Results of a Bibliographic Search for 'language attitudes' and 'English'

Database searched: LLBA 1973-1999.

  1. Record 1 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TITLE: Lingual Biography and Linguistic Variation
    AUTHOR: Johnstone,-B.
    INSTITUTION: Dept English Carnegie Mellon U, Pittsburgh PA 15213
    SOURCE: Language-Sciences; 1999, 21, 3, July, 313-321.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    ABSTRACT: Inspired by, eg, A. L. "Pete" Becker's (1999) & Edward Sapir's (1921) ideas that language is primarily a property of particular individuals rather than a fundamentally abstract shared code, the differentiated perspectives & individual specificity in the language of one writer (ie, Molly Ivins) from West Texas are analyzed. An outline of Ivins's biography is followed by a discussion of stereotypes associated with West Texas speech & people (eg, dramatic story telling, use of discourse markers to pace conversation, & nonstandard phonology, syntax, & phraseologisms) as well as those usually associated with educated intellectuals like Ivins (eg, standard styles & formal lexical choices). Subsequently, the interplay of these stereotypes with other, more ideosyncratic, elements (eg, refusal of the stereotypical female role of the Southern belle through usage of swear words) is described. It is concluded that this sociolinguistic case study witnesses the value of Becker's & Sapir's ideas. 22 References. S. Paul AN: 9909801

  2. Record 2 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Voices in the Desert: Contemporary Approaches to Language Maintenance and Survival of an Ancient Language, Tohono O'odham
    AU: Zepeda,-Ofelia
    IN: U of Arizona
    SO: International-Journal-of-the-Sociology-of-Language; 1998, 132, 47-57.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: In summer 1995, several members of the Tohono O'odham Nation came together for a 2-week training workshop for O'odham language teachers at the college & university level. In that short period, the group experimented with various alternatives for t urning the tide of language loss among the Tohono O'odham community, including building on the rich oral tradition of the people & pilot projects using the latest computing equipment. Here, these & other language-maintenance efforts are considered in ligh t of the current status of the Tohono O'odham language of Arizona. The present status of spoken & written Tohono O'odham & prevailing attitudes held by members of the O'odham Tribe about their language are described, along with the current economic & poli tical stance of the O'odham Nation relative to language survival. Also discussed is the current role of the Tohono O'odham's lucrative gaming industry, questioning whether revenue will be available for the tribe to direct at averting language loss. Both r ealistic & hypothetical solutions to O'odham language maintenance & survival are proposed. 12 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9909796

  3. Record 3 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Ebonics and Public Awareness: Who Knows? Who Cares?
    AU: Barnes,-Sandra-L.
    IN: Dept Sociology Georgia State U, Atlanta 30303-3083 [e-mail:]
    SO: Journal-of-Black-Studies; 1998, 29, 1, Sept, 17-33.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Analyzes awareness of the Oakland, California, School Board's resolution concerning the status of Ebonics in its public schools, drawing on questionnaire data from 420 undergraduates at an ethnically diverse college in the southern US. Results ind icate that student race, major, & choice in the 1996 presidential election increased their familiarity with Ebonics & the school board's decision; Anglo & African American students demonstrated the greatest awareness. Respondents with knowledge of Ebonics generally showed an understanding of the school board's decision. The presidential choice variable was a more significant determinant of student knowledge of Ebonics & the school board's resolution than was the race variable. 5 Tables, 27 References. J. W. Parker AN: 9909776

  4. Record 4 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Attitudes toward the Greek Cypriot Dialect: Sociocultural Implications
    AU: Papapavlou,-Andreas-N.
    IN: U Cyprus
    SO: International-Journal-of-the-Sociology-of-Language; 1998, 134, 15-28.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: In an experiment, employing the matched-guise technique, 22 first-year Greek Cypriot students attending the U of Cyprus were selected to evaluate the qualities of several speakers using their native Cypriot dialect on one occasion (one guise) & St andard Modern Greek on another occasion (the other guise). Judges' evaluations took the form of filling in a table that included 12 traits such as kindness, intelligence, sincerity, dependability, & sense of humor. Results show that the Standard Modern Gr eek guises were rated more favorably than the Cypriot guises. 3 Tables, 1 Appendix, 32 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9909755

  5. Record 5 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Language, Race, and White Public Space
    AU: Hill,-Jane-H.
    IN: Dept Anthropology U Arizona, Tucson 85721
    SO: American-Anthropologist; 1998, 100, 3, Sept, 680-689.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: White public space is constructed through (1) intense monitoring of the speech of racialized populations such as Chicanos & Latinos & African Americans for signs of linguistic disorder & (2) the invisibility of almost identical signs in the speech of whites, where language mixing, required for the expression of a highly valued type of colloquial persona, takes several forms. One such form, Mock Spanish, exhibits a complex semiotics. By direct indexicality, Mock Spanish presents speakers as possess ing desirable personal qualities. By indirect indexicality, it reproduces highly negative racializing stereotypes of Chicanos & Latinos. In addition, it indirectly indexes "whiteness" as an unmarked normative order. Mock Spanish is compared to white "cros sover" uses of African American English. The question of the potential for such usages to be reshaped to subvert the order of racial practices in discourse is briefly explored. 51 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9909729

  6. Record 6 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Refining Our Understanding of Language Attitudes
    AU: Edwards,-John
    IN: Saint Francis Xavier U, Nova Scotia
    SO: Journal-of-Language-and-Social-Psychology; 1999, 18, 1, Mar, 101-110.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Social psychology, in its studies of language attitudes, has typically not related evaluative reactions to particular speech attributes. Sociolinguists, who have investigated these attributes, have not given sustained attention to social ratings. Seeking to bridge this research, previous studies are summarized, & an attempt is made to establish the important generalities underlying the fact that given speech characteristics can be related to differential social evaluations. 5 References. Adapted f rom the source document AN: 9909720

