To Notes as of 2/7/95

Class Notes as of 2/14/95

End as of 2/7/95

The Greeks Were on the Wrong End of all This--but, fortunately? Philip was not going to turn his back on powerful enemies.

First of all the Athenians (allies of Phocis, anyway)--Philip builds a navy

He announces it when he captures an Atheniangrain convoy off the Hellespont in the absence of its escorts in 353

Raids as far south as Euboea, the Attic coast

Philip attacks Cersobleptes of Thrace

Siege of Heraion Teichos, but Philip falls ill and it all starts to totter

Demosthenes (b. 384) begins his political career warning people of Philip's intentions

Thrace ends up paying tribute

Philip reduces the Chalcidean League

Initially allied with him against Athens

Philip gives them two cities, then they join with Athens

Splat--Philip conquers League cities one by one, Olynthus last

Demosthenes' Olynthiacs, and Mercenary army dispatched too late

Thrace revolts

Philip stirs up revolt on Euboea, Athens divides forces and sends Phocion, but loses on both fronts

Olynthus falls, city destroyed (348)(the Archaeologists, at least, are grateful!)

Greeks enslaved and sold throughout Greece

Tri-foil boltheads marked "Philippou" found at site

Athens tries to rally Peloponnesian Greeks against Philip but ends up agreeing to Peace of Philocrates in 346

Phocians exempted, Philip allowed Thracian forts (for the next round)

Athens got peace, Philip got everything he'd taken

Divide and Conquer--the Athenians sacrificed their alliance with Phocis, Philip bought off the Thebans with a few cities

Philip ended up with Phocis's seats on the Amphictyonic Council (board that superintended Delphi) and a foothold in Southern Greece

From 345-342 both sides garnered allies

Philip consolidated his links with the Euboean Oligarchs

Athens did get Megara and Chalcis but

Who was hurting who more?

From 342-341 Philip settles Thrace permanently, founded Philippopolis (Plovidiv) to control the province

Demosthenes and Athens got scared, effective

The Athenians captured Philip's allied cities on Euboea

Athenian admiral Diopeithes raided Philip's holdings in Thrace, and Philip's ally, Cardia

Byzantium and Perinthus were convinced to revolt against Philip

Philip's War machine grinds to a halt against Perinthus and Byzantium

Perinthus--the Wedding Cake from Hell

Byzantium resupplied by the Persians (Again!) and Athens

Athens rejuvenates her navy

Thrace revolts AGAIN--Philip wounded in leg

THAT did it--Philip crashes through Thermopyle in 341

Athenian navy helpless

Philip had won a nasty little round of council diplomacy at the Amphictyonic council and had a religious excuse to march South as of 339--Athens & Thebes ally Amphissa had profaned Delphi

The only good thing was that the Thebans and Athenians were first driven into each other's arms and then into an onrushing train...

Philip took Amphissa in Spring of 338--the city Philip had gotten as his "sacred" target

Athenians and Thebans failed to get to the other passes before Philip's "blitzkrieg" (Lightning war) did

Outflanked, Thebans and Athenians made their last stand at Charonea


Battle fought on August 7, 338 B.C.

Theban Forces:

Epaminondas' Army--trained in his tactics, the force that had (33 years ago) beaten Sparta

The Sacred Band--500 pairs of lovers, forbidden to retreat

Lesser allies: Corinthians, Achaeans, (surviving) Phocians

Athens--and Demosthenes, finally putting his body where his mouth was

Macedonia: The Sum of Philip's Horrors

Extreme Left--heavy companion cavalry under the command of the Crown Prince

Next to that, aimed squarely at the Thebans, the Phalanx

Right wing, other infantry, Hypaspists facing the Athenians and "refused"--retreating before them: "On to Macedonia! (Richmond!)

Right wing kept the Athenians too busy to notice what the Cavalry and the Phalanx had done to the Thebans

Thebans crushed by cavalry charge, Sacred Band wiped out (by Cavalry. (Plutarch) A stone lion stands above their (excavated) common grave

Hypaspists take the Athenians in the Rear, Demosthenes breaks the world record for the 500 meter dash--Athenian epitaph: "Only the gods are assured of success."

Philip allows the Greeks to retreat--why?


Loses the Boetian League--back to square one

Plataea, Orchomenus rebuilt

Macedonian garrison in the Cadmeia vs.

Athens busily engaged in digging the last ditch

Long Walls Previously rebuilt

Hellespont closed, but Persians would probably have sent food from Egypt

In other words--the Iron Triangle

Philip sends ashes back in honor, Crown Prince and Parmenio to carry them, restores P.O.W's--Maybe that was the best way to get Athens out of the war?

Worked--citizenship, statue

Philip founds the League of Corinth--it's hard to shear a dead sheep

All states to send delegates to conclude a koine irene, common peace--in other words, you're either part of the solution or part of the problem

Sparta refuses

Gets attacked by Macedonians; Argives and Messenians

All disputed borders go to the other party

Philip lays out his diagramma and puts it up for a vote--or else

Wilcken--League of Nations style optimist

Rice--saw The Godfather, and knows about offers you can't refuse

Philip aimable and charming--flattery also a weapon in his arsenal

Delegates talked for months

Delegates did exactly what he wanted them to.

