by John R. Abercrombie (about 1980, published only electronically, with minimal updating by RAK in 2010)

The acquisition of papyri for the University Museum began at the close of the nineteenth century when Mrs. Sara Yorke Stevenson served as the first Curator of the Egyptian section.\2/ Mrs. Stevenson, one of those dynamic Victorian ladies, was an early supporter of the University Archaeological Association that eventually became the University Museum.\3/ Along with other concerned Philadelphians, she was instrumental in the construction of the older part of the present building at 33rd and Spruce Streets. It was during her tenure as Curator that the Egyptian Section acquired a significant collection of antiquities prior to 1900. The Museum financially assisted the archaeological research of W.M. Flinders Petrie and other excavators; in return, the Museum received portions of the discoveries. This partnership, particularly between the University Museum and the British Egyptian Exploration Fund, proved beneficial, for it brought many artifacts from Egyptian discoveries to Philadelphia. Mrs. Stevenson sought other means to establish a fine collection. In 1898 she embarked on her own campaign to Egypt where in less than two months she acquired 42 cases of Egyptian antiquities for the American Exploration Society. In a press release, Mrs. Stevenson mentioned that papyri documents from Thebes were among those antiquities. Perhaps Mrs. Stevenson herself acquired the Museum's first papyrus piece, a Hieroglyphic recension of the Book of the Dead (E 03334 = AES 19; now = 02775).\4/

At about the same time that Mrs. Stevenson labored to establish the Museum's Egyptian collection, a British archaeologist, B.P. Grenfell, [with his colleague A. S. Hunt,] made a phenomenal discovery at Oxyrhynchus.\5/ In 1896 Petrie had begun excavating this site, but soon determined that most of what could be found there was Greco-Roman. Petrie then turned over the excavation to Grenfell who first finished the necropolis that Petrie had started to explore. Grenfell next excavated the various low rubbish mounds dotting the site. He guessed that the mounds contained the remains of buildings and would be a likely place to find papyri. Grenfell's educated guess proved correct beyond his imagination, for in the first season alone he discovered 300 Greek literary pieces, 2000 non-literary documents, 30 Latin pieces, 100 Arabic rolls, 40 or 50 Coptic documents, two or three Hieratic and Demotic pieces, and several hundred thousand minor fragments.\6/

The Oxyrhynchus discoveries and preliminary publications, especially of the New Testament and classical fragments, aroused great interest in America. Several news accounts about the discoveries appeared in the American press.\7/ The minutes of the Executive Council of the British Fund also referred to American anticipation over these new documents.\8/ The British Honorary Secretary, J.S. Cotton, suggested several methods for converting American enthusiasm into tangible financial support of the newly formed Greco-Roman division, the umbrella organization for the research and publication of the Oxyrhynchus and other papyri discoveries. The British decided on a public appeal for support for the Greco-Roman division. Their appeal did not go unheeded in America, for chapters of the Fund, such as the Philadelphia-Pittsburgh chapter which was associated with the University Museum, responded to the call. This chapter donated some #245 ($1,225) to the division between 1898 and 1908.\9/

Although philanthropic support of scholarly research was probably one reason why the Philadelphia-Pittsburgh and other chapters aided the British Fund in this project, a second motivation is revealed in the correspondence between Cotton and Mrs. Stevenson.\10/ Cotton promised that the Fund would reward any financial support of the Greco-Roman division with part of the discoveries. In other words, some of the Greek papyri would be dispersed to the American financiers and their associated institutions if aid was forthcoming. This type of incentive was a common practice used for other earlier discoveries and not a unique arrangement devised especially for the Oxyrhynchus finds.

In January 1901, four years after the beginning of American support, the Museum received official notification that several Greek papyri would be donated to its collection.\11/ This fact had already been "leaked" to the press about two months earlier. A release, originating in Cambridge, England, stated that some Oxyrhynchus papyri would be donated by the Fund to Hamilton College, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, and other institutions.\12/The story then reported that the Fund would donate the New Testament fragment of Matthew 1 [= E 02746] to one of those institutions.

