

The two most extensive “recensional” type differences reflected in the surviving manuscripts of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs are between the text represented in Greek MS b (= de Jonge “fam 1” and included in Charles’ “beta” group) and that in Greek MSS chij (near the end of de Jonge’s “fam 2” stemma, basic to the “alpha” text of Charles). This presentation focuses on an evaluation of the evidence from MS b (sometimes joined by the incomplete witness k), relative to the variants contained in the different manuscript groupings represented by glmdA[rmenian], efaS[lavonic], cn, hij.\3/

\3/    See comparative stemma charts by Charles and de Jonge.

2. The Problem of the “Storyline”

Since the work (or anthology?) called “Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs” purports to be the words of each aged patriarch to his children/successors,\4/ it assumes a situation prior to Moses and the development of what has come to be known as Jewish “scriptures.” It talks a great deal about “words/teachings” (λόγοι—logoi) and “law” (νομός—nomos) and “commandments” (ἐντολαί—entolai), but seldom in relation to written formats. When it does refer to written authority, it almost always identifies such either with Enoch (usually as the or a “book” of) or with the “tablets” (ἐν πλαξὶ—en plaxi, presumably understood to be in the heavens, as some MSS explicitly state). It also uses “letter” (γράμμα—gramma) language on a few occasions to speak about literacy and education, including the ability to “read” (ἀναγιγνώσκειν—anagignōskein, in most witnesses) the law of God (TLevi 13.2 [omitted in MSS chij]—in a poetic chapter that Kee thinks “intrusive”).\5/

\4/ See the similar “testamentary” pattern in Gen 49, where Jacob addresses each of his sons, the patriarchs, before he dies.
\5/ Howard Kee, OTP 1.792. See also T.Reuben 4.1 “be occupied with learning” (ἐν γράμμασι—en grammasi). For some related details, see the Appendix.

3. References to the (Heavenly) “Tablets”

TLevi 5.4\6/  Καὶ συνετέλεσα τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἐμμώρ, καθῶς γέγραπται ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τῶν οὐρανῶν
—Levi’s angelic guide instructs him to avenge Dinah, whereupon Levi comments “and at that time I dispatched (sunetelesa) the sons of Hemmor, as it is written in the tablets [MS g has “deeds” (πράξεσι—praxesi)] of the heavens [MSS chij have “of the fathers,” perhaps reflecting confusion in reading abbreviated words\7/]”—the potentially embarrassing story of Simeon and Levi deceitfully slaughtering Hamor and his supporters is told in Gen 34.25ff.

\6/ This passage is lacking in the extracts preserved by MS k.
\7/ In the development of abbreviations used especially in Christian texts, both “heavens” (OUNWN) and “fathers” (PRWN) usually occurred, overlined; similarly “of men” (ANWN), which also occurs in variant forms of this formula, usually would have been abbreviated. A similar sort of variation may be found in parallel passages from the Apocalypse of Sedrach and Greek Apocalypse of Esdras (“race of men” [ANWN], “race of Christians” [XRNWN?]).

TAsher 2.10\8/  Καὶ γὰρ ὁ Θεὸς ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τῶν οὐρανῶν οὕτως εἶπεν
—At the conclusion of a lengthy discussion of good deeds done in an evil context, where both types of action would thus be judged evil, “…for God also said this [see var: explicitly hij] in the tablets [var S: books (βιβλίοις—bibliois), g adds: in deeds (πράξεσι—praxesi)] of the heavens [var: of the commandments chij]”—the immediate allusion is to the hare, which is considered “unclean” for not having split hooves, despite also having the “clean” feature of chewing its cud.\9/

\8/ This is lacking in “l”; also T.Asher 1–6 is lacking in k’s extracts.
\9/ See Leviticus 11.6, Deut 14.7; for an early Christian interpretation of such laws, see Barnabas 10.