  7. Record 7 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Tower of Babel Undone in a Soviet Pentecost: A Linguistic Myth of the First Five-Year Plan
    AU: Collins,-Daniel-E.
    IN: Ohio State U
    SO: Slavic-and-East-European-Journal; 1998, 42, 3, fall, 423-443.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: A linguistic myth of the first Soviet 5-year plan, revealed in mythopoeic production novels of the 1920s & 1930s, is characterized as a co-opted component of the Christian Orthodox model of Pentecost: communists can understand one another across l anguage barriers, whereas noncommunists cannot communicate even in the same language & fall silent. Transformations of the Biblical vision of Pentecost as the reversal of Babel are shown to abound in early Soviet writing, culminating in N. Ya. Marr's clai m that a transformed humanity would create a single world language. The production novels under study, however, depict linguistic differences as trivial & incapable of interfering with communication among true enthusiasts, as seen in instances of dialect mixing, foreigner talk, & extensive use of macaronic language. 44 References. J. Hitchcock AN: 9909714

  8. Record 8 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Perceptual and Phonetic Experiments on American English Dialect Identification
    AU: Purnell,-Thomas; Idsardi,-William; Baugh,-John
    IN: U Wisconsin, Madison
    SO: Journal-of-Language-and-Social-Psychology; 1999, 18, 1, Mar, 10-30.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Use of a nonstandard dialect is often enough information to determine a speaker's ethnicity, & speakers may consequently suffer discrimination based on their speech. Presented here are findings of four experiments, revealing that housing discrimin ation based solely on telephone conversations occurs, dialect identification is possible using the word hello, & phonetic correlates of dialect can be discovered. In one experiment, several telephone surveys (N = 989 calls) were conducted over a short tim e period, using standard & nonstandard dialects to inquire about housing from the same landlords in the San Francisco, California, area. Results demonstrate that landlords discriminate against prospective tenants on the basis of the sound of their voice d uring telephone conversations. Another experiment was conducted with untrained participants to confirm this ability; listeners identified the dialects significantly better than chance. Phonetic analysis reveals that phonetic variables potentially distingu ish the dialects. 14 Tables, 3 Figures, 40 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9909531

  9. Record 9 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Preliminary Information on Stuttering Characteristics Contrasted between African American and White Children
    AU: Olsen,-Lisa-Taylor; Steelman,-Mary-Lynn; Buffalo,-M.-D.; Montague,-Jim
    IN: c/o Montague-Dept Audiology & Speech Pathology U Arkansas, Little Rock 72204 [tel/fax: (501) 569-3155/3157; e-mail:]
    SO: Journal-of-Communication-Disorders; 1999, 32, 2, Mar-Apr, 97-108.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: To study variation of behavioral stuttering among various cultures, verbal disfluency & accessory characteristics of 15 African American & 15 white male stutterers (N = 15 each, aged 8-12) were compared. In addition to a speaking attitude scale fo r each of the subjects, conversational & reading samples were gathered. Good intra- & inter-judge reliability was found in assessing the various tasks. Overall results revealed no statistically significant differences in verbal or visual disfluency behavi ors on either the reading or conversation tasks between the African American & white groups of children. In addition, no differences in attitudes toward speaking situations was found between the two groups of children. Implications for the diagnosis & tre atment of disfluent African American elementary school aged children are discussed. Specific suggestions are made for additional disfluency research with African American children. 1 Table, 18 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9908436

  10. Record 10 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Attitudinal Component of Variation in American English Foreign (a) Nativization
    AU: Boberg,-Charles
    IN: McGill U, Montreal Canada
    SO: Journal-of-Language-and-Social-Psychology; 1999, 18, 1, Mar, 49-61.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: When foreign words spelled with (eg, llama, Mazda, pasta, spa, tobacco) are phonologically nativized in Modern English, the foreign vowel is variably realized as one of two English phonemes: short /ae/ (as in fat) or long /a:/ (as in father). This is the linguistic variable "foreign (a)." British & American English show different nativization patterns. Whereas British nativization operates on phonological principles with /ae/ as a default nativization, American English shows a tendency toward nativization with /a:/ that cannot be explained entirely in phonological terms. Reported here are the results of a study of American undergraduates (N = 59) that investigates the role of attitudinal factors in the choice of /ae/ or /a:/ in American nativi zation. The results show that /a:/ is evaluated by Americans as more correct, educated, & sophisticated than /ae/ as a nativization of foreign (a). Both social & phonetic explanations for this evaluation are suggested. 7 Tables, 2 Figures, 1 Appendix, 8 R eferences. Adapted from the source document AN: 9907796

  11. Record 11 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Influence of Age, Gender, and Context on Attitudes toward Sexist/Nonsexist Language: Is Sport a Special Case?
    AU: Parks,-Janet-B.; Robertson,-Mary-Ann
    IN: Bowling Green State U, OH 43403-0248
    SO: Sex-Roles; 1998, 38, 5-6, Mar, 477-494.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: To examine the influence of age & gender on attitudes toward sexist/nonsexist language in sport & nonsport contexts, samples of college students, university personnel, & business people (total N = 292 from seven universities & adjacent towns in th e southeastern & midwestern US) were administered the Inventory of Attitudes toward Sexist/Nonsexist Language. The average score was 3.34 on a 5-point scale, indicating ambivalence. Respondents age 23+ were more favorable toward nonsexist language than we re younger participants, women were more supportive than men, & age & gender explained 23% of the variance. The significant difference between sport/nonsport contexts was not meaningful, nor was a significant gender by context interaction. Sport was not a special case of resistance to nonsexist language. 3 Tables, 2 Figures, 55 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906844

