[The Parables of Enoch and the Epistle of Enoch: Test Cases for Issues in Wisdom and Apocalypticism
Ellen Aitken, The Apocalyptic Performance of Wisdom in 1 Enoch
Philip Davies, On the Social Origins of Apocalypses: Getting Rid of ‘Apocalyptic’
Wisdom and the Similitudes of Enoch (S21-86 = p.87, 4-6:30 Saturday)
Abstract (slightly revised)
Although the beginning of the "Similitudes" of Enoch promises a "vision of wisdom" and "words of wisdom" mediated by Enoch, the contents of this lengthy and rambling work (1 Enoch 37-71) seldom deliver much "wisdom" beyond the repeated message that praise and devotion to the supreme being is the be all and end all of righteous existence. While there are several seeming detours describing natural and social phenomena, these are largely background to the main theme of judgment on oppressive human powers and on the angelic agents who taught humankind the "secrets" that lead to ruin (notably metallurgy, used in warfare, also writing). Even the "visions" and/or "parables" are not always easy to follow, and suggest a complex compositional history to the development of much of this material (e.g. both Noah [e.g. 65.1-68.1] and Enoch are first person participants, as occasionally is the deity [e.g. 45]). "Wisdom" here seems to be revelation of and adherence to the stubborn promise of vindication for the oppressed, and Enoch’s main guide is, appropriately, the "angel of peace."
I have some idea of what constitutes “apocalyptic” material (in terms of content) and also how the title “apocalypse” gets attached or applied to various writings (in relation to genre). “Wisdom,” on the other hand, both as a type of material and as a genre often leaves me less comfortable and more unsure about appropriate use of that label.
The work known as the Similitudes or Parables of Enoch seems to me to earn the classification of “apocalyptic” both in the weak sense of a report of contacts with otherworldly information to be transmitted to thisworldly recipients – thus in the category of revelation literature — and in terms of the content of the revelation(s), which mainly concern future judgment and vindication, couched in various graphic images. This is consistent throughout the three named sections (the “parables”). Indeed, the text begins as a visionary apocalypse\1/ and quickly proceeds to describe heavenly journeys as Enoch is “snatched up” (39.3, 52.1) and provided with angelic accompaniment,\2/ possibly still understood as taking place in vision mode. In any event, we are surely dealing here with “apocalyptic” genre and imagery.
\1/37.1; see also 39.4 and 52.1 (visions within a vision?).
\2/ E.g. 40.2, [40.8], 43.3, [46.2], 52.3, [53.4], [54.4], [56.2], [60.11/24], 61.2-3 (angel [of peace] who went with me).
“Wisdom” is also a term prominently present at the start of this “apocalyptic” material (37.1-4) and not infrequently throughout, but its connections and functions are fairly constrained. For the Parables of Enoch, “wisdom” seems mainly to be the content of the message of judgment on the wicked and vindication for the righteous and/or holy, originating in the heavens with the “Lord of Spirits”\3/ and identified especially with the “Elect/Chosen One” (“Son of Man,” “Anointed”).\4/ In this text, “wisdom” as communicated information and insight is itself the apocalyptic message from heaven revealed through Enoch. It is true that at one point a lesser “wisdom” is mentioned, that of the fallen angels taught by the anti-archangel (or satan?) “Penemue” along with writing skills which have caused humankind to err (69.8-11),\5/ but otherwise “wisdom” is identified with righteousness and contrasted to iniquity/unrighteousness. It comes from fountains in the heavenly realm that surround the fount of righteousness and from which the righteous drink and are filled with wisdom (48.1).
\3/ names of deity: “Lord of Spirits” (37.2), “Lord of Glory” (40.3), “Ancient/Head of Days” (46.1-2), “Holy One” (? 37.2), “Most High” (46.7)
\4/ names of main agents: “Chosen/Elect One” (39.6), “Son of Man” (46.2), “Anointed One” (48.10, 52.4) “Righteous One” (38.2, see 46.3, 53.6: it is often difficult to tell whether references are to “the righteous” people or to “the righteous one”; similarly with “chosen/elect”).
\5/A more positive tradition about angelic transmission of writings appears in 2 Enoch 22.10, associated with an archangel named “Pravuil, whose knowledge was quicker in wisdom than the other archangels, who wrote all the deeds of the Lord; and the Lord said to Pravuil: Bring out the books from my store-houses, and a reed of quick-writing, and give it to Enoch, and deliver to him the choice and comforting books out of your hand.”
