A Bibliography on Language Attitudes

  1. Abd-El-Jawad, Hassan R. "Cross-dialectal variation in Arabic: Competing prestigious forms." Language in Society 16 (1987): 359-68.

    Notes: ". This article presents evidence showing that if an adequate description of sociolinguistic variation of spoken Arabic is to be met, it is necessary to posit not only one standard speech variety, Modern Standard Arabic, but also other prestigious local or regional varieties which act as local spoken standards competing with MSA in informal settings. It will be shown in the reported cases that in certain contexts speakers tend to switch from their local forms-though these latter may be identical to MSA-to other local features characteristic of other dominant social groups and that happen to be marked. These local prestigious norms act like the standard spoken norms in informal settings."

  2. Abrams, Dominic and Michael A. Hogg. "Language attitudes, frames of reference, and social identity: A Scottish dimension." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 5 (1987): 202-13.

    Notes: copy on file "Using the matched guise technique, in 3 conditions each possible pairing of middle class versions of Dundee, Glasgow (both Scottish), and received pronounciation (RP) English accents were presented to 120 teenagers (aged 14-15 yrs) from Dundee. On ratings of speaker status, likely employment, and solidarity, there was a clear pattern of in-group favoritism. The in-group accents were evaluated positively and out-group negatively. Thus, Glasgow accents were evaluated negatively when contrasted with Dundee accents, but positively when contrasted with RP. Levels of in-group favoritism correlated positively with measures of identification with Scotland. Data suggest language attitudes are susceptible to considerable variation, depending on the level of self-categorization salient to the perceiver."

  3. Attinasi, John J. "Language attitudes and working class ideology in a Puerto Rican barrio of New York." Ethnic Groups 5 (1983): 55-78.

    Notes: "How Puerto Ricans in New York City regard their own language and culture is contrasted with interpretations of sociologists and sociolinguists, who describe the role of Spanish, English, and varieties of bilingual usage. 90 working class persons age 12+ living in a predominantly Puerto Rican neighborhood in East Harlem, and from 40 teachers employed in bilingual programs in East Harlem public schools.The lack of a rigorous ideology defending Spanish and the culture against bilingualism with English is seen not as a negative characteristic, but as a pragmatic reaction to a bilingual social situation. The neighborhood residents appear to reflect that situation in their attitudes, without tendencies toward assimilation on the one hand, nor idealistic purism on the other. Rather, an 'interpenetrating bilingualism' constitutes the first element of a bilingual working class consciousness. In this situation, positive attitudes reflect a recognition of change on the part of the working class, but a refusal to give up a distinctly Puerto Rican identity."

  4. Bettoni, Camilla and John Gibbons. "Linguistic purism and language shift: A guise-voice study of the Italian community in Sydney." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 72 (1988): 15-35.

    Notes: ". although demographic factors favor retention of the Italian language by immigrants in Australia, the effect of this factor is weakened by the fact that few immigrants speak standard Italian and attitudes toward most of the regional varieties are generally negative. The correspondence between overt judgments about Italian and covert attitudes was examined in a study in which subjects listened to one speaker using a range of speech varieties and evaluated each on a Likert adjective scale. The speaker reproduced two dialects and two regional Italian varieties as well as standard Australian and standard Italian and mixed dialect/English varieties. Overall findings suggest that attitudes toward dialect speech mixed with English were more negative than those toward pure dialect speech. However, this disapproval of mixtures was not accompanied by any disapproval of English. regional Italian was also highly regarded. "

  5. Bourhis, Richard and Itesh Sachdev. "Vitality perceptions and language attitudes: Some Canadian data." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 3 (1984): 97-126.

    Notes: "Administered the Subjective Vitality Questionnaire (SVQ) proposed by Bourhis et al (1981) and a sociolinguistic questionnaire concerning self-reported usage and evaluations of Italian and English in different domains to Italian-Canadians (ICs) and English-Canadians (ECs) in Grades 12 and 13 of two secondary schools. 45 female and 31 male EC students and 46 female and 31 male IC students were the subjects. ECs and ICs were from lower-middle-class and working-class backgrounds, respectively. SVQ results from the two settings show that S perceptions do not necessarily match objective assessments of ethnolinguistic vitality. Setting and subjective vitality perceptions seemed to affect evaluations of language use rather than self-reported usage. Results show that the SVQ and sociolinguistic surveys, in combination can prove to be useful instruments in studying the dynamics of ethnic group perceptions and language attitudes in multilingual settings."