  12. Record 12 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Language Planning and Image Building: The Case of Malay in Malaysia
    AU: Omar,-Asmah-Haji
    IN: U Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
    SO: International-Journal-of-the-Sociology-of-Language; 1998, 130, 49-65.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Language status, corpus, & acquisition planning in the development of a national language do not always offer prestige to the language concerned. Image building is another dimension in the development of a national language, having to do with the ability to overcome challenges beyond that of building an identity & the allocation of language use by fiat. It involves the building of image repertoires, eg, scientific, professional, cultural, & social. It is argued that language planning is not restri cted to the building of an identity, but must also concern itself with portraying a good image, a necessary ingredient in building its user's self-confidence. These notions are examined in the case of the use of Malay vs English in Malaysia, comparing the ir selection for Master's & PhD theses & scientific journal articles (Ns = 534, 103, & 224, respectively) published 1989-1995. 3 Tables, 14 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906802

  13. Record 13 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Status of Official English Today
    AU: Dicker,-Sue
    SO: Perspectives; 1997, 23, 2, fall, 84-88.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The current status of official English at the state & federal levels is reviewed in the context of the wider political climate. Although the organization US English has asserted that 23 states have passed official-English laws, it is shown that se veral of these states in fact support language pluralism. Particular attention is paid to a bill passed by the House of Representatives, the English Language Empowerment Act, the first such bill to appear at the national level. Provisions of the bill incl ude denial of special funding for bilingual education, & a prohibition on printing official documents, such as electoral material, in languages other than English. It is suggested that the bill passed the House due to the unethical tactics of the conserva tive right, & that its main result, if passed, would have been to put saving money before the interests of the nation's most vulnerable population. This effort is connected to a wider conservative movement intent on targeting the nation's underclasses. It is concluded that teachers of English as a second language may protest these practices through participation in voter-registration drives in their communities & schools. D. Ryfe AN: 9906791

  14. Record 14 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Exploring of American Ideologies of Language
    AU: Aggarwal,-Kailash-S.
    IN: Manipur U, Imphal 795003 India
    SO: CIEFL-Bulletin-(New-Series); 1998, 9, 2, Dec, 1-22.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Americans display multiple & often contradictory beliefs, perceptions, attitudes, & understandings about language policy issues. The major US ideologies of language are similar, however, in their denial of language inequality. Those who fight for the rights of linguistic minorities accept some of the main assumptions of their adversaries, the champions of "US English." These asusmptions include the politically disunifying consequence of linguistic diversity, the validity of competence in English a s an indicator of national loyalty, the intrinsic inferiority of dialects, the adequacy of will power for mastery of English, & the adequacy of this mastery for upward social & economic mobility. These & similar assumptions seem to have led to the exclusi on of language from the categories protected by law from discrimination in the US. Such a generalization emerges chiefly from debates & judicial opinions about the official recognition of Spanish & Black English in elections & in public schools. 71 Refere nces. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906783

  15. Record 15 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: African American Evaluations of Black English and Standard American English
    AU: White,-Michael-J.; Vandiver,-Beverly-J.; Becker,-Maria-L.; Overstreet,-Belinda-G.; Temple,-Linda-E.; Hagan,-Kelly-L.; Mandelbaum,-Emily-P.
    IN: Program in Social Psychology Dept Counseling Psychology Ball State U, Muncie
    IN 47306-0585
    SO: Journal-of-Black-Psychology; 1998, 24, 1, Feb, 60-75.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: African American undergraduates (N = 55) at a midwestern university evaluated two language guises: Black English & Standard American English. The speaker in these guises described activities in a weekend (informal) & in a business (formal) setting . Based on their scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale, respondents were categorized as having either a low or high commitment to an African American identity. Results showed that persons without a committed black identity evaluated Black English as lower status than those with a committed black identity. Black English was not perceived as reflecting higher social solidarity. 2 Tables, 1 Figure, 31 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906781

  16. Record 16 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Multilingualism and Language Shift in South Africa: The Case of Telugu, an Indian Language
    AU: Prabhakaran,-Varijakshi
    IN: Dept Indian Languages U Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001 4000 South Africa [e-mail:]
    SO: Multilingua; 1998, 17, 2-3, 297-319.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The intergenerational language shift is demonstrated of a subminority linguistic group, the immigrant Andhras, who speak Telugu as their home language in a multilingual context in South Africa. Focus is on the causes for bilingualism, multilingual ism, & language shift of the Andhras over the past 137 years in South Africa. Discussed are the present status of the Telugu language in post-apartheid South Africa, attitudes of the present-day immigrant Andhras toward their mother tongue, process of lan guage shift from Telugu to English, & language change observed among the immigrant Andhra children. 1 Table, 3 Figures, 25 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906770