The first shipment of Greek papyri was received late in February 1901.\13/ The Museum staff quickly organized an exhibition of several pieces, including the fragment of Matthew.\14/ Subsequently, three more shipments were made to the Museum prior to World War One, although the available records do not reveal exactly when each was received.\15/ In all, 84 papyri from Oxyrhynchus and other sites were "awarded" by the British Fund. Most of these pieces came from Oxyrhynchus (E 2746-66, E 2793-2823, E 3074-79), but a few derive from the Fayu^m towns (E 2767-74, E 2776-92) and Hibeh necropolis (E 2824-25, E 3068-73). All the papyri were catalogued by Grenfell and Hunt and their team. They were recatalogued twice by the Museum staff, in 1901-1910 and in 1948-1949. Full or partial publications of these pieces appear in the volumes of Oxyrhynchus Papyri I-IV, Fayu^m Towns and Their Papyri, and Hibeh I.\16/

The donations of the British fund were one of the two major sources for the acquisition of papyri and related written materials in the Museum's earliest collection. The second source was the untiring efforts of Wilhelm Max Müller, noted Egyptologist, who was associated with the Museum for more than three decades. In the 1890's Müller performed special tasks for Mrs. Stevenson such as cataloguing part of the Egyptian collection, translating inscriptions, identifying artifacts, and organizing the various materials received. Müller, in fact, catalogued the first papyrus acquisition, the Theban Hieroglyphic roll mentioned above (n.4; E 03334 = 02775). Fortunately, many of his notes have been preserved in the Museum's archives regarding not only the papyri collection but also other parts of the Museum's Egyptian collection.

But Müller's primary contribution to the papyri collection was as a buyer on the antiquities market. In 1900 Müller traveled to Egypt with a mandate to purchase Egyptian artifacts for the Museum's collection. Mrs. Stevenson must have given him specific instructions on what to acquire, because in one letter Müller tries to convince her of the desirability of purchasing papyri and of his special ability as the buyer.\17/ Müller's argument proved persuasive for he made several purchases in that year. He bought numerous Arabic, Coptic, Demotic, and Greek fragments from a peasant at Luxor.\18/ Müller described this purchase as two cigar boxes full of insignificant fragments (E 16749?- 16772?) from different manuscripts. He considered them to be of limited value except for one Coptic letter written by a woman. Müller's second Luxor purchase was a box containing four rolls.\19/ When Müller later examined these pieces, he concluded that the documents, three complete Demotic contracts (E 16725?-16745? see further below), fragments of other Demotic contracts, and a small Hieratic magical papyrus (E 16724?), were from the necropolis of Gebelen.\20/

Müller's major acquisition in 1900-1901 consisted of eleven large Demotic rolls purchased from a "well-known" Gizeh dealer. The merchant was originally reluctant to sell the rolls at Müller's price; in fact, the dealer wanted double that amount. Either Dr. Kern, the representative of the American Exploration Society who assisted Müller, or Müller himself decided to break off negotiations. Later in 1900 or early in 1901 after Müller had returned to America, he wrote to Kern to follow up on the Gizeh material, since Mrs. Stevenson was again interested in establishing a papyri collection. Kern discovered that the merchant was now willing to sell the collection for a more reasonable figure. Kern purchased the documents and later shipped them to the Museum. \21/

In a preliminary analysis conducted late in 1901 or early in 1902, Müller revealed the value of the material. According to Müller, the rolls (E 16728-16743) were temple ledgers for tax payments and receipts. They provided detailed information about the administration and tax base of a Ptolemic temple. Müller futher speculated that the provenance of the pieces was Fayum or Sokorapaui Nesos.\22/

