Resources and Issues in Textual Criticism

Compiled by Robert Kraft from information supplied on the
electronic discussion group MEDTEXTL

Topics in Textual Criticism

[From: Jim Marchand <marchand@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU>
Date: Tue, 26 Jul 1994 09:10:28 CST]

I thought I would add a note on a small book everyone knows and
uses: Paul Maas, Textkritik, 3d ed. (Leipzig: Teubner, 1957),
also available in English translation: Textual Criticism, tr.
Barbara Flower (Oxford: Clarendon, 1958).  I should point out
that it is Lachmannian through and through, but it is still a
good intro.  For a list of subjects, I append here an old handout
for a privatissimum I had long ago on the subject, but it may be
of use to you as a place to hang your thoughts.  If you add to it
or have exceptions to make, let us know.

 1. recensio, examinatio, interpretatio, emendatio.
 2. stemma and the genealogical method.
 3. families, types, etc.
 4. shared innovations.
 5. autograph, copy, archetype, hyparchetype, exemplar.
 6. scribal errors. errors of the eye, the hand, the ear.
 7. haplography, dittography, lettres dansantes, poor eidetic memory.
 8. lectio difficilior, facilior.
 9. wandering eye.
10. parallel texts.
11. poor knowledge of scribal tradition.
12. codicology and textual critisism.
13. gatherings and their nature.
14. omission signs.
15. signatures of various kinds; custodes.
16. corrective signs of various kinds, cf. Isidore.
17. marginalia.
18. interlinear material.
19. Problems of order of the text. Interpolations.
20. Word confusion:
      Oh, that this all too sullied/solid flesh would melt!
21. Suspension marks.
22. holes in the parchment.
23. Diplomatic edition.
24. Zeilengetreue edition.
25. photographic edition; problems.
2S. crux.
27. logic; knowledge of ones author.
28. normalization.
29. dialect variants and their origins.
30. scriptoria and their practices.
31. good and bad manuscripts.
32. Lachmann, Quentin, Bedier.
33. The unique manuscript and textual criticism.
34. Generic vs. genetic in textual criticism.
35. The attribution of works of literature (see other page on this).

36. Rejection of passages because they do not fit expected patterns.
37. Agreement & influence: the problem of reciprocal corrections.
      Did Gottfried precede Wolfram or vice versa or neither?
38. Infusion of texts.
39. Mode of existence of the text and audience problems.
40. Ausgabe 1., 2. ... letzter Hand.
41. Corrections made in the day; are they privileged7
42. Are stemmata drawn on manuscripts or passages?
43. Colwell's dilemma.
44. multiple autographs.
45. Texteinteilung.
46. Punctuation (cf. Denholm-Young).
47. Numerical composition as a tool.
48. Dating as a tool.
49. Quotations etc. as a tool.
50. Common errors as a tool. (t for c , etc.).
51. Manuscript chronology and the fallacy of dating.
52. Variantenverzeichnis, variorum edition, text to choose.
53. The individual mistake and the tendency of the text.
[54. Special problems of translated texts. RAK]

Editing techniques
[From: Jim Marchand <marchand@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU>
Date: Thu, 13 Oct 1994 09:13:07 CST]

To aid in the discussion of editing techniques, I herewith append
one of the handouts for my talk at SASS last spring, on editing
techniques for Old Norse texts.  It is fragmentary and is not the
real handout, which I could not find, but it should be a place to
hang one's thoughts.

[The question of editing set me to thinking.  I recently had to
make up a time-line of events in editing technique, and I said at
the time from memory that it was in the Vaestgoeta Lag edition of
Schlyter and Collin (1827) that the first stemma appeared.  As
usual, I had lost my confirmation, and, since I don't make it up
to the library very much, was kind of stuck.  I now can offer
confirmation: Go"sta Holm, "Carl Johan Schlyter and Textual
Scholarship," Saga och Sed, Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademiens
Aarsbok (Uppsala: Lundequist, 1972), 48-80.  I am sure he is
right when he says (p. 52): "as far as I can see, his is the
first manuscript stemma ever to be published."  This is fairly
important, for he seems not to have been influenced by Lachmann,
and it shows (read Goethe & Herder) that Darwinism and dendrology
were in the air.  Colwell's article on "Genealogical Method"
ought to be required reading for editors. (Sun, 24 Jul 1994
19:42:00 CST Jim Marchand <marchand@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU>)]