  17. Record 17 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Silence of the Gators: Cajun Ethnicity and Intergenerational Transmission of Louisiana French
    AU: Bankston,-Carl-L.,-III; Henry,-Jacques-M.
    IN: Dept Sociology & Anthropology U Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette 70504-0198
    SO: Journal-of-Multilingual-and-Multicultural-Development; 1998, 19, 1, 1-23.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The relationship between Cajun ethnicity & the intergenerational transmission of the French language is considered, using data from the 1990 US Census, participant observation, ethnographic fieldwork, & 35 semistructured interviews conducted 1981- 1988 in Louisiana. It is hypothesized that if an ethnicity is associated with socioeconomic disadvantages, then the greater the ethnic identification of parents, the more disadvantageous for them ethnic traits will be. Therefore, ironically, parents who i dentify themselves as Cajuns & who live in Cajun ethnic areas may be less inclined to pass on French language abilities than are non-Cajun parents or parents in non-Cajun areas, once parents' own language abilities are controlled for. Findings indicate th at the relationship between ethnicity & language transmission is ambivalent; in general, assimilation contributes to the transmission of ethnic traits. 5 Tables, 1 Figure, 49 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906722

  18. Record 18 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Standardisation, Variation and Authority in English: The Impact on Language Diversity
    AU: Baldauf,-Richard-B.,-Jr.
    IN: Language Centre U Sydney
    SO: TE
    SOL-in-Context; 1998, 8, 2, Dec, 4-10.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Issues of language standardization are discussed with reference to Australian English. It is claimed, following J. E. Joseph (1987), that standardization arose out of the European tradition of language planning & that a standard language is a pure ly ideological construct that must be learned in school. Language prescription causes problems for minority dialect speakers & creates linguistic intolerance & discrimination. Two apparently contradictory trends are emerging: globalization (English as wor ld language) & localization (the rise of niche languages). These trends also operate within English. It is claimed that the lack of authoritative standardization is what has allowed regional Englishes to flourish. It is suggested that a very powerful Engl ish-based knowledge cartel has arisen out of the American scientific infrastructure. The possibility of language standardization in the US as envisioned by the English First movement may undermine English as an international language. It is concluded, wit h J. Rickford (1996), that teachers must acknowledge the integrity of social dialects & build on them in language instruction to achieve a truly multicultural society. 37 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9906721

  19. Record 19 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Bringing Back Childhood Bilingualism: The Case of Louisiana
    AU: Caldas,-Stephen-J.
    IN: Dept Educational Foundations & Leadership U Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette
    SO: Learning-Languages; 1998, 4, 1, fall, 15-23.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Linguistic xenophobia in the US is growing, fueled by the belief that proficiency in English correlates with abandonment of the native language. It is suggested, however, that there may be a strong link between multilingualism & enhanced cognitive functioning. This link is considered in light of experiences in Louisiana, which is officially French-English bilingual. Bilingualism was widely tolerated until the end of WWI, when speaking French in public was stigmatized. In the last 30 years, however , Louisiana has moved to preserve French by teaching it in all elementary schools. The emerging generation of French-English bilinguals is flourishing academically. It is argued that immersion programs encourage children to speak the target language with their teenaged peers & that such programs need to be extended into middle school & perhaps beyond. 55 References. L. Lagerquist AN: 9905908

  20. Record 20 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Power, Authority, and Domination in Foreign Language Education: Toward an Analysis of Educational Failure
    AU: Reagan,-Timothy; Osborn,-Terry-A.
    IN: Dept Curriculum & Instruction School Education U Connecticut, Storrs
    SO: Educational-Foundations; 1998, 12, 2, spring, 45-62.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: In a review of current literature it is argued that foreign-language education's failure in the US is due to structural constraints, the context of the curricula, & the role of the teacher as language authority. Structural constraints working agai nst foreign-language learning are time limitations (the student is introduced too late & receives too little classroom time), choice restrictions to European languages, institutional emphasis on minimum requirements rather than on actual learning, & the g eneral social expectation of failure. Contextual problems lie in textbook & curriculum biases toward other cultures, signified by the use of the word "foreign." The teacher as language authority is problematic because of the power differential between for eign-language educators & their students: teachers control content, grammatical choices, cultural decisions, methodology, & even act as official school translators. 64 References. E. Blackwell AN: 9905721

  21. Record 21 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Straw Hippopotamus
    AU: Honey,-John
    IN: U Botswana, Gaborone
    SO: English-Today; 1998, 14, 3(55), July, 41-44.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Reaction to criticism on Language is power (1997), in which Honey asserted that access to Standard English, taught partly through formal grammar instruction, is essential for all children, including those whose native dialect is a nonstandard vari ety. It is argued that the many opponents of these views have adopted a threefold strategy (ie, [1] avoiding debate on the issues, & instead [2] resorting to personal criticism, particularly [3] accusations of sympathy with right-wing politics) to defend the position that Standard English is no more "correct" than any dialect & that attempts to impose a standard variety on children reflect a rigid upper-class view on norms & standards. Roy Harris's (1997) & Jean Aitchison's (1997) reviews of the book are discussed in some detail, contending that both reviews adopted the strategy of personal attack while avoiding rational arguments to counter the ideas expressed in the volume. The lack of academic discussion of perspectives & views that these reviews repre sent is lamented. S. Paul AN: 9903814

  22. Record 22 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Minority Usage within a New Variety of English: Resistance and Conformity
    AU: Begum,-Rizwana; Kandiah,-Thiru
    IN: Dept English Language & Literature National U Singapore, 0511 Singapore [e-mail:]
    SO: Belgian-Journal-of-Linguistics; 1997, 11, 277-296.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The colloquial usage of Singapore English (SgE) by Tamil & Chinese speakers is examined to provide new perspectives on issues of language minority conformity & resistance. Bilingual Singapore English-speaking Tamil & Chinese subjects (N = 30) were asked to listen to recordings of casual speech; they were then given a questionnaire to elicit their judgments & attitudes about specific usages they had heard as well as their own linguistic behavior & self-perceptions regarding their use of English. It is concluded that in order to adequately understand the patterns of resistance among the Tamil population, it is necessary to view the phenomena as essentially dialectal in nature, rather than as strictly issues of politics &/or ideology. 1 Table, 15 Ref erences. R. Meyer AN: 9903800