TAsher 7.5\10/  Ἀνέγνων γὰρ ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τῶν οὐρανῶν, ὅτι ἀπειθοῦντες ἀπειθήσετε αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες ἀσεβήσητε εἰς αὐτόν, μὴ προσέχοντες τὸν νόμον τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀλλ’ ἐντολαῖς ἀνθρώπων
—Asher instructs his children, including the expectation that “a man” will come from God to help save the day, but Asher “reads [var eaf chij: knows] in the tablets of the heavens [var g: in the deeds (πράξεσι—praxesi) of men; om i.t.t.o.t.h. chij]” that they will be rebellious towards him and will “not pay attention to the law of God, but to the commandments of men.”\11/  

\10/ This is lacking in “m.”
\11/ Note that the chij text is significantly different in its reading “for I know that you will be disobeyingly disobedient to him…” (no reference to the tablets).

Cf. TZebulon 9.5 Ἔγνων ἐν γραφῇ πατέρων μου, ὅτι ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις ἀποστήσεσθε ἀπὸ Κυρίου
—Among warnings about not becoming divided, “I recognize (egnōn) in the scripture (grafēi) of my fathers that in the last days you will depart from the Lord…” I suspect that this is another of the Enoch or “tablets of heavens” passages, which has become corrupted in all the manuscripts (abbreviated “fathers” [ΠΡΩΝ] and “heavens” [ΟΥΡΩΝ] would be very similar), judging from the formulaic language and the textual variations present in similar contexts—thus it probably once had something like “I read in the tablets of the heavens that…”

Cf. TJudah 20.3f. Καίγε τὰ τῆς ἀληθείας καὶ τὰ τῆς πλάνης γέγραπται ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος τοῦ ἀνθρώπου• καὶ ἓν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν γνωρίζει Κύριος. (4.) Καὶ οὐκ ἔστι καιρός, ἐν ὧ δυνήσεται λαθεῖν ἀνθρώπων ἔργα• ὅτι ἐν στήθει ὀστέων αὐτὸς ἐγγέγραπται ἐνώπιον Κυρίου.
—In a context discussing the two spirits vying in humans, “the things of truth and the things of waywardness are written (gegraptai) on the breast (stēthos) of a man, and the Lord knows each one of them; …for in the breast of his bone it is inscribed (eggegraptai) before the Lord.” There are some features here that might encourage the idea that behind this text lies a reference to the tablets and/or a book of Enoch.

4. References to Book(s)/Scripture of Enoch

TSimeon 5.4 Ἑώρακα γὰρ ἐν χαρακτῆρι γραφῆς Ἐνὼχ ὅτι υἱοὶ ὑμῶν μεθ’ ὑμῶν ἐν πορνείᾳ φθαρήσονται, καὶ ἐν Λευὶ ἀδικήσουσιν ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ
—In the context of warnings about envy and sexual promiscuity, “for I have seen (heōraka) in the writing (en charaktēri) of the scripture (grafēs) [var chij γραφίδι—grafidi] of Enoch that your sons with you [om w.y. chij] will be corrupted by fornication and will deal unjustly with Levi by a sword.”

TLevi 10.5 ὁ γὰρ οἶκος, ὃν ἂν ἐξελέξηται Κύριος, Ἱερουσαλὴμ κληθήσεται, καθὼς περιέχει βίβλος Ἔνωχ τοῦ δικαίου
—Levi’s descendants will be so wicked that Jerusalem cannot bear them, the temple veil will be rent and they will be disgracefully scattered; “for the dwelling (oikos) which the Lord will select shall be called Jerusalem [var dm: Israel; var d: holy; om s.b.c.J. f.], as a [var chij: the] book of Enoch the righteous contains (periechei).” It appears that the anachronism of “Jerusalem” (and also the temple and its veil!) being mentioned at such an early time, and probably also the potential difficulty of abbreviated words (Jerusalem = ILHM; Israel = IHL), have produced some confusion in the transmission of this passage. The problem is addressed by referring vaguely to a prediction.\12/
\12/ See also T.Levi 15.1, T.Judah 23.5, T.Benjamin 9.