<h1>Timeline of Editing Techniques</>

1820- Dendrology.  Main proponent Lachmann, cf. S. Timpanaro, La
genesi del metodo del Lachmann (Florence, 1963).  First stemma
drawn by Schlyter in his edition of the V!stg!talagen, SGL 1

1850- For a short time the attempt at a Zeilengetreue edition
appeared, with Uppstroem's still valid work on Gothic and, in
Scandinavia, particularly Konradh Gislason's Um frum-partar
islenzkrar tungu i fornoeld (Copenhagen, 1846).  Cf. Hans Fix,
"Production and Usage of a Machine-Readable Manuscript: A Report
on the Saarbruecken Verson of Gragas Konungsbok," Computer
Applications to Medieval Studies, ed. Anne Gilmour-Bryson.  
Studies in Medieval Culture XVII (Kalamazoo, 1984), 107-116.

1900- growing dissatisfaction with the genealogical method,
culminating in Bedier's many attacks, beginning with his
introduction to Le Lai de l'Ombre par Jean Renart, SATF (Paris,
1913).  The theory of the Leithandschrift.

1920- Dom Henri Quentin introduced the notion of numerical
taxonomy to textual criticism in Memoire sur l'etablissement du
texte de la Vulgate (Rome, 1922).  Cf. Dom J. Froger, La critique
des textes et son automatisation.  Initiation aux nouveautes de
la science, 7 (Paris, 1968).

1947- Colwell's Dilemma. In "Genealogical Method: Its
Achievements and its Limitations," Journal of Biblical Literature
19 (1947), 109-133, E. C. Colwell, the famous textual critic of
the Bible, mounted the strongest attack yet against the
genealogical method, in which he pointed out that it would only
work with a paucity of material.

1969- Hypertext.  Marchand's experiments with PLATO offer a text
which is not read in a one-pass method.  Various attempts at
reproduction of manuscripts on the computer.  Fonts.  

1970- Image Processing.  The methods used in processing images in
America's space program are used for manuscripts.  Scanning and
photography are combined, and we can now use the computer as both
darkroom and camers: Marchand, "The Computer as Camera and
Darkroom," Offline 37, ed Robert Kraft, 22-27. Posted for ftp in
the following groups: HUMANIST, IOUDAIOS, and RELIGION, January
30, 1992. It appears in hard copy in Religious Studies News 7, 2
(March 1992) and CSSR Bulletin 21, 2 (April 1992).

1985- Reconstitution.  Attempts are made at reconstituting a
manuscript, that is, using imaging techniques to make a copy of
the manuscript which resembles the original more then the
original (which has usually suffered the ravages of time and
`scholarship'). Marchand, "The Use of the Personal Computer in
the Humanities," Ideal 2 (1987), 17-32.

1989 - People begin to place texts (at first in ASCII, then in
SGML markup) on the network.  Project Gutenberg, Online Book
Initiative, Oxford Text Archive arise, and, finally, Lysator,
where a number of works of Old Swedish are placed, using various
markup techniques.  Gopher to Sweden and search for Lysator.

1990- Pictures and hypertexts can now be sent by network.  The
University of Illinois' Mosaic program, for example, permits
hypertext online.  One can download manuscript images of high
quality, such as those of the Vatican exhibit and the Book of
Kells.  For Mosaic:

1990- Various mark-up languages arise, such as SGML, and editions
are now available with such things as grammatical clues, mise en
page, etc. indicated.  With the arrival of HTML and browsers such
as Mosaic, hypertext editions are creatable by anyone. For HTML:, and:

1994- First hypertext/html edition of Old Norse material (runes),
Runer i Bergen.

<h1>Some Types of Edition</>

1. Ad usum delphini.  Editions which are normalized and normally
without textual notes.  Meant to be used in the classroom.

     1a. Editio castigata, a bowdlerized edition; editio
definitiva, the edition `approved' by the author as final;
Ausgabe letzter Hand, last edition put out by the author, with
possible additions.

2. Modernized.  Editions, such as those of the
islendingasagnautgafan, where the text has been slightly

3. Diplomatic edition.  Here, several versions of the same text
are presented, usually in an `apparatus' at the bottom of the
page.  Either some attempt is made at reconstructing the
`archetype' [see 3a, below] or a manuscript is presented with
differences presented in the apparatus.  Usually contains
conjectural emendations.  Finnur J!nsson's Skjaldedigtning.