  23. Record 23 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Bilingualism and Translation in/of Michele Lalonde's Speak White
    AU: Mezei,-Kathy
    IN: Dept English Simon Fraser U, Burnaby British Columbia V5A 1S6 [e-mail:]
    SO: Translator; 1998, 4, 2, Nov, 229-247.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Michele Lalonde's poster-poem, "Speak White," reflected the ideology of Quebec nationalists in the 1960s as they sought independence from Canada & promoted the preservation of French language & culture. For Lalonde, to "speak white" signified Engl ish linguistic, cultural, & economic imperialism. The function of English in the poem is examined from several perspectives, including textual & official bilingualism, code-switching from French to English, & the language debates of Quebec. D. G. Jones's translation of "Speak White" into English & the paradox of this particular translation act are addressed. The reading of the poem then (1968) & now (1998) is contextualized. 29 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9903751

  24. Record 24 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: More on Drug/Dragged and Snuck/Sneaked: Evidence from the American Midwest
    AU: Murray,-Thomas-E.
    IN: Kansas State U, Manhattan 66506
    SO: Journal-of-English-Linguistics; 1998, 26, 3, Sept, 209-221.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: To add to a database assembled by Cynthia Bernstein (1994), over 10,000 people in the midwestern US were polled via interview & questionnaire. They were asked to read four sentences containing variously sneak, snuck, drag, & drug to elicit their v iews on acceptability of these forms, whether they used each of them & in which contexts, & if they did not use them, why not. The variance in the acceptance of drug/dragged & snuck/sneaked is somewhat inconsistent for different cross-sections of American speakers. Contrary to Bernstein's findings, differences were noted in acceptability by gender for drug & dragged, but no significant difference between whites & African Americans. Drug was found to be less acceptable among the higher socioeconomic strata . Despite its absence from style books, the form snuck has gained popularity over the past several generations of speakers, as largely corroborated by the data here. Snuck & sneak did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic level. The line separating the acceptability of sneaked/snuck is evidently much less distinct than that separating dragged/drug, with snuck - despite its continued taint of vulgarity for some speakers - apparently in the process of replacing sneaked. 9 Tables, 7 Referenc es. L. R. Hunter AN: 9901431

  25. Record 25 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: English as an International Language of Prestige: Conflicting Cultural Perspectives and Shifting Ethnolinguistic Loyalties
    AU: Francis,-Norbert; Ryan,-Phyllis-M.
    IN: Northern Arizona U, Flagstaff 86011
    SO: Anthropology-and-Education-Quarterly; 1998, 29, 1, Mar, 25-43.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Student & teacher perceptions of second-language acquisition are investigated drawing on two long-term studies carried out in 1994 in rural & urban settings in Mexico. The first study was conducted among university students, & the second among Spa nish/Nahuatl bilingual students in the state of Tlaxcala (N = 500 & 45, respectively). It is found that bilingual students of indigenous communities experience language differently than urban university students. University students expressed a host of at titudinal postures toward English that were shaped by the perceived imposition of an international language, conflicting loyalties & aspirations, & negative & positive associations. This proximity to English has produced a relatively high filter that inte rvenes in efforts to learn it. In contrast, Spanish plays a mediating role in the relationship of rural residents to English. Spanish-speaking instructors of English have made it very difficult for Nahuatl native speakers to gain access to the English lan guage. It is concluded that integrated language teaching strategies are necessary so that the conflict between English, Spanish, & Nahuatl may become a pedagogical opportunity rather than a barrier to learning. 1 Figure, 37 References. Adapted from the so urce document AN: 9900525

  26. Record 26 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Avoiding the Unicultural Trap at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
    AU: Rankin,-Walter
    IN: Georgetown U, Washington DC 20057
    SO: Mosaic; 1997, 4, 2, winter, 8-10.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Noting the limited importance attributed to multicultural studies & foreign languages at some historically black colleges & universities (HBCU), African American students' (N = 53) perceptions of learning foreign languages were investigated. Enter ing freshmen at Hampton University, Virginia, were required to provide demographic information & complete surveys regarding their perceptions of learning languages (in comparison to other subjects) & which languages should be taught at post-secondary inst itutions. Several findings are reported: almost 40% of the participants ranked language-learning as the least important subject; a majority ranked language-learning as the least or second least likable subject; the five languages that should be taught in post-secondary institutions were Spanish, French, Latin, German, & Japanese; a majority indicated no relationship between African cultural heritage & any foreign language. It is contended that HBCUs must emphasize multicultural studies & foreign languages in order to continue producing competitive graduates; the success of Dillard University's foreign-language program is recognized. 9 References. J. W. Parker AN: 9900402

