THE TWO WAYS SECTIONS of Barnabas and The Didache

translation and notes from pages 137-162 of BARNABAS AND THE DIDACHE 
by Robert A. Kraft
[English original, copyright Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1965]

Updated Electronic Edition
by Robert A. Kraft
[Copyright Robert Kraft, Philadelphia, 1995ff]

Appeared originally as volume 3 of THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS: A NEW TRANSLATION AND
COMMENTARY, ed. by Robert M. Grant

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THE TWO WAYS (Barn. 18.1-21.9; Did. 1.1-6.2)

INTRODUCTION (Barn. 18.1-2; Did.\a 1.1a-1b)

Barnabas 18 Didache 1
1a But let us move on
to another
gnosis [#5.2.6]
and teaching
1b There are two ways 1 There are two ways \b--
of teaching and
that of light 1a one of life,
and that of darkness. and one of death.\c
\a/The title of the Didache in MS H
(see Georg, #7.4) is "Teaching of the
Twelve Apostles: Teaching of
the Lord Through the Twelve
apostles to the Nations."||

\b/Dctr adds "in the world" (cf.
Qumran <s>Manual</s> 4.2).||

\c/Dctr reads "of life and of
death, <b>of light and of
darkness.</e> In these there <b>are
stationed</e> two <b>angels</e>;
one of rightousness, the other of
iniquity" (cf. Barn., Qumran
1c And there is a great 1b And there is a great
difference difference
between the two ways. between the two ways.
1d For over one are
appointed light-bearing
angels of God,
but over the other,
angels of Satan. [#5.3]
2 And the former is Lord
from everlasting
to everlasting,
but the latter is ruler
of the present
time of lawlessness.


I. THE WAY OF LIGHT/LIFE (Barn. 19.1-12; Did. 1.1c-4.14)

Barnabas 19                             Didache 1
1a <1Therefore,>1 On the one hand, <1then,>1 1c
<1the Way of>1 Light <1is>1 <1the Way of>1 Life <1is>1
<1this-->1 <1this:>1
lb if anyone who desires [cf. 1.3a]
to traverse the way
to the appointed
place is diligent in
his works.
1c Therefore, the gnosis
[#5.1-2] which is
granted to us to
walk in it is of this
sort [see 9.8b]:
First, 2a
2a <1You shall love>1 him <1you shall love>1 the God
<1who made you;>1 <1who made you.>1 \d
fear him who formed /-----
you; \k \d/ApCo, Shenuti, and Syntagma-
glorify him who Fides lack "who made you" and
redeemed you from supplement the text with additional
death. reflections from Deut. 6.5 (Mark
/----- 12.30 f., etc.). CO does similarly,
\k/G lacks this phrase (see #5.5.6). but retains "who made you" and also
\===== includes the final phrase of Barn.
Second, 2b
your neighbor as yourself
[Lev. 19.18b].
And whatever you do 2c
not want done to
[see 19.5b] you, do not do to
anyone else.
Now this is the teaching 3a
[cf. 19.1c|] of these words:

                                        The "interpolation" (Did. 1.3b--2.1) [#8.2]