[3a. Eclectic edition. An attempt is made to recreate from the
textual materials as close an approximation as possible to the
oldest recoverable form of the target text. Emendations are often
employed. RAK]

4. Zeilengetreu ["Replica" edition. RAK].  In such an edition, an
attempt is made to preserve the mise en page of the original;
lines are maintained, punctuation is retained, etc. Cf. G!slason,
mentioned above.

5.  Photographic.  An edition made by film and camera for the
most part, using various filtrations and methods of printing.

6.  Computer enhanced.  Either a photograph is scanned in or a
digitizing camera is used.  Using (one hopes) only algorithms,
the image is enhanced to improve the photographic image.  With
patience, miracles can be attained.

<h1>Interesting Quotations</>

1. James Willis, Latin Textual Criticism (Urbana: U of Illinois,
1972), 2: "There are many useful jobs which can be done by men
who do not like to think. They can dig ditches, clean
automobiles, and compile concordances. They cannot, however,
become good textual critics. For the other tasks the willingness
to work and the ability to understand and carry out simple
instructions are enough: in textual criticism there are no simple
instructions. Its subject matter is, at the one end, the highest
achievements of literary technique; at the other, the mistakes
made and the lies told by ignorant, careless, or impudent
scribes, arising from negligence, misunderstanding, and a
pernicious desire to do good." {Don't you just hate scribes?}

(I should have added translations, with their various types.
Jim Marchand.)

<h>Text Editing Bibliography (Especially Medieval Texts)</>
[From: Charles Wright <cdwright@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU>
Date: Wed, 12 Oct 1994 09:16:59 -0500]


*Leonard Boyle, Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical
Introduction (Toronto, 1984), pp. 298-316.

*Romance Philology 45 (1991), pp. 206-36.

<h1>General Studies and Collections of Essays:</>

*D. C. Greetham, Textual Scholarship:  An Introduction  2nd ed.

(New York, 1994). [see A.Henry bibliog.]

*Karl Langosch, et al., Geschichte der Textu"berlieferung der
antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur, II:
U"berlieferungsgeschichte der mittelalterlichen Literatur
(Zurich, 1964). Includes chapters by various hands on Medieval
Latin, Old French, Old Provencal, Old Italian, Old Spanish, Old
and Middle English, Old and Middle High German, and Old Norse,
with focus on the manuscript tradition. Includes a
bibliographical catalogue of medieval authors and texts and a
comprehensive index.

*L. D. Reynolds and N. G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars: A Guide
to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 3rd. ed.
(Oxford, 1991).

H. J. Chaytor, From Script to Print: An Introduction to Medieval
Vernacular Literature (New York, 1967), pp. 148-52.

C. Kleinhenz, ed., Medieval Manuscripts and Textual Criticism
(Chapel Hill, NC, 1976).

A. G. Rigg, ed., Editing Medieval Texts: English, French, and
Latin Written in England (New York, 1977).

Roberta Frank, ed. The Politics of Editing Medieval Texts  (New
York, 1993). Proceedings of the Manchester Conference on Text
Editing (forthcoming).

Peter Shillingsburg, "Guidelines for Scholarly Editions," Modern
Language Association of America Committee on Scholarly Editions.
Available from Shillingsburg,

<h1>Optimist (Be'dier) and Recensionist (Lachmann) Approaches:</>

J. Be'dier, "La tradition manuscrite du Lai de l'Ombre.
Re'flexions sur l'art d' E/diter les anciens textes," Romania 54
(1928), 162-86, 321-56. Influential attack on the recensionist
method in favor of editing the "best manuscript."

Bernard Cerquiglini, Eloge de la variante: Histoire critique de
la philologie (Paris, 1989).

L. E. Boyle, "Optimist and Recensionist: 'Common Errors' or
'Common Variations', in Latin Script and Letters A.D. 400-900,
ed. John J. O'Meara and Bernd Naumann (Leiden, 1976), pp. 264-74.
Responds to "optimist" criticism of subjectivity in recensionist

Paul Maas, Textual Criticism, 3rd ed., trans. B. Flower (Oxford,
1958). A concise exposition of the Lachmannian method.  A fourth
ed. appeared in German.

M. L. West, Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique Applicable
to Greek and Latin Texts (Stuttgart, 1973). Intended as a
replacement of Maas.

<h1>Computers and Text-Editing:</>

Francisco Marcos Mari'n, "Computers and Text Editing," Romance
Philology 45 (1991), 102-22.    

Charles B. Faulhaber, "Textual Criticism in the 21st Century,"
Romance Philology 45 (1991), 123-48.  

