To Notes as of 1/31/94

Notes as of 2/7/95

X. We now interrupt this Program to Bring You a Special

Announcement! A Greek Archaeologist has announced that

SHE has discovered Alexander's Tomb!

A. Read 2/2/95 Times Story--then bore in for the Kill

Notes from the Net as the Story Broke

1. "The Legacy of Howard Carter": After Tutankhamun's

Tomb, everybody's been looking for something better

a) Rider Haggard, Burroughs and Tarzan, "Atlantis"

b) Philip's Tomb at Vergina (Aigai)--but which Philip?

2. "Unique Monument"--how is anyone to know that until she

publishes the thing? We know perfectly well what a Royal

Macedonian tomb looked like--and she's not describing that!

3. Errors of fact and reporting: It's the stuff you DO catch that

makes you nervous!

a) "Carved oak leaves" bit--the emblem of Macedonian royalty was

the diadem, a headband.

b) "Eight Pointed Star" bit-- Alexander's pecuiliar insignia was a

helmet with ram's horns, the "Macedonian Star" (Draw) was the

national emblem (cinerary box at Vergina)

c) "One Version"--break out the Shuckburgh on Suet. Aug. 18

d) Souvaltzi's comment: "Never in my life"--starts with the thesis,

doesn't end with it--BAD habit for an archaeologist!

(1) Other frightening details--found the tomb with the help of


(2) Has been working on the tomb for a long time and only

NOW announces that she's always thought it was

Alexander--why hasn't she had other people help her


e) If she's looking for the body and the tomb is flooding, how can

she stop for a month?

f) Reference to "the poisoned one," the "one who drank the poison"--

Ptolemy I was IN Babylon. That's not a story he'd want to get


4. She is in effect refusing the data of Curtius, Suetonius,

Diodorus, Dio Cassius, and Pausanias--all of whom were

subject to proof by their peers.

a) "Alexander wanted to be buried in Siwa"

b) The Army (still alive) wanted him to be buried in Aigiai

c) Ptolemy hijacked the body--wanted sanction, and presumably


5. Pausanias's reference to Alexander's burial at Memphis (still

not Siwa!) by Ptolemy I and the removal to Alexandria by

Ptolemy II

6. Rice and Peter Green: The Best she can hope for is a

cenotaph. Loyalty may have provided that much!

7. Late News: Two officials from the Greek Archaeological

Service have examined her tablets and pronounced them ALL

of Roman date--that doesn't quite banish this one, but it

doesn't help it very much.

8. Rice's Caveat: It's always the wrong tomb--be alert to

professional jealousy vs. grandstanding--but let her prove her

case in an open and verifiable forum.

B. We now return you to your regularly scheduled lecture!

XI. Return quizzes--explain piranha drill. Pad the blows.

A. Now--for a few more details about the way the Greeks


1. Earliest Greek Warfare (and much later Macedonian


a) Aristocrats ride up on small horse, and throw javelins

b) Hence, javelin throwing in Olympics--archaic then, but still very

useful in cavalry warfae, and for light infantry

c) Homer's javelin-throwing charioteers, armored aristocratic

spearmen, and club-carrying mass levee

d) Bowmen there, as explained, not decisive

e) Cavalry continued, used to find enemy, guard against small

raiding parties, exploit a retreat

2. Once again, the hoplite--old as Greek recorded History (776!)

a) Name from his hopla, arms, product of improving (cheaper)


b) More effective than individual charrioteers or riders

c) Spartan/Messenian/Argive wars prompted intorduction of

carefully ordered 8 by 8 and units placed alongside

d) Order maintained by chanting of verse (Tyrtaeus) or playing of

flutes (also used in Naval warfare to keep oarsmen in line

e) Charge signaled by raising the paean--song/cheer, nationally


f) Benefits of drill--quick obedience, unit cohesion

g) Gradual improvements

(1) Helmets were made lighter and stronger

(2) Heavy bronze breastplate replaced with lighter "kevlar"

linen corselet

(3) Introduction of lighter units

(a) Peltasts--light shield (pelta), two light throwing-thrusting

spears (akontiai), knife

(b) Mercenary archers--Athens used Scythian archers as the local

police force

h) Persian troops--

(1) Mounted archers--ineffective in Greece, but potentially

devastating to a infantry formation they could trap

(2) Dismounted archers--each bowmen, Assyrian-style,

protected by shield-bearer, shield of large wicker-work.

This was fine against other archers and even cavalry, but

a Greek could close and chop you up

(3) Heavy Infantry--the Immortals

(a) Elite corps of 10,000--so named because they were always

replaced to keep that number constant

(b) "The King's Own"--Royal unit, kept near the palace and

under close supervision, distinguished by the golden apples on

the pommels of their spears

(c) Allowed to take wives and children on campain

(d) STILL only that wicker shield and perhaps leather armour--

the Greeks could still get through

3. How they fought--

a) Light troops drove in enemy soldiers and farmers by roaming over

the countryside burning farms and food supplies

b) Faced with starvation, IDEALLY, the other side sends out its

heavy infantry to face yours--easier for both sides to settle this

thing outside the walls--less damage to buildings, men.

c) If you're outnumbered, they flank you with infantry, light troops,

or cavalry, so you'd better pick your spot well.

d) On a level field, where BOTH sides could keep their citizen-

soldiers in formation, the 8x8 formations placed side to side

attempt to push or poke a hole in the enemy's line.