  27. Record 27 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Relationship between Personal Characteristics and Attitudes toward Black and White Speakers of Informal Non-Standard English
    AU: Robinson,-James-Adolph
    IN: Eastern Michigan U, Ypsilanti 48197
    SO: Western-Journal-of-Black-Studies; 1996, 20, 4, winter, 211-220.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The relationship between cognitive complexity, racial belief, & the influence of a nonstandard dialect on listener reactions is investigated. Subjects ([Ss] N = 135 undergraduates) listened to an emotionally neutral tape recording of a black PhD c andidate & then responded to questionnaires exploring Ss' cognitive complexity, racial beliefs, & attitude toward the speaker. It is found that the perceived race of the speaker tended to elicit stereotypical responses from listeners, whether they were bl ack or white. Contrary to the conclusions of previous research, this finding held for individuals with both low & high cognitive complexity. However, it is suggested that a person with high racial bias & greater cognitive complexity is more flexible & thu s more susceptible to positive training & exposure to cultural differences than an individual with low cognitive complexity & high racial bias. Although this small sample size precludes its generalization to a heterogeneous population, its combining cogni tive complexity & racial bias variables has produced a higher order construct that is a significant predictor of language attitudes. 3 Tables, 70 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9813416

  28. Record 28 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Realities and Myths of Linguistic Imperialism
    AU: Phillipson,-Robert
    IN: Dept Languages & Culture U Roskilde, DK-4000 Denmark
    SO: Journal-of-Multilingual-and-Multicultural-Development; 1997, 18, 3, 238-248. NT: Response to a Reply, 248.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: A rejoinder to Alan Davies's "Ironising the Myth of Linguicism" (1996 [see abstract 9712449]), a review of Phillipson's book Linguistic Imperialism (Oxford: Oxford U Press, 1992). The theoretical construct of linguistic imperialism is defended as a subtype of linguicism, defined by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (1988) as a conceptual tool to aid the study of hierarchization based on language in parallel to racism, sexism, & ethnicism. Linguistic imperialism comprises a wide range of activities & ideologies in an asymmetrical north/south framework & focuses on the roles of aid projects & English language teaching in local linguistic ecologies. Hegemonic language attitudes & beliefs are argued to underlie current international aid & education programs. Nine differences between Phillipson's & Davies's views are outlined, & a paradigm shift in aid policies is advocated with the new South African language equity policy as a model. Alan Davies's Response to a Reply signals that his critique is based on a view of language as nonessential & choices of language use as independent decisions of individuals. 41 References. J. Hitchcock AN: 9813408

  29. Record 29 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Language Shift in Brittany: The Importance of Local Surveys for the Study of Linguistic Obsolescence
    AU: Jones,-Mari-C.
    SO: Journal-of-Celtic-Linguistics; 1996, 5, 51-69.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The results of an earlier macro study (Broudic, Fanch, 1991) of speaker attitudes toward Breton in Lower Brittany, France, are compared to the findings from a methodologically identical micro study of the commune of Plougastel-Daoulas, Finistere. For the two analyses, both Breton & non-Breton speakers (total N = 600) were interviewed; aspects investigated were (1) fluency in Breton, (2) opportunities for speaking Breton, (3) linguistic preference, (4) intergenerational transmission, & (5) attitude s about language planning. The analysis furnishes data on the present linguistic situation in a community having a high % of Breton speakers, & it demonstrates that although a macro-to-micro comparison can be used to verify certain broad tendencies relati ng to the Breton speech community as a whole, observed differences between the two groups can also be used to reveal localized aspects at the commune level that escape attention in the macro analysis. It is further suggested that these discrepancies can c ontribute to a better understanding of language obsolescence. 11 Tables, 18 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9813366

  30. Record 30 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Moving beyond Resistance: Ebonics and African American Youth
    AU: Smitherman,-Geneva; Cunningham,-Sylvia
    IN: Dept English Michigan State U, East Lansing 48824-1036
    SO: Journal-of-Black-Psychology; 1997, 23, 3, Aug, 227-232.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The controversy over Ebonics & the educational & social crises of black youths are discussed. In order to help black youth overcome their resistance to learning, it is recommended that black leaders (1) recognize that language is the foundation of individual & group identity construction, (2) teach black English as it relates to black identity & heritage, & (3) critically examine the history, sociopolitical, & sociolinguistic uses of both Black & Standard English; this would form a basis for under standing what is considered standard & how it became the standard representative of all people in the US. It is hoped that this approach will provide black youths with an understanding of the differences between languages & the value of language & culture , & thus, pride & confidence in themselves & their language. 14 References. J. Paul AN: 9812862

  31. Record 31 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: On Becoming Bilingual
    AU: Lovett,-Marilyn; Neely,-Joneka
    IN: U Cincinnati, OH 45221
    SO: Journal-of-Black-Psychology; 1997, 23, 3, Aug, 242-244.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Perceptions of Black English (Ebonics) vs marketplace English (as opposed to Standard English, a term that invalidates other dialects of English & the speakers of those dialects) by Black Americans are discussed. Studies suggest black adults view marketplace English more positively than Black English, whereas black youths tend to perceive Black English more positively. The importance of marketplace English as a survival tool in the US, due to the perpetuation of institutional racism, is acknowledg ed; however, it is recommended that black adults recognize the legitimacy of Ebonics among African American youth so that they can communicate within the dominant culture as well as their own. 4 References. J. Paul AN: 9812849

  32. Record 32 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Children's Perceptions of Black English as a Variable in Intraracial Perception
    AU: Koch,-Lisa-M.; Gross,-Alan
    IN: Dept Psychology U Mississippi, University 38677
    SO: Journal-of-Black-Psychology; 1997, 23, 3, Aug, 215-226.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: African American children's perceptions of speakers of Black English vs speakers of Standard English are examined. Studies involving adult, middle-class African Americans have shown that as they move toward the mainstream of American culture, thei r perceptions of speakers of Black English become more negative. Based on previous studies that suggest African American children perceive Black English more positively than Standard English, it was hypothesized that they rate speakers of Black English hi gher on 24 personality characteristics than speakers of Standard English. Subjects ([Ss] N = 53 female & 43 male African American junior high students) listened to audiotapes: one of an African American male speaking in Black English, the other of the sam e male speaking in Standard English. Responses indicated that subjects viewed the Black English speaker as more likable than the Standard English speaker. 4 Tables, 27 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9812846