Anton Schwob, et al., ed. Historische Edition und Computer.
Mo"glichkeiten und Probleme interdisziplina"rer Textverarbeitung
und Textbearbeitung (Graz, 1989).  Me'thodologies informatiques
et nouveaux horizons dans les recherches me'die'vales, Actes du
Colloque international de Saint-Paul-de-Vence, 3-5 septembre 1990
(Turnhout, 1990).

[<h1>Some Textual Collation Software</>
[From: Jim Marchand <marchand@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU>
Date: Wed, 14 Sep 1994 13:40:35 CST]

I'm not much for `collation' in general, computer collation
especially, but I thought you might be interested in the
following posting to mediber [from: Georgina Olivetto
<> Secrit / Universidad de Buenos Aires, 14 Sep

PC-CASE, UNITE, and the Donne Variorum Collation Program

Ray Siemens will publish in TEXTTechnology (vol. 4, pages 209-
222, Fall 1994) an interesting article on the subject of
scholarly editing, including a detailed analysis of the three
aforementioned packages.

Ray Siemens is a Doctoral Candidate in the Department of English
at the University of British Columbia and plans to prepare an
edition of an early Renaissance poetic manuscript for his
dissertation. He can be contacted by e-mail at:

[For the Mac, COLLATE is an excellent program created and
maintained by Peter Robinson at the Oxford (Eng) Computing Centre
-- RAK]]

<h1>Editing Medieval Vernacular Texts:</>

E. G. Stanley, "Unideal Principles of Editing Old English Verse,"
Proceedings of the British Academy 70 (1984), 231-73.

Michael Lapidge, "Textual Criticism and the Literature of Anglo-
Saxon England," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 73 (1991),

Michael Lapidge, "The Edition, Emendation and Reconstruction of
Anglo-Saxon Texts," in The Politics of Editing Medieval Texts,
ed. Frank, pp. 131-57.

E. T. Donaldson, "The Psychology of Editors of Middle English
Texts," in his Speaking of Chaucer (New York,1970), pp. 102-118.
Attack on recensionist methods, and defense of procedures
developed with George Kane for their subsequent edition of the B-
text of Piers Plowman, which has become a focus recent
controversy [see A.Henry bibliog.].  See for example:

*Lee Patterson, "The Logic of Textual Criticism and the Way of
Genius: The Kane-Donaldson Piers Plowman in Historical
Perspective," in his Negotiating the Past: The Historical
Understanding of Medieval Literature (Madison, 1987), pp. 77-113.

Robert Adams, "Editing Piers Plowman B: The Imperative of an
Intermittently Critical Edition," Studies in Bibliography 45
(1992), 31-68.

*Alfred Foulet and Mary Speer, ed., On Editing Old French Texts
(Lawrence, KA, 1979). [see also A.Henry bibliog.]

Speer, Mary B., "Editing Old French Texts in the Eighties: Theory
and Practice," Romance Philology 45 (1991), 7-43.  See other
essays in this volume for textual criticism of Catalan, Italian,
and Old Spanish.

Dembowski, Peter "The 'French' Tradition of Textual Philology and
Its Relevance to the Editing of Medieval Texts," Modern Philology
90 (1993), 512-.  

<h>Bibliography on Text Criticism and Editing:</>
[From: Avril Henry <A.K.Henry@EXETER.AC.UK>
Date: Mon, 15 Nov 1993]

There are conflicting views on "editorial procedure", but the
following bibliography might give you something to bite on. The
standard (some say out-dated) book is the one by Maas, to whom
there is, as you see below, an "update" [by M. L. West] as well
as several works denying that the process he recommends (formal
recension) is any use. Still, if "contamination" is not present
-- and it isn't always -- then his logical steps do get results.
I leave the rest of the membership to jump in with cries of

PLease forgive the presence of _our_ shelf-marks (or shaming
notes to the effect that we don't have the book) -- there's no
time to edit them out of what is only a working bibliography.

* Arngart, O. "A Contribution to Middle English Textual
     Criticism." _English Studies: A Journal of English Language
     and Literature_ 69.5 (Oct. 1988): 369-71._ P805_
* Blake, N. F. "On Editing the Canterbury Tales." _Medieval
     Studies for J. A. W. Bennett, Aetatis Suae LXX_. Ed. P. L.
     Heyworth and Dan Davin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981. 101-
     19._Not in EUL_

     [Norman F. Blake, in his _The English Language in Medieval
     Literature_, makes some interesting observations about the
     translation of medieval texts into modern systems of
     mechanics and punctuation.  The pertinent material is in the
     chapter entitled "The Editorial Process" (the third chapter,
     I think; Christopher A. Healy <CHEALY@LSUVM.SNCC.LSU.EDU>,
     Wed, 12 Oct 1994).