TLevi 14.1 Καὶ νῦν, τέκνα, ἔγνων ἀπὸ γραφῆς Ἐνώχ, ὅτι ἐπὶ τέλει ἀσεβήσητε ἐπὶ Κύριον, χεῖρας ἐπιβάλλοντες ἐν πάσῃ κακίᾳ, καὶ αἰσχυνθήσονται ἐφ’ ὑμῖν οἱ ἀδελφοὶ ὑμῶν, καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσι γενήσεται χλευασμός.
—After the poem of TLevi 13 (see above) on observing God’s law and acquiring wisdom, “and now [var therefore chij: + my m e chij], children, I know (egnōn) from a [var e: the] scripture (apo grafēs) of Enoch [f.a.s.o.E. om chij; var k: + the righteous] that at the end (epi telei, or similarly) [var chij: + of the ages] you will act impiously against the Lord….” It is interesting to note that Milik identifies one of the 4Q Aramaic scraps with this context, and finds in it an explicit reference to Enoch after a passage about the moon and heavenly lights. \13/
\13/ See T.Levi 14.3f.

TLevi 16.1f. Καὶ νῦν ἔγνων ἐν βιβλίῳ Ἐνώχ, ὅτι ἑβδομήκοντα ἑβδομάδας πλανηθήσεσθε, καὶ τὴν ἱερωσύνην βεβηλώσητε καὶ τὰς θυσίας μιανεῖτε, (2) καὶ τὸν νόμον ἀφανίσητε καὶ λόγους προφητῶν ἐξουθενώσητε, ἐν διαστροφῇ διώξετε ἄνδρας δικαίους, καὶ εὐσεβεῖς μισήσητε, ἀληθινῶν λόγους βδελύξησθε
—After reference to the destruction of the temple and subsequent captivity in the previous chapter, “and now I know (egnōn [var d, perhaps correctly: I read (anegnōn)]) in a [var d: the] book of Enoch [i.a.b.o.E. om chij] that you will wander (or go astray) for seventy weeks…and you will set the law aside and nullify the words of the prophets…you will abominate the words of the true witnesses (alēthinōn).”

TJudah 18.1 Ὅτι καίγε ἀνέγνων ἐν βίβλοις Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου, ὅσα κακὰ ποιήσετε ἐπ’ ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις
—After warning about the dangers of money and beautiful women, and reference to the kingly centrality of Judah, “for even so I read (anegnōn [var eaf: I know (egnōn); var chij: I know (egnōka)] in books [var gld: a book] of Enoch the righteous [i.b.o.E.t.r. om chij] how many bad things you will do in the last days”—specifically porneia (sexual impropriety) and love of money.

TZebulon 3.4 Διὰ τοῦτο ἐν γραφῇ νόμου Ἐνὼχ γέγραπται, τὸν μὴ θέλοντα ἀναστῆσαι σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ, ὑπολυθήσεσθαι τὸ ὑπόδημα, καὶ ἐμπτύεσθαι εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον
—in an unusual explanation of the actions surrounding the sale of Joseph into slavery, the focus is placed on the purchase of shoes with the money that was received by the brothers, symbolizing distain for Joseph’s lording it over them; “wherefore in a scripture of a law [of a law om d, perhaps correctly] of Enoch [var chij: Moses] it is written that the one who does not desire to raise up seed to his brother shall have his shoe pulled off and be spit upon in the face” (see Deut 25.5-10). But since Joseph’s brothers did not want him to live, the Lord removed them as “Joseph’s shoe” and when they went to Egypt Joseph had their shoes removed before the gate, where they did reverence to Joseph as Pharoah’s representative—and they were spit upon!

TDan 5.6 Ἀνέγνων γὰρ ἐν βίβλῳ Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου, ὅτι ὁ ἄρχων ὑμῶν ἐστιν ὁ Σατανᾶς
—In a ringing condemnation of the expected evils of Dan’s descendants, including acting like the gentiles and consorting with loose women, “I read (anegnōn) in a book of Enoch the righteous [var chij: + and I know/find] that your leader is the Satan….” The textual evidence suggests that the text behind chij, as is normal for that text type (see above), did not refer to the book of Enoch here (“and I know” is the expected text of chij, here preserved as a doublet).

