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Verbal Nouns.

Verbal nouns (also called participial nouns) can be formed by suffixing third person pronouns , ¨, (), (), adu, avan, ava(l), avanga(l), avaru to adjectival participles.

Verbal nouns can thus be either past or present, if positive, or they can be negative, but without tense. Since they are nouns, they can also take case.

Note that when adu is affixed, the meaning can be either relative or factive. That is, irukkradu can either mean `that which is' or `the act of being.' The verbal noun of the quotative verb -n (see § 7.4) is regularly used in factive constructions.