  6. Bradac, J. J. "Language in social relations: Language attitudes and impression formation." Handbook of Language and Social Psychology. Ed. Howard Giles and W. Peter Robinson. New York: John Wiley and Sons Limited, 1990.

    Notes: P 37. H33 1990 : "persons have attitudes toward language which are especially salient and influential in initial interactions.various linguistic featurse trigger in message recipients' beliefs and evaluations regarding message senders, and that these beliefs and evaluations are most likely to affect recipients' behaviors toward senders in contexts of low familiarity."

  7. Cummins, Jim. ""Linguistic minorities and multicultural policy in Canada"." Linguistic Minorities, Policies and Pluralism. Ed. John Edwards. Orlanda, FL: Academic Press, 1984. 80-105. Edwards, John and Maryanne Jacobsen. "Standard and regional standard speech: Distinctions and similarities." Language in Society 16 (1987): 369-80.

    Notes: ".a study of evaluations of speech in a Canadian context, it was found that a variety which may be said to possess regional standard status was perceived most favourably on dimensions relating to competence, success, and status when compared to other forms, and as favourably as these other forms in terms of itnegrity and attractiveness. This is in distinction to typical findings involving a more straightforward dichotoomy between standard and nonstandard speech, where the former is usually associated with high status and competence, but tends to be seen less favourably than nonstandard forms on the so-called solidarity dimensions of integrity and attractiveness. An attempt is made to explain these results, to integrate them with the existing literature, and to suggest new studies."

  8. Edwards, John and Clare Shearn. "Language and identity in Belgium: Perceptions of French and Flemish students." Ethnic and Racial Studies 10 (1987): 135-48.

    Notes: "Following a description of the current and historical linguistic scene in Belgium, results are presented of a questionnaire survey of 124 Belgian University students (72 native Flemish speakers and 52 Francophones) covering the following areas: knowledge of the other group's language, evaluations of own-group language status, general assessments of Belgian language issues, perceptions of national and linguistic identity, own and other-group personality evaluations, and views of the language-identity relationship. The findings demonstrate the complexity of the Belgian language situation, in which both major groups feel insecure. Results are interpreted in light of recent writing on the language-identity relationship."

  9. Emonds, J. "Grammatically deviant prestige dialect constructions." A Festschift for Sol Saporta. Ed. M. Brame, H. Contreras and F. Newmeyer. Seattle: Noit Amrofer, 1985.

  10. Finegan, Edward. ""Toward a unified model of sociolinguistic prestige"." Diversity and Diachrony (1986).

  11. Flaitz, Jeffra. "The Ideology of English: French Perceptions of English as a World Language." (1988).

  12. Garcia, Ofelia, Isabel Evanelista, Mabel Martinez, Carmen Disla and Bonifacio Paulino. ""Spanish language use and attitudes: A study of two New York City communities"." Language in Society 17 (1988): 475- 511.

    Notes:. Abstract: "This article presents the results of a comparative study of two Hispanic communities in New York City: Washington Heights and Elmhurst/Corona. Our data on language proficiency, language use, and attitudes were gathered using a sociolinguistic questionnarie. However, the study benefited from the interactive process established between the researchers and the communities which they studied and in which they live and work.

    Our data are analyzed along three dimensions. First, we compare data for the two Spanish-speaking communities. We discuss how the social status and the ethnic configuration of the community affect linguistic and attitudinal behaviors. Then, we analyze the data according to national origin. We discuss how the five nationality groups included in our study-Central American, Cubans, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and South Americans-differ in language proficiency, language use, and language attitudes. Finally, we compare the data for Dominicans in Washington Heights to that of Dominicans in Elmhurst/Corona. We examine how national origin and the language surround of the ethnic community interact in order to determine language use and attitudes. Some of the findings here differ from what may be supposed of such cases.

    We suggest socioeducational and language policies for Hispanics in the United States based on the results of this study.

  13. Gardner, Robert C. ""Language attitudes and language learning"." Attitudes towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts (1982): 132-47.

  14. Giles, Howard Ellen Bouchard Ryan. ""Prolegomena for developing a social psychological theory of language attitudes"." Attitudes towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts (1982): 208-23. Notes:. It has a few insightful remarks about previous chapters, but for the most part gives methodological suggestions for field researchers.

  15. Giles, J. J. Hewstone. ""Language attitudes in multilingual settings: Prologue with priorities"." JMMD 4 (1983): 81-99.

  16. Giles, H., M. Hewstone, E.B. Ryan, P. Johnson "Research on language attitudes." Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Ed. U. Ammon. 1 (1987): 585-97. Berlin: Mouton.