          3b. Bless those who curse you [Luke 6.28a; Matt. 5.44 var.] 
and pray for your enemies
but fast for those who persecute you [Luke 6.27, 28b;
Matt. 5.44]; [[~p.140]]
3c. For wherein do you excel if you love those who love you?
[Luke 6.32a]
don't the Gentiles also do likewise? [Luke 6.33b; Matt.
5.46b, 47b]
But you should love those who hate you [Luke 6.27; see Matt.
and you will not have an enemy.\e
\e/Or, "and have no enemy" (?)-cf.1 Pet. 2.15; 3.13. P.Ox adds "Hear
what you must do to save your spirit: First of all ..." (cf. 5.1!).||
4. Abstain from fleshly and bodily \f desires.
\f/So H (Georg?). P.Ox lacks "and bodily" (see 1 Pet.
2.11); ApCo reads "and worldly" (see Tit. 2.12). Cf. 4 Macc.
1.32: "some desires are of the mind, others of the body."
4b. lf someone hits you on your right cheek,
turn the other to him also [Matt. 5.39b; see Luke 6.29a]
and you will be perfect [see #7.5; Matt. 5.48; 19.21].
4c. If someone compels you to go one mile, go with him for two
[Matt. 5.41].
4d. lf someone takes your coat, give him your shirt too [Luke
6.29b; see Matt. 5.40].
4e. If someone takes from you what is yours [Matt. 5.42b; Luke
don't demand its return [Luke 6.30b]
for you cannot \g [cf. Matt. 5.39a].
\g/ApCo lacks this phrase (see #7.5); Georg has "and
neither can you do this because of the faith" and lacks 1.5-6.
5. Give to all who ask you, and don't ask for it back [Luke 6.30;
see Matt. 5.42];
for the Father wishes that all men should receive from his
own gifts.
5b. Blessed is he who gives according to the command,
for he is blameless.
5c. Woe to him who receives;
for if someone who is in need receives, he is blameless,
but he who is not in need will be called to account
as to why he received and with what results, and when
he has been imprisoned, he will be interrogated concerning
his actions, and he will not be released from there until he
repays the last penny [cf. Matt. 5.25f.; 18.34; Luke 12.58f.].
6. But it has also been said concerning this matter:
Let your alms sweat in your hands
until you know to what end you are giving.

2 And the second [see 1.2] commandment of the teaching is:
Barnabas 19 Didache 2
2b Be upright in heart [see
Ps. 36.10] and rich
in spirit [cf. Matt.
2c Do not associate with
those who are pro-
ceeding \l in the way
of death.
\l/H reads "who are acting
2d <1Hate everything that>1 is [= 4.12b]
not <1pleasing to>1
2e <1Hate all hypocrisy.>1 [= 4.12a]
2f <1Do not forsake the>1 [= 4.13a]
<1Lord's command->1
<1Do not exalt yourself,>1 [= 3.9a]
but always be
3b Do <1not allow yourself to>1 [= 3.9a]
<1become arrogant.>1 \m
\m/So H, but SG place this item
after 19.3d.
3c Do not take glory on
3d <1Do not plot wickedly>1 [= 2.6b]
<1against your neigh->1
Do not murder \e [Exod. 2a
\e/See note e on p. 144.||
4a <1Do not be sexually
promiscuous.>1 [see below]
<1Do not commit adultery.>1 <1Do not commit adultery>1
<1Do not be sexually <1Do not be sexually>1
perverted.>1 <1perverted.>1
[see above] <1Do not be sexually>1
[Deut. 23.17f.].
4b Let not the word of God
[#5.8] depart from [cf. 2.5b]
you with any sort
of impurity
[see 19.8c].\n
\n/S\2mg./ adds "Do not plot
wickedly" (=19.3d).
Do not steal \e
[Exod. 20.14(15)].
\e/The order differs in Dctr (cf.
5.1!): adultery, murder, false
testimony (2.3b), etc.; stealing is
not mentioned in Dctr.
Do not practice magic
[see Deut. 18.10 f.].
Do not engage in sorceries
[see Deut. 18.10 f.].

[= 19.5c] Do <1not murder a child by abortion, 2b
[= 19.6a] nor>1 kill it at birth.
Do not desire <1your neighbor's 2c
[= 19.4f] things>1 [Exod. 20.17].
Do not be an oath breaker (see LXX 3a
Zech. 5.3b].
[= 19.7a] Do not give false testimony [Exod. 3b
[see 19.7a, 8b] Do not speak evilly (see LXX Prov. 3c
[cf.19.4b|] Do <1not \f bear a grudge>1 [see 3d
Prov. 12.28; Zech.7.10].
[see 19.6b] Do not <1be double-minded \g nor 4
[= 19.3d|] <1for the double-tongue is >1
[see 19.5b] <1a snare of death:>1
Let your word be neither empty nor 5
but fulfilled in practice.\h
Be <1not greedy,>1 nor a swindler, 6a
nor a hypocrite,
nor spiteful, nor conceited.\i
Do not <1plot wickedly against 6b
<1your neighbor.>1
Do not hate any man, 7
but reprove some --
and pray for them --
and some
<1love more than yourself.>1 \j
\f/ApCo and Co read "nor."