* Bowers, Fredson. _Bibliography and Textual Criticism_. The
     Lyell Lectures, 1959. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964. _Old
     Library S820.9 BOWE_
* Brewer, Charlotte. "Authorial vs. Scribal Writing in Piers
     Plowman." _Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies_ 79
     (.....): 59-89. [A famous attack on the previously famous
     edition by George Kane and E. Talbot Donaldson]._Not in EUL_
* __Crux and Controversy in Middle English Textual Criticism_.
     _Ed. A.J. Minnis and Charlotte Brewer. Woodbridge: Boydell &
     Brewer, 1992._Not in EUL_
  D'Ardenne. S. T. R. O. "The Editing of Middle English Texts."
     In _English Studies Today: Papers Read at the International
     Conference of University Professors of English Held in
     Magdalen College, Oxford, August l950_. Ed. C. L. Wren and
     G. Bullough. London: Oxford UP, l95l, pp. 74-84. _820.7/WRE_
     [Rather whimsical]
* Dearing, Vinton. _A Manual of Textual Analysis_. Los Angeles:
     Berkeley UP, 1959. _807.27 DEA_
* Dearing, Vinton, _Methods of Textual Editing_. Los Angeles: W.
     A. Clark Memorial Library, 1962._Not in EUL_
* Dearing, Vinton, _Principles and Practice of Textual Analysis_,
     Berkeley/Los Angeles: U. C. Press, 1974. _Not in EUL_
* Edwards, A. S. G. "Middle English Romance: The Limits of
     Editing, the Limits of Criticism ". _Medieval Literature:
     Texts and Interpretation_. Ed. Tim William Machan. Medieval
     & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 79. Binghamton, NY: Medieval
     and Renaissance Texts and Studies; 1991. _ 91-104. _Not in
  Foulet, Alfred and Mary B. Speer, _On Editing Old French
     Texts_. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1979.
     [Foulet and Speer take readers step by step in developing a
     stemma, including what questions to ask each witness to figure
     out where that witness belongs. (Wendy Pfeffer, University of
* Greetham, D. C. _Textual Scholarship: An Introduction_. Hamden:
     Garland, 1992. _Not in EUL_
     [For a general introduction to textual criticism see David
     Greetham's article "Textual Scholarship," in _Introduction to
     Scholarship in Modern Languages and Literatures_, 2 ed.
     Joseph Gibaldi (New York: MLA, 1992), pp. 103-37, with a
     good introductory bibliography. (Charles Faulhaber,
     UC Berkeley)]
* Greg, Sir W. W. "The Rationale of Copy-Text". _Studies in
     Bibliography_ 3 (1950-1951): 19-36._ P010.5_
* Greg, Sir W. W. _The Calculus of Variants_. Oxford: Clarendon
     Press, 1927. _Old Library S820.9 GRE_
* Kane, George. _Piers Plowman: The A Version_. London: Athlone,
     l960. [An account of the problems attendant on
     editing a text of which many MSS survive].
* Maas, P. _Textual Criticism_. Trans. Barbara Flower. Oxford:
     Clarendon Press, 1958, repr. 1967. _880.9.MAA_
* _Manuscripts and Texts: Editorial Problems in Later Middle
     English_. Ed. Derek Pearsall. Cambridge: Brewer, 1987.
* Moorman, Charles. _Editing the Middle English Manuscript_.
     Jackson: UP of Mississippi, l975. [A patchy book, but see
     Chap. "Textual Criticism"] _820.91.MOO_