  17. Gudykunst, William and Karen L. Schmidt. ""Language and ethnic identity: an overview and prologue"." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6 (1987): 157-70.

    Notes: may be useful as review article: "The purpose of this essay is to overview the study of language and ethnic identity. The general role of language in social categorisation and the influence of social categorisations on language attitudes, as well as the specific influence of ethnic identity on the microsociolinguistic, macrosociolinguistic, and social psychological aspects of language use, language attitudes, sociolinguistic, stereotypes, ethnolinguistic vitality, and speech accommodation are reviewed. The contributions to the presenet volume also are outlined in the context of these areas of research.

  18. Hidalgo, Margarita. ""Of definitions and boundaries: The status of culture in the culture of the state."." Discourse and the Social Life of Meaning (1986): 75-93.

  19. Hill, Jane H. ""Mixed grammar, purist grammar, and language attitudes in modern Nahuatl"." Language in Society 9 (1980): 321-48.

  20. Kahane, J. R. Kahane. ""Decline and survival of western prestige languages"." Language 55 (1979): 183-98.

    Notes:. "Six case histories establish a typology of the rise, recession and hidden survival of western prestige languages (Greek in Rome, Latin in Byzatium.).the language of the education are explained as vernaculars refined by the survival of former prestige languages.

  21. Kalmar, Ivan Zhong Yong. ""Language attitudes in Guangzhou, China"." Language in Society 16 (1987): 499-508.

  22. Kee, Poo Kong. ""Attitudes to language diversity in an Australian City"." Babel 23 (1988): 33-40.

  23. Language Attitudes in the Dutch Area. 1988.

  24. Mazurkewich, Irene et al. ""A new look at language attitudes in Montreal"." Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 112 (1986): 201-17.

  25. McNamara, Tim F. ""Language and social identity: Iraelis abroad"." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6 (1987): 215-8.

  26. Mgbo-Elue, C. N. ""Social psychological and linguistic impediments to the acquistion of a second Nigerian language among Yoruba and Ibo"." Pacific Linguistics (1977): 117-28.

  27. Nader, L. ""A note on attitudes and the use of language"." Anthropological Linguistics 4 (1962): 24-9.

  28. Quasthoff, Uta M. ""Social prejudice as a resource of power: towards the functional ambivalence of stereotypes"." Language, Power, and Ideology: Studies in Political Discourse (1989): 181-96.

  29. Ramirez, Arnulfo G. Robert H. Milk. ""Intragroup differences and attitudes toward varieties of Spanish among bilingual pupils from California and Texas"." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 5 (1983): 417-29.

  30. Ros-Garcia, Maria. ""Speech attitudes to speakers of language varieties in a bilingual situation"." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 47 (1984): 73-90.

  31. Ros, Maria Ignacio J. Cano. ""Language and intergroup perception in Spain."." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6 (1987): 243-59.

  32. Sachdev, Itesh Richard Bourhis and John D'Eye Sue-wen Phang. ""Language attitudes and vitality perceptions: Intergenerational effects amongst Chinese Canadian communities"." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6 (1987): 287-307.

  33. Schmied, Josef J. ""Attitudes toward English in Tanzania"." English World-Wide 6 (1985): 237-69.

  34. Shuy, R. "Language Attitudes: Current Trends and Prospects." (1973).

    Notes: P41. L33 CUL This is a collection of articles presented at the 23rd Georgetown roundtable.

  35. Starets, Moshe. ""The attitudes of Acadian parents toward French and English"." Canadian Modern Language Review 42 (1986): 792-805.

  36. St Clair, Robert N. ""From social history to language attitudes"." Attitudes towards Language Variation: Social and Applied Contexts (1992): 164-74.

    Notes: clearly shows how larger socio-cultural and political contexts affect langauge attitudes. His application of Labelling Theory is interesting and innovative.

  37. Woolard, Kathryn A., T-J. Gahng. "Changing language policies and attitudes in autonomous Catalonia." Lang. Soc. 19 (1990): 311-30.

  38. Zahn, Christopher J. Robert Hopper. ""Measuring Language Atitudes: The Speech Evaluation Instrument"." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 4 (1985): 113-23.

This bibliography was contributed by:

 Kathryn A. Woolard                    kwoolard@ucsd.edu
 Sociology, 0533                          Tel.: (619)534-4639

 UCSD                                         Fax: (619)534-4753
La Jolla, CA 92093-0533
Harold F. Schiffman, haroldfs@ccat.sas.upenn.edu , last modified 10/28/96