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Reduplication, positive-negative.: Vb pos.AVP + vb neg. AVP

A reduplicated verb where the first term is in the form of the positive past participle (AVP) plus optional ˣ -um followed by the same verb stem in the form of the negative past participle (AVP) means `before (even) verb-ing'.

While the first instance of the verb is usually the simple past participle (positive) plus ˣ -um, the second member can be various forms of the negative participle, either adjectival or adverbial, and often with an adverbial () -aa(y) attached, as in Ԣ ԡԻ paattum paakkaadadumaa `unseeingly, blindly, ignorantly,' which of course translates best as an English adverb.Note that eendiru `to arise, get out of bed' is derived from LT euntiru by deletion of intervocalic and compensatory lengthening of the vowel.



Haorld_F.Schiffman