* Pearsall, Derek. "Editing Medieval Texts: Some Developments and
     Some Problems." _Textual Criticism and Literary
     Interpretation_. Ed. Jerome J. McGann. Chicago: U of Chicago
     P, 1985. 92-106. [_Canterbury Tales_; _Piers Plowman_]
  Reynolds, L. D., and N. G. Wilson, _Scribes and Scholars: A
     Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature_,
     London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1968 [3rd ed. 1991]
* Rouse, Mary A., and Richard Rouse. __Authentic Witnesses:
     Approaches to Medieval Texts and Manuscripts_. Notre Dame: U
     of Notre Dame P, 1993. _091.ROU_
* Tanselle, G. Thomas. _A Rationale of Textual Criticism_. A
     Publication of the A.S.W. Rosenbach Fellowship in
     Bibliography. University of Pennsylvania Press, c1989.
* _The Theory and Practice of Text-Editing_. Ed. Ian Small and
     Marcus Walsh. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992. _Not in EUL,
* Thorpe, James, _Principles of Textual Criticism_, San Marino
     California: Huntington Library, 1972
  Timpanaro, Sebastiano. _La genesi del metodo del Lachmann_.
     Biblioteca di cultura (Liviana editrice). Sezione
     letteraria. uova ed. riv. e ampliata. Padova: Liviana, 1981.
* Vinaver, E. "Principles of Textual Emendation". _Studies in
     French Language and Mediaeval Literature Presented to
     Professor Mildred K. Pope_. Publications of the University
     of Manchester, 268. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1939.
* West, Martin L. _Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique
     Applicable to Greek and Latin Texts_. Stuttgart: Teubner,
     1973. [Update of Maas, and also deals sensibly with


Date:         Tue, 16 Nov 1993 13:11:49 -0800
From: George Hardin Brown <brown@LELAND.STANFORD.EDU>
Subject:      Glossing

With the excellent biliography for textual editing (supplemented by Wendy
Pfeffer), Avril Henry has certainly repaid us for any past favor we may
have done for her on this network.

Now I request another favor. A graduate student who is doing a Latin
reading course with me asked for information about the glossing of medieval
texts. Although I have touched on glossing in my own writings, I was
surprised to find that I wasn't able to give her much in the way of
bibliographic advice on the subject. I mentioned Beryl Smalley's work on
the glossa ordinaria, indicated a couple of references in Robert Kaske's
Guide as well as in Boyle's Bibliography  and Bischoff's Paleography,
suggested getting a start with articles in the New Catholic Enyclopedia and
in the Dictionary of the Middle Ages (even while knowing they actually
didn't have much to say), and spoke of a couple articles, such as Fred
Robinson"s "Glossing is a Glorious Thing." I feel certain, however, that
I'm missing some main resources. Could some of you help us out with some
more bibliographic items on GLOSSING? Thanks in advance. GHB

Date:         Tue, 16 Nov 1993 18:38:12 -0500
From: "Martin Irvine, Georgetown University" <>
Subject:      Re: Glossing

     I give an overview with bibliography on glossing and the format
of glossed MSS in my article "`Bothe text and gloss': Chaucer's Dream
Poems and the Textuality of Commentary," in the Judson Allen memorial
volume, ed. Penelope Doob, et al., _The Uses of Manuscripts in Medieval
Culture_ (K'zoo: Medieval Institute, 1992). I also have a chapter
on glosses and glossed MSS in my forthcoming book, _The Making of
Textual Culture: Grammatica and Literary Theory, 350-1100_ (Cambridge
University Press, 1994). A copy will be on display (so they tell me)
at MLA, and I hope people will be able to order a copy for early
`94 delivery.
    Hope this helps. For specific queries, I'd be happy to correspond
with your student directly.
    P.S. We had a thread on glosses on this list about a year ago;
as I recall, Jim Marchand and others distributed some good bibliography.
In addition to what's in my article above, perhaps search the medtextl
archives too.

Martin Irvine   Georgetown University
                Co-Director, The Labyrinth

Date:         Tue, 16 Nov 1993 19:51:36 -0500
From: Anders Winroth <aw53@COLUMBIA.EDU>
Subject:      Re: Glossing

There is a great deal of work done on the glossing of legal texts - a
rather technical subject. A good introduction is Hermann Kantorowicz,
Studies in the Glossators of Roman Law. 2nd ed. with addenda by Peter
Weimar, Aalen: Scientia, 1969.

Anders Winroth

Date:         Tue, 16 Nov 1993 22:09:54 -0500
From: Robert Stein <rstein@PURVID.PURCHASE.EDU>
Subject:      Re: Glossing

Along with the excellent material that Martin Irvine provides, don't
forget Henri de Lubac, _Exegese Medievale_ for information about the
compilations.  Christopher Baswell's dissertation (Yale) is on
glossed Vergil manuscripts.  Some of that material has appeared in
various articles.  Does anyone know if his book is out yet?