  33. Record 33 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Embracing the Black English Vernacular: Response to Koch and Gross
    AU: Burnett,-Myra-N.; Burlew,-Randi; Hudson,-Glenetta
    IN: Dept Psychology Spelman Coll, Atlanta GA 30314-4399
    SO: Journal-of-Black-Psychology; 1997, 23, 3, Aug, 233-237.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Response to Lisa M. Koch & Alan Gross (1997). While agreeing with Koch & Gross's assertion that children's & adults' perceptions of Black English differ, it is argued that the difference occurs for similar, not conflicting reasons. The fact that c reative Black English vocabulary was used in the examples heard by participants is said to have influenced the perceptions of the junior high school students, who would naturally, due to their age, view a speaker who uses creative vocabulary as being more contemporary & thus more appealing. In addition, the assumption that the subjects were fluent in both Black English & Standard English may be wrong. If subjects were more familiar with Black vernacular, they would tend to view the Black English speaker m ore positively based on that familiarity. Finally, Koch & Gross's suggestion that the in-group for these adolescents is mainstream American culture rather than their peers is considered erroneous. 3 References. J. Paul AN: 9812830

  34. Record 34 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Anti-Ebonics Movement: "Standard"English Only
    AU: Richardson,-Elaine
    IN: General Coll U Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455
    SO: Journal-of-English-Linguistics; 1998, 26, 2, June, 156-169.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The movement against Ebonics is examined, focusing on the current anti-Ebonics legislation that has arisen as a result of the debate over the Oakland Unified School District's 1996 Ebonics resolution & subsequent national discussion. Among the res olutions presented to the US House of Representatives are Peter King's H.Res. 28 (1/9/97), which seeks to block funding for any program based on the premise that Ebonics is a legitimate language; & John Doolittle's H.J. Res. 37 (2/4/97), the English-only bill that seeks to discontinue federally funded bilingual education programs. In addition, the five states introducing or having passed anti-Ebonics legislation or that are working to keep Ebonics out of the country's classrooms are noted, including Georg ia, South Carolina, Oklahoma, Florida, & California. It is concluded that this overview of anti-Ebonics policies & legislation indicates America's problems with inherent racism & social control & the general tenency toward a monolingual & anti-multicultur al language & literacy education. 19 References. B. Gadalla AN: 9810273

  35. Record 35 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Language Ideology and Dialect: Understanding the Oakland Ebonics Controversy
    AU: Wolfram,-Walt
    IN: Dept English North Carolina State U, Raleigh 27695-8105
    SO: Journal-of-English-Linguistics; 1998, 26, 2, June, 108-121.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The controversy surrounding the Oakland Unified School District resolution regarding Ebonics is discussed noting that the debate has emphasized the existence of beliefs & opinions about language & language diversity, has resulted in public misinfo rmation about language variation & education, & has demonstrated the need to inform the public about these issues. Also, it is observed that the debates of the 1960s were apparently insufficient to overcome prevailing attitudes & practices. Issues noted i n the debate were (1) the separate language issue, ie, whether Ebonics was a language or a dialect rather than simply a legitimate language system; (2) the source language(s) of Ebonics; (3) the genetic issue, the public's confusion of the historical ling uistics term with biological predisposition; (4) the bilingual issue, revolving around the rights of African Americans in contrast to the rights of second-language learners; & (5) the teaching issue, confusion over learning Ebonics as opposed to respect f or Ebonics. To dispel this confusion, it is suggested that it is the duty of the language professions to educate the teaching professionals, the students, & the public about these issues. 20 References. B. Gadalla AN: 9810243

  36. Record 36 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: The Serious Side of Ebonics Humor
    AU: Scott,-Jerrie-L.-C.
    IN: Office Diversity U Memphis, TN 38152
    SO: Journal-of-English-Linguistics; 1998, 26, 2, June, 137-155.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Given that the Ebonics controversy, resulting from the Oakland Unified School District's resolution, has led to a special category of humor on the Internet & in the media in the form of jokes, cartoons, etc., this humor is analyzed into three type s. The type referred to as "namecalling funnies" is indicated to demonstrate the linkage between language & other stereotypical personal attributes. The type called the "death-of-English funnies" is viewed from the angle of maintaining the integrity of al l languages. The "code-switching funnies" focus on the different discourse rules for different languages/dialects. It is concluded that this humor reflects the need to expand knowledge that can be translated into educational policy, practice, & teacher tr aining. 22 References. B. Gadalla AN: 9810235

  37. Record 37 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Realities and Ideologies of English and "Other" Englishes
    AU: Sarinjeive,-D.
    IN: Vista U, Pretoria 0001 South Africa
    SO: Tydskrif-vir-Taalonderrig / Journal-for-Language-Teaching; 1997, 31, 1, Apr, 68-76.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Ideological & philosophical aspects of attitudes toward nonstandard varieties of English are discussed, focusing on the situation in South Africa & other ex-colonies. Advantages & problems related to the current use of English & indigenous African languages are contemplated, & the risk is noted of replacing racism with "linguicism." It is argued that, since the "standard English" taught in South African schools is a culturally & historically defined variety, the common view of other varieties as e ither fossilized mutations or transitional stages toward the goal of this Standard English is questionable; a perspective that allows "other Englishes" a status of authenticity is claimed to be more realistic & better suited to postcolonial ideas about au thority & ideology. Suggestions to develop a "Standard South African English" which mirrors the ethnic & cultural diversity of South Africa are lauded, & tolerance for a wide variety of accepted Englishes is advocated. 32 References. Adapted from the sour ce document AN: 9810234