Max Müller's next acquisitions, which constitute more than half of the Museum's present collection, came some nine years later. During the interim Müller participated in the Carnegie Institute's Philae project (1904,1906,1910) and continued his teaching duties at the Reformed Episcopal Seminary in Philadelphia. Müller was still associated with the Museum, though at no time was he on the staff; nevertheless, Müller was always willing to aid the Museum in some capacity. In July 1910, he wrote to George Byron Gordon, the Museum Director, that a dealer desperately in need of money would sell a "good-sized" box of about 100 fragmentary Greek papyri (E 16537- 16542).\23/ Müller received permission and purchased those pieces which he eventually brought back from Egypt in his steamer trunk. A few days after Müller wrote his first letter to Gordon, he wrote again to Charles Custis Harrison, the current Museum Board Chairman and former University Provost. He informed Harrison that a substantial private collection could be acquired for a reasonable sum.\24/ The Museum quickly agreed to this purchase and attempted to raise the requested amount for the cost of acquisition, shipment, and restoration. Unfortunatly, only a lesser sum was procured and then sent to Müller. When the lower amount arrived, Muller was embarrassed, because he had given his word to Bernard Moritz, the owner and respected paleographer residing in Cairo, that no attempt would be made to haggle for a lower price.\25/ Moritz was insulted by the Museum's actions, as he perceived them, but agreed to sell 90 percent of his collection for the lower figure.\26/

The Moritz purchase today is divided into two collections, the Ellen Waln Harrison (E 16235-16546) and the John F. Lewis (E 16561- 16702), named after the financial patrons who sponsored the purchase and establishment of the collections. Each collection contains numerous Arabic, Coptic, and Greek fragments. In addition, several Demotic (E 16322-16341, 16482), Hebrew (E 16504-16527, 16250, 16527), Pahlavi (E 16483-16502), along with one Hieratic (E 16248[??]) and one Hieroglyphic (E 16532) pieces are also part of the Harrison collection; the Lewis collection has one Demotic (E 16698) and one Hieratic (E 16699) piece besides the numerous Arabic, Coptic, and Greek fragments from the Moritz materials.

Müller began cataloguing and preserving the Moritz and earlier purchases, but was unable to complete the task for several reasons. Müller could only devote part of his time to the Museum's collection given his heavy teaching and publishing schedule. He encountered some difficulties in organizaing the collection, especially in the requisition of glass. At one point, Müller even threatened -- hopefully a bold bluff -- to fit one large piece to the available glass by cutting off a section of papyrus if he did not receive the correct sized glass.\27/ Müller also was involved in a controversy during World War One that must have kept him from devoting as much time as he might have liked to the collection. Another faculty member charged him with being a German sympathizer; Müller, thus, became subject to a government intelligence investigation. Müller's untimely death in 1919 put an end to this period of collection and organization of the papyri collection.\28/

The Moritz and earlier Müller purchases remained largely as Müller had left them until Battiscombe Gunn, Curator of the Egyptian Section from 1931-1934, catalogued the collection. Gunn abandoned Müller's numeric and alphabetic notations that still appear on many pieces in favor of the newly established Museum inventory system. In the few months he worked on the collection (April-June, 1932), Gunn recatalogued all Müller's purchases. Most of this cataloguing was accomplished without detailed study of individual pieces; the system apparently followed the sequence of boxes, divider sheets, and envelopes in which pieces had originally been stored by Müller or Moritz. Occasionally Gunn did examine a specific piece and made pertinent notes on the catalogue cards or on the glass mounting label; however, Gunn seems to have had little opportunity to study the various pieces or reorganize the entire collection into a more logical format. Gunn also failed to study in detail Müller's correspondence about the purchases. Gunn, for example, catalogued all the purchases made in 1900-1901 as if they came from Dr. Kern. This clearly is not the case since Müller made two earlier purchases without Kern's assistance. Gunn's error renders it difficult today to identify materials from the Gurna and Luxor purchases; hence, the question marks appearing above after the catalogue numbers of pieces suspected of having been part of those two purchases.