Date:         Tue, 16 Nov 1993 23:11:44 CST
Subject:      Re: Glossing

M. Irvine doesn't list his article on "Medieval Textuality and the Arch-
areology of Textual Culture" in Frantzen, Speaking Two Languages (SUNY-Alb.,
1991):181-210; see also Rita Copeland on Rhetoric, Hermeneutics, and trans-
lation in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1991). Chris Baswell's book is not out
yet but is on Virgil in England. I have two books coming out, one on "Medie-
val Mythography," vol. 1: "From Roman North Africa  to the School of Chartres,
AD 433-1177" (Florida, this spring, but proofs may be at MLA); the other on
"Chaucer's Mythography: The Fabulation of Sexual Politics" (Minnesota, within
the year). But "Mythographic Art" has a biblio. on mythographic glosses in
commentaries (Florida, 1990), pp. 33-44, and on Chaucer, Shakespeare, Chris-
tine de Pizan, 291-315 (also by me). That's a start.

Date:         Tue, 30 Nov 1993 08:34:00 -0500
From: W Schipper <schipper@MORGAN.UCS.MUN.CA>
Subject:      Re: Glossing

Don't forget Christine Franzen's book on the Worcester tremulous
glossator. And then there is Christopher de Hamel's Glossed Books of the
Bible (title is not at hand for the moment).

[The full reference for the De Hamel work mentioned in the posting by W.
Schipper is Christopher De Hamel, _Glossed Books of the Bible and the
Origins of the Paris Booktrade_, D.S. Brewer, 1984.
Teresa P. Rupp <rupp@MSMARY.EDU>]

W. Schipper                         Email:
Department of English,              Tel: 709-737-4406
Memorial University                 Fax: 709-737-4000
St John's, Nfld. A1C 5S7

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 14:53:44 +0100
From: Jan van den Berg <J.A.M.vdnBerg@KUB.NL>
Subject:      Re: Glossing

In a paper Graham Caie of Glasgow University delivered during the 14th
English Medievalists' Research Symposium in Utrecht (The Netherlands)
last year, he spoke of glosses in Chaucer texts. The full text of this
paper will be available soon (together with 5 other papers dealing
with Old and Middle English subjects) from:
    Dr. Erik Kooper
    Department of English
    Utrecht University
    Trans 10
    NL-3512 JK Utrecht
    The Netherlands.

Dr. Caie specifically referred to three articles in his paper:
(1) Graham Caie, ``The significance of the Glosses in the Early
Chaucer Manuscripts'', _The Chaucer Review_ 10 (1976), pp. 350-360.
(2) Graham Caie, ``The Significance of the Marginal Glosses in the
Earliest Manuscripts of _The Canterbury Tales_, with special
reference to _The Man of Law's Tale_. In D.L. Jeffrey, ed. _Chaucer
and the Scriptural Tradition_. Ottawa, 1984, pp. 337-350.
(3) Martin Irvine, `` `Both Text and Gloss': Manuscript Form, the
Textuality of Commentary and Chaucer's Dream Poems''. In Charlotte C.
Morse, P.R. Doob and M.C. Woods, eds., _The Uses of Manuscripts in
Literary Studies: Essays in Memory of Judson Boyce Allen_. Kalamazoo,
MI, 1992, p. 87.

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 08:21:59 -0600
From: aewright@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU
Subject:      GLOSSING

A couple of additional citations:

Faider, P.  _Repertoire des editions de scolies et commentaires._  Paris: 1931.

Holtz, Louis. "La typologie des manuscrits grammaticaux latins."  Revue
d'histoire des textes 7 (1977): 247-269.

-----. _Donat et la tradition de l'enseignement grammaticale._  Paris:
CNRS, 1981.

Hunt, Tony.  _Teaching and Learning Latin in Thirteenth-Century England._
3 vols.  Cambridge: Brewer, 1991.

Paetow, Louis John.  "The Arts Course at Medieval Universities."
University of Illinois Studies 3 (1910): 491-624.

Wieland, Gernot Rudolf.  _The Latin Glosses on Arator and Prudentius in
Cambridge University Library, Ms. GG.5.35._  Studies and Texts 61.
Toronto: PIMS, 1983.

-----.  "Latin Lemma-Latin Gloss."  Mittellat. Jb. 19 (1989): 91-99.

Hope one or two of these might help.