The imagery used in the second parable, especially in chapters 48-49, even suggests that the “Elect One” also known as “Son of Man” corresponds to personified Wisdom as found in the tradition about the presence of Wisdom alongside God in creation (see Proverbs 8.31): “that Son of Man was named, in the presence of the Lord of Spirits, . . . before the Head of Days [=? beginning of time?]; even before the sun and constellations were created, before the stars of heaven were made, his name was named before the Lord of Spirits.[48.2-3] . . . For this reason he was chosen and hidden in his (i.e. the Lord of the Spirits) presence before the world was created and forever. And the Wisdom of the Lord of Spirits has revealed him to the holy and the righteous.[48.6-7] . . .”\6/ This might also accord with the abrupt section in the first parable, underlining the idea that personified Wisdom is at home in heaven; and only in heaven, among the angels (chapter 42).
\6/2 Enoch 30.10 is much more explicit on this connection: “On the sixth day I commanded my Wisdom to create man from seven consistencies . . . .”
Indeed, that seemingly incongruous little section on itinerant wisdom in chapter 42 can be fit nicely not only with the emphasis on the heavenly location of Wisdom (and other holy ones, 41.2), but also on the indications that the rebellious angels are thought to have attempted to kidnap heavenly wisdom and deliver it to humans– “Wisdom found no place” among humankind (42.1-2), but the rebellious angel or satan Peneme “showed them all the secrets of their (the angels’) wisdom. He gave humans knowledge about writing with ink and papyrus, and therefore many went astray from of old and forever and until this day” (69.8). In the Samilitudes’ tradition, writing is not safe for humans. It causes death and destruction (69.11). The fallen angels also tried to pass along other scientific secrets, the “hidden things,” to humankind, resulting in unrighteous activities involving the use of metals, which contribute to idolatry as well as to warfare.\7/ Enoch, on the other hand, is permitted to write and to convey heavenly wisdom to the righteous who dwell on earth.\8/
\7/ See 52, 64, 65.6 [Noah] – metals are used for idols, and for warfare – 65.11, 68.2, 69.6 & 14.
\8/ See 40.8, 68.1 [Noah referring to Enoch and the book of Parables]. Other Enoch traditions make a stronger case for his role as writer and transmitter of written materials. In 2 Enoch, for example, he writes 366 books.
On the positive side, “wisdom” in the Similitudes is associated with the “secrets of righteousness” (49.2), as well as secrets of the heavens, angels, and divine beings (see 63.2-3). Enoch and the heavenly hosts correct the problem of misappropriation of the secrets by delivering “the hidden things to the righteous” (38.3) at the time of judgment. Enoch sees “all the secrets of heaven” (41.1), including the melting metallic mountains (52, mentioned also by Noah in 67.4; see also Noah in 65.6-8), and meteorological as well as some astronomical information (41.3-8, 43.1, 59). The “Elect/Chosen One” controls the “secrets of righteousness” (49.2) and will judge “the secret things” (49.4); he will communicate “all the secrets of wisdom” from the throne of the Lord of Spirits (51.3). The holy ones in heaven will seek out the “secrets of righteousness” (58.5) in the new time of eternal light; the “secrets of the depths of the earth” will be revealed to them (61.5 i.e. undocumented deaths? See also 51.1). Indeed, Enoch’s reduction to writing of “all the secrets” (68.1) responds appropriately to the wicked angel Penemue teaching humans “all the secrets of their (angelic) wisdom,” including how to write (69.9). The mysterious angelic “oath” of 69.15-25 carries with it “secrets” that are enumerated, dealing with creation and associated natural phenomena. Finally, Enoch himself in the role of Son of Man is shown all the secrets of righteousness and of the heavens (71).