TNaphthali 4.1 Ταῦτα λέγω, τέκνα μου, ὅτι ἀνέγνων ἐν γραφῇ ἁγίᾳ Ἐνώχ, ὅτι καίγε καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀποστήσεσθε ἀπὸ Κυρίου, πορευόμενοι κατὰ πᾶσαν πονηρίαν ἐθνῶν, καὶ ποιήσετε κατὰ πᾶσαν ἀνομίαν Σοδόμων
—After warnings not to alter nature’s way (God’s way) like the idolatrous gentiles or the Sodomites, reference is made to the fall of the watchers, whom God cursed at the flood and on whose account God ordered the earth to be uninhabited by dwellers or produce. “I say these things [var deaf chij: + to you], my children, because I read (anegnōn [var eaf chij: I know (egnōn)] in a [var c: the] holy [ldeaf chij om] scripture of Enoch that even you yourselves will be estranged from the Lord, proceeding according to every wickedness of the gentiles, and you will do every lawless deed of Sodom [var d: demons].” The idea that the watchers were, in part, seduced by deceitful women, and influenced the birth of giants by appearing as apparitions while the women were having intercourse with their husbands, appears in TReuben 5, but without any explicit reference to Enoch traditions.

Cf. TNaphthali 5.8 – Καὶ εἶδον, ὅτι ἤμην ἐκεῖ που, καὶ ἰδοὺ γραφὴ ἁγία ὤφθη ἡμῖν, λέγουσα• Ἀσσύριοι, Μῆδοι, Πέρσαι, Ἐλιμαῖοι, Γελαχαῖοι, Χαλδαῖοι, Σύροι, κληρονομήσουσιν ἐν αἰχμαλωσίᾳ τὰ δώδεκα σκῆπτρα τοῦ Ἰσραήλ.
—The patriarch has a dream about Levi and Judah being elevated by grasping the sun and moon, but Joseph seizes the bull with eagle’s wings and ascends on high. “And I saw (eidon) that I was…[confused text], and behold a holy scripture (grafē hagia) appeared to us [var m: me] saying” that various nations would share the captivity of Israel. Whether and to what extent this “scripture” is to be associated with either the heavenly tablets or the book(s) of Enoch is no longer clear, but the passage is suggestive of such a background.

TBenjamin 9.1 Ὑπονοῶ δὲ καὶ πράξεις ἐν ὑμῖν οὐ καλὰς ἔσεσθαι, ἀπὸ λόγων Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου. Πορνεύσετε γὰρ πορνείαν Σοδόμων
—In the context of warnings against sexual misconduct, “I perceive (uponoō) [var c+: I tell you] that deeds shall be among you that are not good [t.d.s.b.a.y.t.a.n.g. om c+], [var l: + now I also read (anegnōn); var d: + for I know (egnōn)] from [var d: + the book of] the words [var c: oracles] of Enoch the righteous. For you will engage in the porneia (sexual misconduct) of Sodom….” The same textual features as appear in several other Enoch passages are present in some witnesses here, suggesting that similar developments in transmission lie behind the preserved texts.