Rick Wright
U Illinois

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 11:17:45 -0500
Subject:      biblical glosses

One important aspect of medieval glossing is, of course, glossed Bibles,
especially the Glossa ordinaria.  Margaret Gibson and Karlfried Froehlich
have just given us a wonderful new facsimile of the first edition of the
Glossa ordinaria (Adolph Rusch, Strassburg, 1480) printed in four volumes
by Brepols (1992).  Their introductions (Gibson on Glossa manuscripts,
Froehlich on Glossa early printed editions) are indispensable.  See also
Christopher DeHamel's book *Glossed Books of the Bible and the Origins of
the Paris Book Trade* (D.S. Brewer, and Gibson's artcle in *Studia
Patristica* 1989.  Karlfried Froehlich, John Cavadini, Mark Zier and I have
been working on a large-scale project of study of Glossa manuscripts.  This
year at Kalamazoo there will once again be a Glossa ordinaria session with
papers by Mary Dove (Melbourne), Michael Signer (Notre Dame) and myself.
Anyone interested in the Glossa ordinaria is welcome to get in touch with

        Ann Matter  University of Pennsylvania

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 11:46:58 -0600
From: Robert Glendinning <glendin@CC.UMANITOBA.CA>
Subject:      glossing/Ovid mss.

In the burgeoning bibliography on the subject of glossing, the
following work should not be overlooked. It examines the production of
Ovid commentaries, including, of course, the glossing of Ovid mss. in
12th and 13th century schools.

Ralph Hexter -  _Ovid and Medieval Schooling: Studies in Medieval School
Commentaries on Ovid's Ars amatoria, Epistulae ex Ponto, and Epistulae
Heriodum_, Mu"nchner Beitra"ge zur Media"vistik und Reniassance-Forschung
38 (Munich, 1986)

If Ralph is connected to e-mail and a member of the list, he is obviously
too modest to blow his own horn. It's a pleasure for me to do it for him.

Bob Glendinning, U. of Manitoba, Canada

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 13:10:27 -0600
From: aewright@UX1.CSO.UIUC.EDU
Subject:      Re: glossing/Ovid mss.

There is also Frank T. Coulson, ed.  _The 'Vulgate' Commentary on Ovid's
_Metamorphoses_: The Creation Myth and the Story of Orpheus._  TMLT 20.
Toronto: PIMS, 1991.

Rick Wright
U Illinois

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 11:31:57 -0800
From: George Hardin Brown <brown@LELAND.STANFORD.EDU>
Subject:      Erubescant Glossing

Thanks for all the bibliography and memory jogs on the topic of glossing.
I'm not a little embarrassed to note that I know (or once knew) most of
these. I'm particularly well aware of Martin Irvine's recent work.
By way of penance, allow me to add to Rick Wright's list Nancy Porter
Stork's, _Through a Gloss Darkly" Aldhelm's Riddles in BL Royal
12.C.xxiii.." Nancy takes Gernot's helpful classification of glosses a step
further. GHB

Date:         Wed, 17 Nov 1993 16:15:07 -0500
From: William Crossgrove <William_Crossgrove@BROWN.EDU>
Subject:      Re: Glossing

To add to the bibliography already suggested on glossing:

Gernot Wieland, The Glossed Manuscript. Classbook or Library Book?
Anglo-Saxon England, 14 (1985), 153-73.

Several other pieces by him have been noted, and I assume that this article
has also been cited in several of the other bibliographies noted, but here
it is again.

William Crossgrove
German Department
Brown University
Providence, RI 02912

Date:         Thu, 18 Nov 1993 15:16:32 -0800
From: Norman Hinton <hinton@EAGLE.SANGAMON.EDU>
Subject:      Glossing one more time

> Subject: (id: TLF9459) MELVYL system mail result
> Search request: FIND PA MARTI, BERTHE
> 1. Arnulfus Aurelianensis, 12th cent.
>      Arnulfi Aurelianensis Glosule super Lucanum / edidit Berthe M. Marti.
>    [Rome] : American Academy in Rome, 1958.
>      Series title:  Papers and monographs of the American Academy in Rome ; v.
>    18.
An oldie but goodie: did you know Berthe ? a very fine scholar.  This has a
good intro as well as excellently edited lengthy glosses that can almost be
used as a texbook example of how a classical text might be glossed in the
12th c....

Norman Hinton                 

Date:         Thu, 18 Nov 1993 17:12:36 -0800
From: George Hardin Brown <brown@LELAND.STANFORD.EDU>
Subject:      Glossing over

Thanks Norman for the reference. In return, I can throw one more
bibliographic item into the glossy pile: _Anglo-Saxon
Glossography_, Papers read at the Internatonal Conference in
Brussels, ed. Rene' Derolez (Brussels, 1992).

George Hardin Brown
Department of English, Stanford
Stanford, CA 94305-2087
tel: 415 723-3014  fax: 415 725-0755