The compiler of the Similitudes seems to have a fairly clear concept of what constitutes heavenly wisdom and the need for it to be revealed to the righteous, partly to counteract the misappropriated wisdom revealed by the fallen angels – especially metallurgy (supporting idolatry and warfare) and writing (for whatever reason). Among the secrets revealed to Enoch are the mysteries of weather,\9/ and it is anticipated that ultimately some mysteries of what happened to missing persons will also be revealed.\10/ Surprisingly, compared with some other Enoch literature, astrological and calendrical wisdom is seldom in clear focus,\11/ nor the use of cosmetics and powders. Indeed, there is almost nothing in the Similitudes pertaining to women.\12/
\9/ E.g. 41.3-4 (lightning, thunder, winds, clouds, dew, hail, mist) and 43.1-44.1 (interaction of lightning and stars), 59 (lightning, thunder, “secrets of the luminaries”), 60.12 (winds, in relation to moon and stars), 60.13-22 (thunder, lightning, wind, sea, frost, hail, snow, mist, dew, clouds, rain), 69.22 (water, winds, thunder, lightning, hail, hoar frost, mist, rain, dew).
\10/ See 61.5; might this be related to the “blood of the righteous” in 47?.
\11/ See 41.5-8 on paths of the heavenly bodies; also 69.20-21, among the “oaths”; 71.4 (secrets of the ends of heaven, stars, luminaries).
\12/ See 69.4-5 on the fall of the angels with the “daughters of men”; 62.4 analogy of childbirth; 60.7 Leviathan as female; Eve in 69.6 in a vague ref to being led astray (Adam is mentioned only in genealogical relationship to Enoch).
There is little in the Similitudes to suggest any attempt to correct or convert the recipients. It is work of revelation, not of evangelism. It is also a work with liturgical focus, with the message that praising the Lord of Spirits is the ultimate attitude of righteousness. The righteous (angels) and holy ones in the heavens do intercede and pray for the sons of men (39.5). There is an angel of “repentance unto hope” – Phanuel (40.9) -- and vindication/judgment can be seen by “the others” who then may “repent and abandon the works of their hands” (50.2), although “at his judgement the unrepentant will perish in his presence” (50.4). Perhaps understandably, Noah is told that the fallen angels “will never have a place of refuge/repentance, for they have shown them what is hidden, and they are judged” (65.11, 67.7). Similarly, and quite harshly, the earthly rulers will receive their judgment.\13/ Vindication is anticipated for the just, but the fate of “sinners” is to be judged, not rescued (50.1-2).
\13/ See 38.5, 46.4-6, 48.8-10, 53.5, 54.2, 56.8, 62.11, 63.6-8, and 67.13.
Wisdom, then, for the compiler of the Similitudes – and for the sources used – is basically a pep talk for the righteous, confirming and encouraging them in their righteous ways. The medium is the message – Enoch’s apocalyptic experiences inform and encourage his readership. In a sense, Wisdom is to maintain the status quo, which can be seen more clearly through this apocalyptic enlightenment – and to constantly praise and laud the Lord of Spirits.
37.1f “vision of wisdom” … beginning of the words of wisdom to speak to those on earth … the beginning of wisdom (to be transmitted and not withheld). Lifted up voice to impart the 3 parables.
42 rather abrupt hymn to wisdom the wanderer
38-44 is the first parable, starting with judgment on wicked – where do thay go? And ending with righteous as stars and angels and lightning.
45-57 2nd parable, of judgment and vindication, Son of Man/Elect/Anointed one, and God’s decision not to destroy everything again (Noah’s flood imagery)
49.1 wisdom is poured out like water in connection with the anointed one.
"Visions of Wisdom, and Realities, in the Similitudes of Enoch"
38 judgment on sinners
39 Enoch receives books (judgment?); righteous praise God
40 vision of the Lord of Spirits & 4 voices/angels
41 heavenly secrets: social, cosmic/natural; L of S judges
42 Wisdom and Iniquity seek homes; heaven/angels, earth?
43-44 Lightning & stars = holy ones dwelling on earth
45 “2nd parable” – sinners neither in heaven nor on earth
46 S of M judges oppressive kingdoms/kings
47 prayer/praise, vindication, for “blood of the righteous”
48 fountains of wisdom surround fount of righteousness; S of M is named and reveals wisdom of L of Ss, judges opressing kings
49 Elect One embodies spirit of wisdom & understanding, judges
50 victory of righteous, evil on sinners; limits of mercy
51 return of the righteous dead, triumph of Elect One who mediates the secrets of wisdom
52 vision of metal mountains, removed at arrival of Elect One
53 collection of sinful deeds, judgment, rest for righteous
54 valley of fire for kings/powers, two waters of great flood
55 no more flood judgment; Azazel et al judged
56 herding of deceivers; disrupted war on elect ones
57 vision of converging chariots; end of 2nd parable.