In the last sixty years, scholars have examined, studied, or published few documents from the Müller purchases. Müller perhaps hoped to publish at least the Demotic Temple ledgers, but this ambition was never realized.\29/ In the 1930's, S.L. Skoss examined the Hebrew material in the Moritz purchase; he realized that most of the pieces came from the Cairo Geniza. S.D. Goitein later published some of these Hebrew pieces.\30/ In the 1940's, Georgio Levi Della Vida studied and prepared a catalogue of the substantial Arabic material.\31/ This catalogue was published posthumously (1982), but as of 1980, all that had been found in the Museum records is his detailed inventory list of about one-third (88 pieces) of the Arabic collection then available. Georgio Levi Della Vida did publish one Arabic block print in 1942 [and a few other individual pieces as well].\32/ In 1958, J. de Menasce published photographs of the available Pahlavi collection, without transcriptions or translations.\33/ As for the Coptic and Greek material, a few pices have been published recently and several have been studied from time to time.\34/ But by and large, most of the Coptic and Greek collections have not been examined carefully.

The history of the Museum's acquisition of papyri and related material continues after the Moritz purchase in 1910, even though most of the present collection had been acquired by then. Additional donations of papyri (Coptic, Demotic, and Greek pieces E 12937, 12972) were made by Mrs. Dillwyn Parrish, who in 1914 gave the Museum 2,000 artifacts from her husband's private collection.\35/ In the same year, Mrs. E.W. Lehmann donated a roll (E 510) which first received systematic attention in March 1978, from R.A. Kraft when it proved to be a conglomerate of materials from various periods written predominantly in Greek, Coptic, and Demotic, formerly held together with linen wrappings. In 1917 Mrs. Florence Sibley gave the Museum numerous Coptic fragments, some Greek pieces, and one Hieroglyphic piece (all catalogued as 29-209-53) that her uncle purchased while in Egypt. Just before World War Two, John F. Lewis, Jr. donated three papyri rolls: one (38-28-45) is covered with resin and has not been unrolled; the other two, one Hieroglyphic (E 17319) and one Hieratic (38-28-49A), are recensions of the Book of the Dead. The most recent gift (49-11-1), donated by the Philadelphia Museum of Art, had been stored in a bottle labeled, "Egypt papyrus from Thebes," and sealed with a note, "Presbyterian Board of Publications (Sept. 1st, 1873)." When opened and unrolled, this papyrus proved to be a priceless treasure, the last three columns of an already published document (BM 10383).\36/

The last source of papyri and related written material was the Edmund B. Coxe excavation at Drah Abu Neggah, a Rameside cemetary near Thebes. Clarence S. Fisher, Curator of the Egyptian Section from 1914-1925, conducted several seasons of excavation from 1921-1923.\37/ Prior to his excavation, a small village had been built over part of the site; in fact, cellars to some of the houses, used by the inhabitants as sleeping quarters, stables, and storage areas, were made from Rameside tombs. Fisher began by clearing a gulley near the village and proceeded to excavate the tombs and debris along the gulley towards the town. In the process he found some Hieroglypic, Hieratic, and Coptic fragments (29-86-487 through 29-86-503). At the northern end of the gulley lay the remains of one of the poorest tombs (Tomb No. 156, the tomb of Permesuttaui) both in size and character of decoration. This tomb recently had been divided into apartments. In the corner of one of those apartments Fisher's workmen discovered two large beet-shaped jars lying side by side. When opened they were found to contain Demotic documents (29-86-504 through 29-86-525), a collection of a Ptolemic family's legal transactions. Nathaniel Reich, a Demotic scholar chosen by the Museum, eventually published detailed notes, some transcriptions, and photographs of this collection.\38/ After the completion of publication, half of the Demotic collection from Drah Abu Neggah was returned to the Egyptian Department of Antiquity.\39/