5. Chart of Significant Textual Relations/Features

MS b and most others (de Jonge)
 MSS c hij (Charles)
[x indicates rare occurrances in the Testaments]
TSim 5.4 Ἑώρακα γὰρ ἐγὼ ἐν χαρακτῆρι
γραφῆς Ἐνὼχ
 Ἑώρακα γὰρ ἐγὼ ἐν χαρακτῆρι
γραφίδι [x] Ἐνὼχ
TLev 5.4 καθῶς γέγραπται ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ
τῶν οὐρανῶν
καθῶς γέγραπται ἐν πλαξὶ
τῶν πατέρων
10.5 καθὼς περιέχει βίβλος Ἔνωχ
τοῦ δικαίου 
 καθὼς π. βίβλος Ἔνωχ
τοῦ δικαίου
14.1 ἔγνων ἀπὸ γραφῆς Ἐνώχ
16.1 ἔγνων (/ἀνέγνων d) ἐν βιβλ(ί)ῳ Ἐνώχ  
ἐγὼ ἔγνωκα [x]
TJud 18.1 ἀνέγνων ἐν βίβλοις (/βίβλῳ dg) Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου
 ἔγνωκα [x]
TZeb 3.4 ἐν γραφῇ νόμου (om d)
 Ἐνὼχ γέγραπται 
ἐν γραφῇ νόμου
Μωυσέως γέγραπται
TDan 5.6 Ἀνέγνων γὰρ ἐν βίβλῳ Ἐνὼχ
τοῦ δικαίου 
 Ἀνέγνων γὰρ ἐν βίβλῳ Ἐνὼχ
τοῦ δικαίου καὶ ἔγνων (εὗρον hi)
TNaf 4.1 ἀνέγνων ἐν γραφῇ ἁγίᾳ Ἐνώχ
ἔγνων ἐν τῇ (om hi) γραφῇ Ἐνώχ
TAsh 2.10 ὁ Θεὸς ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τῶν οὐρανῶν
οὕτως εἶπεν 
ὁ Θεὸς ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τῶν ἐντολῶν
οὕτως εἶπεν
7.5 Ἀνέγνων γὰρ ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τῶν οὐρανῶν
TBen 9.1 Ὑπονοῶ δὲ καὶ πράξεις ἐν ὑμῖν οὐ καλὰς ἔσεσθαι,
ἀπὸ λόγων Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου
(see d, ἔγνων γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς βίβλου λόγων Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου)
ἀπὸ λογίων [x] Ἐνὼχ τοῦ δικαίου

6. Conclusions

Clearly there is a battle over the presence or absence of explicit references to Enoch, to a book or books of Enoch, and also to the heavenly tablets, in the background of the preserved texts of the Testaments.

The ancestor of manuscript c and its allies (hij) is the most obvious “anti Enoch” witness, and the same textual stream avoids identifying the tablets as “heavenly.” Why this should be can only be conjectured. It seems less likely that the Enoch references are additions to an earlier text that made little or no reference to Enoch, than the opposite. Factors that could contribute to the demise of Enoch include the failure to find appropriately corresponding passages in the preserved Enoch literature and the hesitation to use “scripture” language in connection with Enoch at a time when “canonical” concerns marginalized the Enoch literature or stigmatized it. Perhaps a general distancing from certain forms of apocalyptic traditions also played a role (as, e.g., with the formerly “heavenly” tablets?), although much apocalyptic influence remains in all full texts of the Testaments.\14/  On the other hand, MS d sometimes appears to preserve even more “Enochic” flavor than even its close associates, as in TLevi 16.1f , TZebulon 3.4, and TBenjamin 9.1.
\14/ For the suggestion that one of the varieties of pre-Christian Judaism focused on Enoch (“Enochic Judaism”), see Gabriele Boccaccini, Beyond the Essene Hypothesis (1998). While it is not impossible that there were non-Christian recensional developments such as noted here in Jewish manuscripts and/or traditions, it seems more likely that Christian concerns were at work. On the revival of Christian interest in Enoch materials in the Byzantine period, see William Adler, Time Immemorial (1989).

Appendix on terminology for “knowing” and “reading” in the Testaments
ἔγνων (egnōn) and ἀνέγνων (anegnōn) and related passages

TLevi 13.2 …ἀναγινώσκοντες ἀδιαλείπτως τὸν νόμον τοῦ Θεοῦ—…that they might read [var e d: know] the law…
     14.1 [see above] ἔγνων ἀπὸ γραφῆς Ἐνώχ, ὅτι—I know from [om chij]…that
TJudah 18.1 [see above] I read [var eaf chij: knew] in…
TZebulon 9.5 [see above] Ἔγνων ἐν γραφῇ πατέρων μου, ὅτι—I knew in the scripture of my fathers that…
TDan 5.6 [see above] For I read in…[var chij: + and knew]
TNaphtali 4.1 [see above] For I read [var eaf chij: knew] in…
TAsher 7.5 [see above] For I read [var eaf chij: knew] in…