Structure of the League--a Greek Federated Puppet State

Permanent alliance--no end in sight

Synhedrion of the Greek states, sending Synhedrioi (explain)

Meets at Panhellenic festivals--saves trouble

Permanent council for day-to-day stuff

Bill of Rights--as is typical, ignored

Greek states to be free to do what Philip told them to

Exempt from Interference in their domestic affairs

Phililip's garrisons stayed just where they were

Alexander's Exiles decree of 324

And worse...

Macedonia not in as Greek state, not Greek!

Philip, however (Argead) is...

Synhedrion decides what to do...

Philip, however, does it as Hegemon and commander in Chief

And so Philip gets access to the manpower of the associated Greek states without the trouble of having to conquer them all

To show you how beloved this "First Greek Federation" wasn't...

It fell apart when Philip died

It fell apart when Alexander died

Demetrius I tried to set ip up again in 307...

It fell apart in 305

Who's the Crown Prince? FINALLY, I give you--Alexander the Great

Philip and Olympias--a Loathe Story

Met at Samothrace (East of Macedonia), Philip on the rebound from the death of his first two wives--he was about 20

She was an orphan, sister of the King of Epirus, Arybbas/Aelxander, who'd just done his own job of uniting a Northern Kingdom.

Epirotes--less Greek than Macedonians, more savage--as witnessed by

Olympias's violent character: As a girl, she was into wild partying (bacchic revels

Punk Rock (Orphism)

Snakes--they do/did (?) have rather large, tame snakes in that part of the world in those days

Greeks and Romans had a much higher opinion of snakes than we do

Snakes (earth-wise) were favored manifestations of Zeus, Dionysius, and as such--capable of impregnating a human female

Speaking of which...

Supposedly Philip caught Olympias in flagrante with a snake in her bed, which cooled things off between them

It's bad enough being cuckolded by your own species!

Who needs THAT kind of hangup?

Not that Philip wasn't a swinger himself

Married six times in all

Embraced Polygamy and nearly everything else sexually active within a 500 yard radius when he wanted to--as much of it as he could get, from whereever he could get it

Philip's remark on the Sacred Band, reconsidered in the light of his own past

Olympias did have a verifiably savage temper

She was accused of poisoning Philip's first son, Philip IV Arridhaeus, and so turning him into an idiot

She certainly killed him and dozens of other people, horribly, when she got the chance

She seems to have been successful in turning Alexander against his father, possibly with stories of Philip's debaucheries and his mother Cleopatra's goings on.

As someone once put it, "The only woman Alexander ever seems to have truly loved was his terrible mother."

A great deal of Alexander's dislike of Philip might have come from Philip's own unfaithfulness (he was the only one who got to sleep around!) which imperiled Olympias's position at court--she wasn't popular

Alexander's letters to Olympias survived for some time

He sent her the pick of the spoils from the Persian camp after the Granicus (334)

He ordered Antipater to (quite literally) let her get away with murder--mother's tears quote

Lifelong affection for older women

Timoclea at Thebes, but the only way to get good press out of that


Foster mother, cookies, etc.

BUT also queen of Matriarchal Caria and in possession of its strongest fortress

Darius's Mother

Treated her kindly after Issus--Darius not dead

When he was, sent her the body for a proper funeral

Role of the Queen-Mother at the Persian Court: Wife of a god

She could tell him a great deal about the Persian Empire

The Birth of a Hero--with appropriate portents

The assorted dreams--Thunderbolt, seal, the snake

Alexander's Birthday--6th Hecatombeon, 7/20/356

Temple of Ephesus (7 Wonders)burned down by a lunatic who wanted to be eternally famous--I won't tell you his name (mention, however, that bastard Wilkes Booth)

Philip took Potidea

Parmenio had beaten the Illyrians

Philip's chariot team had won at Olympia

Did this come from the event? Could be!

Alexander at Siwa, hailed as either

Pharoah, always the son of Amun-Ra

O paidion/O pai diou


Alexander seems to have believed that Zeus was his father, and wanted others to believe it

Olympias didn't ("Would Alexander stop making Hera jealous of me!")

The Army and his generals didn't

Lettter to Athenians: "So-called father"

If Zeus is your father, than why did YOU get Philip's Army?

They and Alexander had seen him bleed

Philip wasn't around to be asked, although there was the myth about why he'd lost his eye...

Hence the myths/rationalizations, etc., including Plutarch's

Philip's Own Actions Show a sincere and profound affection for the boy

Story of Bucephalus (13 T! GAD!--"Bull's Head" breed in Thessaly) But who bought Alexander the horse?

Alexander's Upbringing--the best that money could buy

Mother's relative Leonidas (named after Spartan hero of Thermopyle) put the boy under military discipline

"Best Cook"--used to send him on night marched in full field kit before a light breakfast, so he'd have a good appetite for dinner

Used to search through his things for goodies Olympias might have tried to slip him

Rode him constantly--the frankincense and myrrh jibe and Alexander's affectionate (?!) revenge--13 tons of the stuff

Alexander always seems to have kept himself in training and to have lived hard.

Lysimachus--neither polished nor educated BUT

He knew how to appeal to a boy's imagination. Philp was Peleus, Alexander was Achilles (to whom PHILIP was not related), and he was Phoenix

Alexander's refusal to desert Lysimachus in Arabia (and vice-versa), leading to the night attack on the Arabian camp

Philip noticed that Alexander responded more readily to persuasion than force--he'd been keeping track--and so Alexander got the best of the best for his"music" (explain) teacher--Aristotle

End as of 2/14/95

To Notes as of 2/21/94