58 another parable: permanent light for the righteous
59 mysteries of cosmic/natural phenomenon revealed
60 Noah/Enoch and the monsters Leviathan/Behemoth, secrets of nature, ultimate judgment
61 ropes to rescue the dead; universal blessing/praise, with wisdom
62 rulers/powers judged by hidden S of M, vindication of righteous
63 rulers/powers are repentant, but too late
64 mysterious faces of the fallen angels
65 Noah/Enoch expect judgment for secret knowledge among humans
66 preparation for great flood
67 Noah sees the waters of punishment for fallen angels
68 Noah has Enoch’s Book, Michael & Raphael on judgment
69 names of evil agents, their revelations, etc.; end of 3rd parable
70 Enoch taken to the place of the elect
71 Enoch blessed in presence of Ancient of Days, angels, etc.
1 Enoch: Writing the Sectarian Subject (30 min)
1 Enoch 69:8-11 moves in a different direction. This text challenges all writing; whatever Enoch does with it is an intervention in a “bad” technology. This position explains why writing is questionable – it takes an Enoch to twist this always-to-be-suspected gift into an appropriate vehicle for divine communication – and thus places scribes in a much more constrained ideological position regarding their own work and that of imperial authorities.
37.1 “The vision which Enoch saw . . . the word . . ., which I received to declare and tell to those who dwell upon earth”
38.2 where will the habitation of sinners be?
38.3 then shall sinners be judged
38.4 those who possess the earth shall cease to be powerful and exalted
39.3f A cloud/whirlwind then snatched me up . . . above the surface of the earth, placing me at the extremity of the heavens. 4There I saw another vision; the habitations and resting places of the saints/holy
40.8 After this I besought the angel of peace, who proceeded with me, to explain all that was concealed
41.1 After this I beheld the secrets of the heavens
45.1 Parable the second, respecting these who deny the name of the habitation of the holy ones, and of the Lord of spirits.
46.1f There I beheld the Ancient of days, whose head was like white wool, and with him another, whose countenance resembled that of man. His countenance was full of grace, like that of one of the holy angels. Then I inquired of one of the angels, who went with me, and who showed me every secret thing, concerning this Son of man; who he was; whence he was and why he accompanied the Ancient of days.
51.1 In those days shall the earth deliver up from her womb,
and hell deliver up from hers, that which it has received; and destruction
shall restore that which it owes. [RHC And in those days shall the earth also
give back that which has been entrusted to it,
And Sheol also shall give back that which it has received,
And hell shall give back that which it owes.]
52.1 After that period, in the place where I had seen every secret sight, I was snatched up in a whirlwind, and carried off westwards.
58.1 I now began to utter the third parable, concerning the saints/righteous and the elect.
60.1 [Noah?] In the five hundredth year, and in the seventh month, on the fourteenth day of the month, of the lifetime of Enoch, in that parable, I saw that the heaven of heavens shook; that it shook violently; and that the powers of the Most High, and the angels, thousands and thousands, and myriads of myriads, were agitated with great agitation. And when I looked, the Ancient of days was sitting on the throne of his glory, while the angels and saints were standing around him. A great trembling came upon me, and terror seized me. My loins were bowed down and loosened; my reins were dissolved; and I fell upon my face. The holy Michael, another holy angel, one of the holy ones, was sent, who raised me up.
62.12f Then the sword of the Lord of spirits shall be drunk with their blood; but the saints and elect shall be safe in that day; nor the face of the sinners and the ungodly shall they thenceforwards behold.
64 I saw also other countenances/forms in that secret place. I heard the voice of an angel, saying, These are the angels who have descended from heaven to earth, and have revealed secrets to the sons of men, and have seduced the sons of men to the commission of sin.
[65-68.1 Noah Material – also apocalyptic – 66.14 This judgment, with which the angels shall be judged, shall bear testimony against the kings, the princes, and those who possess the earth. 67.1 After this he gave me the characteristical marks (65) of all the secret things in the book of my great-grandfather Enoch, and in the parables which had been given to him; inserting them for me among the words of the book of parables.]
69.29/39 He sat upon the throne of his glory; and the principal part of the judgment was assigned to him, the Son of man.