The University Museum's present papyri and related written material collection, consisting of over 2,000 pieces, has had no subsequent acquisitions since 1947 and is by all accounts a varied library of ancient, Byzantine, medieval, and early modern documents. Most of the material, still unpublished and in many instances unstudied, is written in Arabic, Coptic, and Greek. Demotic, Hebrew, Hieratic, Hieroglyphic, Latin (one), and Pahlavi pieces comprise the rest of the collection. Most documents in the collection date from after the Ptolemic period (first century B.C.E.) to the Byzantine and Islamic periods (9th century C.E.). A few pieces predate the Ptolemies, mostly recensions of the Book of the Dead, while other parts of the collections (especially some Arabic and Hebrew) date as late as 18th century.\40/


\1/I wish to acknowledge the assistance of the Museum staff and others in the preparation of this short history. I especially wish to thank Professor David O'Connor (Associate Curator of the Egyptian Section) and David Silverman (Assistant Curator of the Egyptian Section) for their kind assistance and comments as well as their supports of the current Papyri Project and giving permission for preparation of this and other articles on the collection.. The primary sources for this history are the preserved archival material in the University Museum and the University of Pennsylvania, newspaper accounts, and the recollections of members of the Museum staff. An earlier history of the collection had been prepared by Patricia Crown in connection with the Papyri Project organized by Robert A. Kraft; however, the material has been completely reworked for this essay. The history of the papyri and related written material collection deals with only materials inscribed on papyrus, leather, paper, and vellum; it does not include inscriptions on stone, metal, fabric, ostraca, and the like.

\2/"Sara Yorke Stevenson." Dictionary of American Biography. ed. by Dumas Malone (New York 1935) Vol. 17., pp. 635-636.

\3/Percy C. Maderra. Jr. Men in Search of Man (Philadelphia 1964) 15-24. David O'Connor and David Silverman "The University Museum in Egypt," Expedition 12:2 (Winter, 1979) 4-43.

\4/"To Explore the Nile," Philadelphia Bulletin (January 1, 1898). "Trip of Mrs. C.Y. Stevenson," Chicago Tribune Herald (January 2, 1898). "Antiquities from Egypt," Philadelphia Press (March 19, 1898). Clippings are preserved in the Museum Archives.

\5/B.P. Grenfell, "Oxyrhynchus and Its Papyri" Egyptian Exploration Fund Archaeological Report (London 1896-97) 1-12.

\6/Ibid., p.11

\7/"Recent Discoveries in the Land of Egypt," Atlanta Journal (January 22, 1898). "Delving Deep in Egypt's Sands," Philadelphia Press (April 30, 1898). John J. Bernard, "Glimpse of Old Writing Recently Recovered in Egypt." Philadelphia Sunday School Times (September 24, 1898). Clippings are preserved in the Museum Archives.

\8/"The Honorary Secretary's Report, 1896-97," Egypt Exploration Fund Report (1897) 17-20. W.C. Winslow, "Exploration in Egypt," New York Times (June 10, 1897) p. 6, col.7. "Exploration Fund. Papyri to be Published," New York Times (December 1, 1897) p. 6, col. 5.

\9/According to the financial records of the University Museum, the following individuals contributed to the Papyri fund: Mrs. John Harrison, Calvin Wells, Mrs. Cornelius (Sara Yorke) Stevenson, Mrs. John Wister, Elickley B. Coxe, Jr., Daniel Baugh, Mrs. Randolph Ellis, Mrs. George Harrison, and Mr. John Sparhawk,Jr. Later financial support for the Oxyrhynchus and other papyri came from Mrs. Dillwyn Parrish.

\10/Letter from Cotton to Stevenson (May 21, 1897).

\11/Letter from Emily Peterson to Stevenson (January 15, 1901).

\12/"Egyptian Papyri for Universities," Philadelphia Press (November 28, 1900) p.1.

\13/"Rare Papyri in the Free Museum," Philadelphia Press (February 28, 1901) p.5.

\14/"Rare Papyri are now on View at the University Museum," Philadelphia Press (March 1, 1901) p.6.