TReub 6.8 Λευί, ὅτι αὐτὸς γνώσεται νόμον Κυρίου—Levi knows Lord’s [var: God’s chij] law
TSim 2.13 ἔγνων, τέκνα, ὅτι περὶ Ἰωσὴφ—I know concerning Joseph
2.14 Ἔγνων γάρ, ὅτι πονηρὸν πρᾶγμα ἐνεθυμήθην ἐνώπιον Κυρίου—I know that (refers to sinfulness/porneia)
    3.4 ἔγνων ὅτι ἡ λύσις τοῦ φθόνου διὰ φόβου Θεοῦ γίνεται—I know that (regarding redemption from sin)
        4.3 ἔγνων ὅτι δικαίως πάσχω, καὶ οὐκ ἐλυπούμη—I know that (I suffer and am freed)
TLevi 4.1 Νῦν οὖν γινώσκετε, ὅτι ποιήσει Κύριος κρίσιν—Now you know [var: ginwske g chij] that Lord judges
        13.3 ὅτι πᾶς, ὃς γνώσεται νόμον Θεοῦ τιμηθήσεται—For everyone who knows God’s law is rewarded…
        17.8 ὅτι αὐτοὶ γνώσονται, οἱ ποιοῦντες αὐτά—For those who do these things know
TJudah 10.3 αὐτὸς οὐκ ἔγνω αὐτήν—He [Er] had not known her [Tamar] [note the much shorter context in chij !]
        10.4 καίγε οὗτος ἐν πονηρίᾳ οὐκ ἔγνω αὐτήν—He also [Onan], in a wicked act, knew her not
        11.4 Γνοὺς δὲ ὃ ἐποίησε—But knowing [var chij: epignous] what he did
        12.10 ἐνόμιζεν, ὅτι οὐδεὶς ἔγνω ὅτι—I thought that noone would know that…
TIss 1.15 Καὶ ἔγνω Ἰακὼβ τὴν Λίαν—And Jacob knew Leiah [var d: in that night !]
        7.1 καὶ οὐκ ἔγνων ἐπ’ ἐμὲ ἁμαρτίαν εἰς θάνατον—And I do not know on me a sin…
        7.2 οὐκ ἔγνων ἄλλην—I knew no other [om chij]
TZeb 1.4 Οὐκ ἔγνων, τέκνα μου, ὅτι ἥμαρτον—I knew not, my child [om  m.c. gldmeaf chi(?)j] that
TNaph 2.5 …ἣν οὐκ ἔγνω Κύριος—… which knew not the Lord.
         3.4 …τέκνα μου, γνόντες ἐν στερεώματι—…my children, know [see vars] in the firmament…
TGad 5.6 Ταῦτα ἐγὼ ἔσχατον ἔγνων μετὰ τὸ μετανοῆσαί με—These things I knew last, after…
        8.2 Ἔγνων γὰρ ὅτι ἐπὶ τέλει ἀποστήσονται…—For I know that…
TJos 3.9 Καὶ νοήσας ἐλυπήθην…—And knowing this I was grieving…
        6.6 Νῦν οὖν γνῶθι, ὅτι…—Now, then, know that…
        7.7 Καὶ οὐκ ἔγνω, ὅτι…—And I knew not that…
       10.5 Γινώσκουσιν οἱ ἀδελφοί μου, πῶς…—My brothers know how…
       15.2 ἰδοὺ ἔγνωμεν, ὅτι…—Behold we knew that…
       17.4 ἔγνωσαν ὅτι…—They knew that…
TBenj 9.5 Ἔγνω δὲ οἷος…—Now I knew which…
        10.2 Γινώσκετε οὖν, τέκνα μου, ὅτι…—You know, then, my children, that…
[[converted to html version 24oc2008 rak]]