69.29b/42 [not in RHC, ok in JHC] This is the third parable of Enoch.
70.1 After this the name of the Son of man, living with the Lord of spirits, was exalted by the inhabitants of the earth. [RHC And it came to pass after this that his name during his lifetime was raised aloft to that Son of Man and to the Lord of Spirits from amongst those who dwell on the earth.]
37.1 The vision . . . of wisdom, which Enoch saw. . . . This is the commencement/beginning of the word/words of wisdom, which I received [took up] to declare and tell to those who dwell upon earth . . . 3 even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom. 4 Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits
42 Wisdom found no place where she could inhabit; her
dwelling therefore is in heaven. Wisdom returned to her place,
And took her seat among the angels.
48.1 In that place I beheld a fountain of righteousness, which never failed, encircled by many springs of wisdom. Of these all the thirsty drank, and were filled with wisdom, having their habitation with the righteous, the elect, and the holy.
48.5f Therefore the Elect and the Concealed One existed in his presence, before the world was created, and for ever. 6In his presence he existed, and has revealed to the saints and to the righteous the wisdom of the Lord of spirits; [RHC And the wisdom of the Lord of Spirits hath revealed him to the holy and righteous;]
49 Wisdom is poured forth like water, and glory fails not before him for ever and ever; for potent is he in all the secrets of righteousness. 2But iniquity passes away like a shadow, and possesses not a fixed station: for the Elect One stands before the Lord of spirits; and his glory is for ever and ever; and his power from generation to generation. 3With him dwells the spirit of intellectual wisdom [which gives insight/thoughtfulness], the spirit of instruction and of power, and the spirit of those who sleep in righteousness; he shall judge secret things.
51.3 And in those days shall the Elect One sit upon his throne, while every secret of intellectual wisdom [wisdom and counsel] shall proceed from his mouth, for the Lord of spirits has gifted and glorified him.
61.7/9 they glorified him with wisdom, and ascribed to him wisdom with the word, and with the breath of life. [RHC And that One (with) their first words they blessed, And extolled and lauded with wisdom, And they were wise in utterance and in the spirit of life.]
61.11/14 [not in RHC! Yes in JHC] Shall raise their united voice; shall bless, glorify, praise, and exalt with the spirit of faith, with the spirit of wisdom and patience, with the spirit of mercy, with the spirit of judgment and peace, and with the spirit of benevolence
63.2 They shall bless and glorify the Lord of spirits, saying, Blessed is the Lord of spirits, the Lord of kings, the Lord of princes/mighty, the Lord of the rich, the Lord of glory, and the Lord of wisdom.
69.9/10 Peneme pointed out to them every secret of their wisdom [Penemue: he taught the children of men the bitter and the sweet, and he taught them all the secrets of their wisdom. And he instructed mankind in writing with ink and paper, and thereby many sinned from eternity to eternity and until this day].
RHC, APOT 1.169:
.. . 71, which contains two visions received in his lifetime, belongs to one of the three Parables. We have already seen that 54.7-55.2, 60, 65-69.25, are interpolated from the ancient Book of Noah
Behind the Parables there appear to lie two sources, as Beer suggested though he did not work out his suggestion. The one was the ‘Son of Man’ source, in which the angelic interpreter was ‘the angel who went with me’: i.e. 40.3-7, 46-48.7, 52.3-4, 61.3-4, 62.2-63, 69.26-29, 70-71, and the other ‘the Elect One’ source, in which the angelic interpreter was ‘the angel of peace’: i.e. 38-39, 40.1-2, 8-10, 41.1-2, 9, 45, 48.8-10, 50-52.1-2, 5-9, 53-54.6, 55.3-57, 61.1-2, 5-13, 62.1. See my edition, pp. 64-65.
RHC, Book of Enoch (1912)
64: 71 appears to be out of place, and belongs to one of the three Parables. The two visions recorded in it were witnessed in Enoch’s lifetime. … There are many interpolations. 60 65-69.25 are confessedly from the Book of Noah. 39.1-2a 54.7-55.2 are probably from the same work. These interpolations are adapted by their editor to their adjoining contexts in Enoch. This he does by borrowing characteristic terms, such as ‘Lord of Spirits’, ‘Head of Days’, to which, however, either through ignorance or of set intention he generally gives a new connotation; see Notes for details.