  38. Record 38 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: African American Vernacular English and Education: The Dynamics of Pedagogy, Ideology, and Identity
    AU: Lanehart,-Sonja-L.
    IN: Dept English U Georgia, Athens 30602
    SO: Journal-of-English-Linguistics; 1998, 26, 2, June, 122-136.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The dynamics of pedagogy, ideology, & identity are discussed with regard to African American Vernacular English, noting that various ideologies are held about language, resulting in a variety of repercussions. It is suggested that the ideology of Standard English sets up an immediate inferior/superior dichotomy that puts the nonstandard varieties at instant disadvantage. The ideology of opportunity implies that the standard variety will benefit its speakers. The ideology of progress is related to ethnocentrism & racism, suggesting positive outcomes are race & culture related, rather than due to the failure of the educational system. It is concluded that the debate over standard vs nonstandard or the question of separate language is not about langu age, but is about a community of speakers with a recognizable culture. 38 References. B. Gadalla AN: 9810208

  39. Record 39 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Maintenance and Loss of a Regional Language: Recent Low German Developments
    AU: Kremer,-Ludger
    IN: Dept Applied Linguistics U Antwerp, B-2020 Belgium
    SO: Language,-Culture-and-Curriculum; 1997, 10, 2, 113-124.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: The decline & maintenance of Low German, an endangered regional dialect of northern Germany, is discussed with focus on cultural domains in which the language is expanding & on its use & the attitudes toward its use. Low German language & literatu re courses & research are reported in the programs of seven northern German universities. In the public schools, the language is often treated in language awareness modules or in optional courses but is neglected in teacher training courses. Many regional organizations & societies are dedicated to the study of Low German & its proliferation. There is a rich literature in Low German with many publishers specializing in regional & dialect literature. There is theater, music, marginal TV exposure, & columns & glosses in northern German newspapers. Religious services are conducted in Low German. Although Low German has been extended into more cultural domains in the last 18 years, a 1981 survey & a study of language attitudes (between 1980 & 1990) indicated t hat whereas high social position is associated with a positive attitude toward Low German, this same group uses it less frequently. Since WWII, there are 30% fewer speakers of Low German each generation. 7 Tables, 2 Figures, 1 map, 18 References. Adapted from the source document AN: 9810207

  40. Record 40 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Changing Attitudes to English
    AU: Boyle,-Joseph
    IN: Dept English Chinese U Hong Kong, Shatin New Territories
    SO: English-Today; 1997, 13, 3(51), July, 3-6.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: A discussion of the changing attitudes toward English in Hong Kong reviews the positions of early educators & governors & the use of English as a medium of instruction, & presents five attitude surveys conducted during the past 25 years. It is not ed that increasing colonial interest in Hong Kong led to increasing facilities for education, primarily in English. Despite attempts to develop Chinese language schools, by the mid 1990s Hong Kong schools were 90% English-medium. Attitude survey results a re detailed, including that by 1996, any threat to Hong Kong Cantonese was seen to come from Mandarin rather than English. It is concluded that attitudes about English have always been pragmatic, with good English equated with good business. 9 References. B. Gadalla AN: 9810167

  41. Record 41 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Dispositions toward Language: Teacher Constructs of Knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English Case
    AU: Ball,-Arnetha; Lardner,-Ted
    IN: U Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109
    SO: College-Composition-and-Communication; 1997, 48, 4, Dec, 469-485.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Constructs of teacher knowledge are discussed as they relate to attitudes toward language variation in the classroom, especially concerning dialects of Black English. The Ann Arbor case (1979) ruled that the school board was to be held responsible for preparing teachers to adequately instruct speakers of Black English. It was decided that teachers' negative attitudes toward Black English had damaging psychological effects on its speakers & thus impeded their learning. Teachers were required to und ergo an education program to help them understand the problem & work to solve it. Despite this training, teachers remained unclear as to how to apply what they had learned to classroom practice. It is argued that solutions to this problem can be found by examining three constructs of teacher knowledge: teacher as technician, teacher knowledge as lore, & teacher efficacy. It is suggested that working the issue of affect into pedagogical theory will improve race-related attitudes toward language variation. 39 References. R. Jones AN: 9809852

  42. Record 42 of 42 in LLBA 1973-1999/09

    TI: Where Do the Boys Go?-The Problematic LOTE Gender Agenda
    AU: Carr,-Jo; Frankcom,-Carolyn
    IN: School Education James Cook U, Townsville 4811 Queensland Australia
    SO: Australian-Language-Matters; 1997, 5, 4, Oct-Dec, 12-13.
    DT: aja Abstract-of-Journal-Article

    AB: Why boys tend to opt out of language other than English (LOTE) courses whereas girls tend to dominate language-related study is investigated focusing on Australia. A questionnaire of male & female high school students (N = 128) was conducted at the end of Year 8 which coincides with compulsory LOTE coursework, followed by personal interviews focusing on 43 boys who excelled in language classes yet did not choose to continue with language study. The boys' decisions not to pursue language study includes perceived lack of relevance, lack of range of choice of language classes & timetables, influence of parents, unexciting methodology & teaching style used in language courses, behavior management (peer pressure), continuity of language study, difficulty, & gender perceptions. M. Castillo AN: 9808518