e) Soldiers fighting constantly edge to the right, in this kind of

warfare--each soldier trying to put his unshielded right side under

the shield of the man next to him

f) When the courage or strength of someone in the other side gives

out, then ocurrs "the turn," o tropos, and the enemy's formation

begins to disintegrate.

g) Much harder to protect your back or unshielded sides, hence the

point where most casualties in ancient warfare ocurr.

h) Spot marked by severed tree with panoply--the "trophy" again,

sacred to Ares.

i) One side admits defeat by asking other side for a truce to recover

their dead, peace may be negotiated on that basis

4. Old, "Geneva" conventions collapsing under strains of total

warfare: E.g., battle of Delion in 424

a) Athenians and Thebans long-term enemies: Conventional, limited

warfare did not gratify their centuries-old hate for each other.

b) Athenians decided to occupy temple of Apollo at Delion as long

term-weakening measure of Tehbes/Boetia, more effective than

annual warfare (the Spartans later did this to them!)

c) Seizing the temple and fortifying it made them technically temple

robbers--they'd stolen the temple!

d) Bulk of Athenian army was light troops: 20,000/7,000 psiloi


e) Thebans ambush returning Athenians at Tanagra, set-piece battle,


f) Thebans 25 deep on right side (Leuctra--also Thebans! 50 deep

on Left side), Athenian line rolled up on right, and by cavalry

attack from the rear

g) Athenians retreat into Stockade, ask for truce to recover their


h) Thebans hold dead "hostage" for evacuation of temple--temple

robbers charge

i) Thebans use flamethrower to burn stockade and seize fort. Soon

other machines would be helping armies kill each other

j) It only got worse in the intervening years

5. We mentioned Leuctra--now here's what Philip was doing

with the Macedonian Army

a) Missed point--country farmers/peasants usually fought less than


(1) Needed to farm, for starters

(2) Not as easy to draft!

(3) Not equipped!

b) Philip's gold changed all that, but, admittedly, must have damaged

Macdonia's agricultural economy.

c) It's worth noting that Philip moved North toward the Crimea even

as he was moving South towards Greece.

d) He may have needed the grain--conquer or die

6. Philip's reform of the "Companion" (Hetairoi) .Cavalry

a) The name--refers to hostage/page sons of nobles reared at the

Macedonian court and recruited into cavalry

b) Broken into seperately recruited/commanded subunits called ilae,

levied district-by-district within Macedonia

c) Theirs or Philip's money also provided for a corselet, sword,

spear, and a new kind of lance--the long, cavalry sarissa, made of

dogwood and weighted at the end (with a spike!)

d) You could, despite the lack of stirrups, put quite a bit of

momentum behind the thrust of one of these things, if you didn't

mind strangling hour horse by pulling on the reins, or being tied

into the saddle where you couldn't get off if you needed to.

e) Macedonian horses may have been bigger (better pastured, at

least!) than either Greek or Persian animals

f) The cavalry REMAINED the prestige arm of the Macedonian

army, and through it would come nearly all of Alexander's

battlefield victories

7. Philip's reform of the Phalanx--now the dreaded

"Macedonian" variety

a) "Averaged" the Hoplite and the Peltast to get the dreaded


(1) Small, metallic shield probably slung on the right arm so

that it rode above the elbow and guarded the shoulder and


(2) Standard-issue "Phrygian" skull-cap helmet, variants

(3) Metal greaves to protect the arms from swords, arrows

and shield

(4) Probably a boiled-leather or linen corselet

(5) AND the dreaded INFANTRY Sarissa--the pike (Once the

real queen of Battles--last issued in England, in 1940!

Even used by the VC!)

(a) Varied in length from 13 to 25 feet

(b) Broke into section for easy transport

(c) First section plated to prevent chopping off

(d) Weighted, again, at the end for balance

(e) Spiked end allowed continued use if severed, or could be

planted to withstand a (yecch!) cavalry charge

(6) Internal organization: dekades, lochoi, taxis (1,500 men)--

Philip using those mercenary drill sargeants!

(7) Only the very heaviest of missiles able to get through that

forest of pikes and the shielded arms and helmets beneath.

Ask the Persians.

(8) The phalanx was drawn up by taxeis in a line, say, 16 deep

(9) Gaps between phalanx and cavalry prevented by elite

infantry called hypaspists

(a) Noted for their mobility, so possibly peltasts

(b) Noted for their combat ability, so possibly hoplites

(c) Agema troops royal bodyguard in camp, in battle, companion


8. The Classic Macedonian Order of Battle (cf. Zulus, from


a) Cavalry ilae on either flank, the better troopers and the king (if

Alexander) on the flank where he intended to press home the


b) Between the cavalry and the phalanx, the hypaspists--no gaps

visible, and ready for you if you looked for one.

c) In the middle--Oh, God.

(1) Called the tactical equivalent of a Schick Razor

(2) Wilken calls the Phalanx defensive, but only because Philip

expected you to be dumb enough to attack it. If you want

to send cavalry or infantry into that forest of spears, you

were welcome to try.

(3) If you didn't attack it, however, it would attack you--

sometime after the cavalry and that damned pike of theirs

was tearing into your formation

(4) If you bunched up to meet it, the cavalry was almost

certain to find a hole in your line

(5) If they didn't, the hypaspists would

(6) And then--crunch, which usually wasn't necessary

d) Philip had integrated cavalry, light troops, medium infantry, and

heavy infantry into a single unit.

To Notes as of 2/14/95