\15/From the preserved archival records, there appears to have been four shipments: (1) Group One (E 2746-74) received by February, 1901; (2) Group Two (E 2776-2812) 1901-1902; (3) Group Three (E 2814-25) arrived prior to June, 1907; and (4) Group Four (E 3068-79) received before 1910.

\16/B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt, Oxyrhynchus I (Oxford 1898). Oxyrhynchus II (Oxford 1899), Oxyrhynchus III (Oxford 1903), Oxyrhynchus IV (Oxford 1904), Fayu^m Towns and Their Papyri (Oxford 1900), and Hibeh Papyri I (Oxford 1906).

\17/Letter from W. Max Müller to Stevenson (May 22, 1901).

\18/Letters from Müller to Stevenson (May 22, 1901, December 7, 1901, January 25, 1902, March 11, 1902, December 13, 1902).

\19/Letters from Müller to Stevenson (May 22, 1901, December 7, 1901, March 11,1902, November 15, 1902, December 13, 1902).

\20/The Hieratic papyrus was subsequently published: I.E.S. Edwards, Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum, Fourth Series (London 1960) 111-112.

\21/Letters from Müller to Stevenson (January 18, 1901, September 9, 1901, January 25, 1902, March 11,1902, November 15, 1902, December 13, 1902).

\22/Letter from Müller to Stevenson (November 15, 1902)

\23/Letter from Müller to Gordon (July 21, 1910).

\24/Letter from Müller to Charles Custis Harrison (August 12?, 1910),

\25/Letter from Müller to Gordon (November 27, 1910).

\26/Most, if not all, of the remaining 10 percent of Moritz's collection was purchased by the Oriental Institute of Chicago, Miroslav Krek, Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts in the Oriental Institute of Chicago. (Chicago 1961).

\27/Letter from Müller to Miss Jan McHugh (July 29, 1902). "I have placed the papyri [sic] on you desk to show that it has glasses which are considerably too short. I have bent in the pieces, which are not covered, to protect them for the moment. This would of course not do for any length of time. Could you procure broader glass? Possibly 2 pieces can be cut and fitted at the end. I would like to arrange this best piece of the collection of papyri as soon as possible and to have pasted its frame over the glasses. If the present glass has to do, I should cut up the last page of the papyrus and put it under a special glass, but this would be a pity."

\28/"Dr. W. Max Muller, noted Orientalist, Drowns at Shore," The Philadelphia Inquirer (July 13, 1919), p.1. "Dr. W. Max Muller, Scientist, Drowns in Surf at Wildwood." The North American (July 13, 1919),p.1. "Wilhelm Maxwell Muller," Dictionary of American Biographies (United States, 1934) Vol. 13, pp. 320-321. [I have found no evidence that he ever used the name "Maxwell"; his famous father Friedrich Max Müller issued his many publications under the name "Max" as did our Wilhelm. The 1901 preface to the autobiography of Friedrich Max Müller is by his son or daughter who signs it "W. G. MAX MÜLLER." (RAK)]

\29/Hermann Grapow referred to E 16720-22 in his discussion of Spell 17 from the Book of the Dead: Hermann Grapow, Urkunden V 75ff. Müller acquired this piece either at Luxor or Gizeh in 1900-1901. Another recension of the Book of the Dead (E 2775) may or may not have been purchases of Muller. Though its provenance is Thebes, the purchase or donator was unknown in 1932. The piece is referenced in: H. Ranke, Die Ägyptischen Personennamen (Germany 1935) 33:16, 197:18, 249:9, 119:13, 389:19.

\30/S.D.Goitein, ... of the University of Pennsylvania," JQR 49 (1958-59) 32-52.