[Then he talks about Beer’s theory in Kautzsch, listing more exactly the verses in which the two angels are mentioned.] But these two sources do not account for the whole of the Parables. In 71 there are two distinct visions, 71.1-4 and 71.5-17, where the angelus interpres is Michael and not either of the former angels, unless we identify him with one of [] them, which is indeed possible: see my edition of the Test XII Patriarchs, pp. 39-40. Whence 42 is drawn is a difficulty.
[Then he gives exactly the same breakdown for the sources as in APOT.]
The above analysis of the sources can of course only be
provisional until the Greek version of the original is recovered. The second
source differs from the former in recognizing the judgement of the sword, 38.5,
48.8-10, and the attack of the hostile Gentiles on
These two sources had much material in common. 52.1-2 apparently belonged to both in some form. The Elect One and the Son of Man alike judge the kings and the mighty, and the same attributes are to a great extent ascribed to each, save that of pre-existence, which, as it happens, is attributed only to the Son of Man, 48.2sqq.
. . . D. The Problem and its Solution. Seeing that God is a just God, how comes it that wickedness is throned in high places and that righteousness is oppressed? . . . only by tracing evil to its source can the present wrongness of things be understood, and only by pursuing the world’s history to its final issues can its present inequalities be justified. The author has no interest save for the moreal and spiritual worlds, and this is manifest even in the divine names ‘Lord of Spirits’, ‘Head of Days’, ‘Most high’. Whole hierarchies of angelic beings appear in 61.10-12. His view is strongly apocalyptic, and follows closely in the wake of Daniel. The origin of sin is traced one stage further back than in 1-36. The first authors of sin were the Satans, the adversaries of man, 40.7 (note). The Watchers fell through becoming subject to these, and leading mankind astray, 54.6. Punishment was at once meted out to the Watchers, and they were confined in a deep abyss, 54.5, to await the final judgment, 54.6 55.4 64. In the meantime sin flourishes in the world: sinners deny the name of the Lord of Spirits, 38.2 41.2, and of His Anointed, 48.10; the [] . . . [detailed description of judgments, rewards, future].
[RHC 1893 is much much sparser, undeveloped]
NOTE on judgment and secrets (negative): \n/ 39.1 And it shall come to pass
in those days that elect and holy children will descend from the high heaven,
and their seed will become one with the children of men. And in those days
Enoch received books of zeal and wrath, and books of disquiet and expulsion.
And mercy shall not be accorded to them, saith the Lord of Spirits.
56.4 Ye mighty kings who dwell on the earth, ye shall have to behold Mine Elect One, how he sits on the throne of glory and judges Azazel, and all his associates, and all his hosts in the name of the Lord of Spirits.
64 And other forms I saw hidden in that place. I heard the voice of the angel saying: These are the angels who descended to the earth, and revealed what was hidden to the children of men and seduced the children of men into committing sin.
65 [Noah] And a command has gone forth from the presence of the Lord concerning those who dwell on the earth that their ruin is accomplished because they have learnt all the secrets of the angels, and all the violence of the Satans, and all their powers -- the most secret ones -- and all the power of those who practice sorcery, and the power of witchcraft, and the power of those who make molten images 7 for the whole earth: And how silver is produced from the dust of the earth, and how soft metal 8 originates in the earth. For lead and tin are not produced from the earth like the first: it is a fountain 9 that produces them, and an angel stands therein, and that angel is pre-eminent. [11 to Noah] . . . thou art pure, and guiltless of this reproach concerning the secrets.