\31/Giorgio Levi Della Vida, "Notes on the Arabic Collection." University Museum Archives [revised and published posthumously as Arabic papyri in the University Museum in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), Rome 1981 (Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei 378 = Memorie Classe di science morali, storiche e filologiche Serie VIII 25,1). Some bibliographies refer to a work of his entitled "Arabic documents on papyrus, parchment and paper at the University Library, University of Pennsylvania. A catalogue and selection of texts," but I suspect that this represents a confusion between the University Library and the University Museum (RAK)]

\32/Giorgio Levi Della Vida, "An Arabic Block Print," Scientific Monthly (December, 1943) 473-474. [Also ; "A Papyrus Reference to the Damietta Raid of 853 AD," Byzantion 17 (1944-5) 212-221;

"Un frammento cartaceo arabo del X secolo sull ricerca di tesori nascosti," Prolegomena: documenti e studi strocici e filologici 1 (1952) 15-21;
"A druggist’s account on papyrus," Archaeologica orientalia in memoriam Ernst Herzfeld, Glückstadt/Hamburg/New York 1952, pp.150-155, no. 1;
"A marriage contract on parchment from Fatimite Egypt" Eretz-Israel 7 (1964) 64-69;
see also W. Diem, ‘Ein mamlukischer Brief aus der Sammlung des University Museum in Philadelphia,’ Le Muséon, 99 (1986) 131-143 (RAK, with thanks to Petra Sijpesteijn).]

\33/J. de Nebascem "Pahlavi Ostraca and Papyri," Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicum 5 (London 1957).

\34/Peter Maurer, "Two Pennsylvania Papyri," Arch P 22 (1973) 151- 154. Leslie S.B. MacCoull, "A Coptic Letter in the University Museum, Philadelphia," BASP 13:1 (1976) 15-16. Robert Kraft, "An Unpublished Coptic Sahidic Psalter Codex at the University Museum, Philadelphia," Armenian and Biblical Studies. ed. by Michael E. Stone (Jerusalem, 1976).

\35/Mrs. Dillwyn Parrish was a contributor to the acquisition of the Oxyrhynchus and other papyri from the British Fund. See n. 9.

\36/T. Eric Peet, Ther Great Tomb Robberies of the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty (Oxford 1930) 122-127. Rudolf Anthes and Lanny Bell both identified and catalogued E 49-11-1. See David Silverman and David O'Connor. The Egyptian Mummy: Secrets and Science (Philadelphia 1978) 55 n. 51.

\37/Clarence S. Fisher, "A Group of Theban Tombs," Museum Journal 15 (1924) 28-49. "Excavations at Drah Abu Neggah," University Museum Archives.

\38/Nathaniel J. Reich, "A Demotic Divorce," Mizraim I (1933) 135-139; "The Legal Transactions of a Family: Preserved in the University Museum, Philadelphia," Mizraim 2 (1936) 13-25; "Barter for Annuity and Perpetual Provision of the Body," Mizraim 3 (1936) 31-50; "The Papyrus Archive in the Philadephia University Museum," Mizraim 7 (1937) 12-19; "The Papyrus Archive in the Philadelphia University Museum," Mizraim 8 (1938) 7-14; "The Papyrus Archive in the Philadelphia University Museum," Mizraim 9 (1938) 7-18; and "Marriage and Divorce in Ancient Egypt," Museum Journal 15 (1924) 50-57.

\39/The following Demotic documents were returned to Cairo in 1951 after considerable delay: No. 1 (29-86-523B), No. II (29-86-508), No. III (29-86-509), No. V (29-86-505). No. VI (29-86-505), No.VII (29-86-510A), No. X (29-86-518), No. XI (29-86-520), No. XIV (29-86-510B), No. XV (29-86-504), No. XVI (29-86-522), No. XVII (29-86-511), No. XVIII (29-86-513), No. XX (29-86-504), No. XXI (29-86-515B), No. XXII (29-86-523A), No. XXIII (29-86-515A), No. XXV (29-86-506), No. XXX (29-86-505), No. XXII (29-86-X). Photographic Prints and catalogue descriptions of these pieces are still available from the Museum's archives.

\40/See John R. Abercrombie "Egyptian Papyri," Expedition (Winter, 1978) 3-12.