67 [Noah] And He will imprison those angels, who have shown unrighteousness, in that burning valley which my grandfather Enoch had formerly shown to me in the west among the mountains of gold and silver and iron and soft metal and tin. 5 And I saw that valley in which there was a great convulsion and a convulsion of the waters. 6 And when all this took place, from that fiery molten metal and from the convulsion thereof in that place, there was produced a smell of sulphur, and it was connected with those waters, and that valley of the angels who had led astray (mankind) burned beneath that land. 7 And through its valleys proceed streams of fire, where these angels are punished who had led astray those who dwell upon the earth. 8 But those waters shall in those days serve for the kings and the mighty and the exalted, and those who dwell on the earth, for the healing of the body, but for the punishment of the spirit; now their spirit is full of lust, that they may be punished in their body, for they have denied the Lord of Spirits and see their punishment daily, and yet believe not in His name. 9 And in proportion as the burning of their bodies becomes severe, a corresponding change shall take place in their spirit for ever and ever; for before the Lord of Spirits none shall utter an idle word. 10 For the judgement shall come upon them, because they believe in the lust of their body and deny the Spirit of the Lord. 11 And those same waters will undergo a change in those days; for when those angels are punished in these waters, these water-springs shall change their temperature, and when the angels ascend, this water of the springs shall change and become cold. 12 And I heard Michael answering and saying: This judgement wherewith the angels are judged is a testimony for the kings and the mighty who possess the earth. 13 Because these waters of judgement minister to the healing of the body of the kings and the lust of their body; therefore they will not see and will not believe that those waters will change and become a fire which burns for ever.
68.2 And on that day Michael answered Raphael and said: The power of the spirit transports and makes me to tremble because of the severity of the judgement of the secrets, the judgement of the angels: who can endure the severe judgement which has been executed, and before 3 which they melt away ? And Michael answered again, and said to Raphael: Who is he whose heart is not softened concerning it, and whose reins are not troubled by this word of judgement 4 (that) has gone forth upon them because of those who have thus led them out ? And it came to pass when he stood before the Lord of Spirits, Michael said thus to Raphael: I will not take their part under the eye of the Lord; for the Lord of Spirits has been angry with them because they do 5 as if they were the Lord. Therefore all that is hidden shall come upon them for ever and ever; for neither angel nor man shall have his portion (in it), but alone they have received their judgement for ever and ever. [Chapter] 69.1 And after this judgement they shall terrify and make them to tremble because they have shown this to those who dwell on the earth. 2 And behold the names of those angels [and these are their names: the first of them is Samjaza, the second Artaqifa, and the third Armen, the fourth Kokabel, the fifth Turael, the sixth Rumjal, the seventh Danjal, the eighth Neqael, the ninth Baraqel, the tenth Azazel, the eleventh Armaros, the twelfth Batarjal, the thirteenth Busasejal, the fourteenth Hananel, the fifteenth Turel, and the sixteenth Simapesiel, the seventeenth Jetrel, the eighteenth Tumael, the nineteenth Turel, 3 the twentieth Rumael, the twenty-first Azazel. And these are the chiefs of their angels and their names, and their chief ones over hundreds and over fifties and over tens. 4 The name of the first Jeqon: that is, the one who led astray [all] the sons of God, and brought them 5 down to the earth, and led them astray through the daughters of men. And the second was named Asbeel: he imparted to the holy sons of God evil counsel, and led them astray so that they defiled 6 their bodies with the daughters of men. And the third was named Gadreel: he it is who showed the children of men all the blows of death, and he led astray Eve, and showed [the weapons of death to the sons of men] the shield and the coat of mail, and the sword for battle, and all the weapons 7 of death to the children of men. And from his hand they have proceeded against those who dwell 8 on the earth from that day and for evermore. And the fourth was named Penemue: he taught the 9 children of men the bitter and the sweet, and he taught them all the secrets of their wisdom. And he instructed mankind in writing with ink and paper, and thereby many sinned from eternity to 10 eternity and until this day. For men were not created for such a purpose, to give confirmation 11 to their good faith with pen and ink. For men were created exactly like the angels, to the intent that they should continue pure and righteous, and death, which destroys everything, could not have taken hold of them, but through this their knowledge they are perishing, and through this power 12 it is consuming me. And the fifth was named Kasdeja: this is he who showed the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits and demons, and the smitings of the embryo in the womb, that it may pass away, and [the smitings of the soul] the bites of the serpent, and the smitings 13 which befall through the noontide heat, the son of the serpent named Tabaet. And this is the task of Kasbeel, the chief of the oath which he showed to the holy ones when he dwelt high 14 above in glory, and its name is Biqa. This (angel) requested Michael to show him the hidden name, that he might enunciate it in the oath, so that those might quake before that name and oath who revealed all that was in secret to the children of men.
And this is the power of this oath, for it is powerful and strong, and he placed this oath Akae in the hand of Michael. 16 And these are the secrets of this oath . . .
And they are strong through his oath:
And the heaven was suspended before the world was created,
And for ever.