\g/Dctr adds "in giving advice."

\h/This phrase is lacking in Dctr,
ApCo, CO, and is probably a late gloss
(cf. 1.4b, e).

\i/Dctr adds "nor quarrelsome [see
3.2] nor bad-mannered."

\j/Acute textual problems beset this
verse. For P.Ox, as above, only two
groups of men seem to be in view (?).
<b>H</b> could be taken as listing
three groups-"reprove some, pray for
others, and some love ...." Dctr lacks
the material between "man" and "some
love" (cf. Shenuti). ApCo and
Syntagma-Fides paraphrase freely.
<lb>CO</lb> seems to refer to three
groups: "some reprove, have mercy on
others--and pray for them--and some
love ...." Georg solves the problem by
rendering the final phrase "but you
shall love all these in the Lord ...."
(Cf. Jude 22 f.)

                                  The "fences" tradition (Did. 3.1-6)

          3  My child,\k flee from every evil thing \l  
and from everything that is like it:
\k/Georg adds "I say to you on behalf of the Lord." Cf. T. Benj.
(etc.) for the use of "I say to you" in similar context. The
witnesses vary greatly on the use of "my child" in this section
(see #7.5; cf. #2.5.3).
\l/P.Ox has "every evil act" but the other witnesses could be
interpreted to refer to "every evil person ... like him" (esp.
2. Be not prone to anger,
for the path of anger leads to murder;
neither be excitable nor quarrelsome \m nor hot-tempered,
for from all these are born murders.\n
\m/Dctr lacks "nor quarrelsome"--see its variant at 2.6!

\n/Dctr reads "fit of anger" (!) and lacks any equivalent to 3.3.
3. My child, be not lustful,
for the path of lust leads to sexual promiscuity;
neither be obscene in speech nor have roving eyes,
for from all of these are born adulteries.
4. My child, be not a diviner of omens
since its path leads to idolatry;
neither be an enchanter, nor astrologer, nor magician--
nor even wish to see or to hear \o such things-
for from all these is born idolatry.\p
\o/So Georg, Dctr, CO: H lacks "or to hear."

\p/Dctr has an abridged and reworked form of 3.4: "Do not be an
astrologer nor a magician, which things lead to manifold
superstition, nor desire to see or to hear such things."

5. My child, be not a liar,
since the path of lying leads to theft;
neither be fond of money, nor vainglorious,
for from these all are born thefts.
6. My child, be not one who complains,
since its path leads to blasphemy;
neither be stubborn nor evil-minded,
for from all these are born blasphemies.

Barnabas 19 Didache 3
4c <1Do not show partiality>1 [= 4.3c]
<1in reproving>1 any-
one for <1transgres->1
4d Be <1meek,>1 But be <1meek,>1 7
since "the meek will
inherit the earth." \q
\q/Dctr has "the holy land" (!)
while CO reads "the kingdom of
the heavens/God." See Ps. 37.11;
Matt. 5.5.
Be patient and merciful 8
and without guile
be <1quiet,>1 and <1quiet>1 and good
be <1one who fears the>1 and always <1fearing the>1
<1words which you>1 <1words which you>1
<1have heard.>1 <1have heard.>1 \r
\r/A great deal of confusion exists
among the witnesses here, probably
because of the similarity to Isa.
66.2b. Thus ApCo and <lb>CO</lb> lack
"always," while ApCo (see Shenuti,
Syntagma-Fides) reads "words of
God." Dctr has "Be patient and by
your industry be good and fearing
all the words which you have heard."
4e Do not take the Lord's
name in vain.\o
\o/H includes this decaloguelike
commandment here (see Exod. 20.7
= Deut. 5.11; Lev. 19.12), but SG
place it after 19.5a.
4f <1Do not bear a grudge>1 [= 2.3d|]
against your
5a Do <1not be undecided as>1 [= 4.4]
<1to whether or not a>1
<1thing shall come to>1
5b <1Love>1 your neighbor [see 1.2b; 2.7|]
<1more than your->1
\p/S\*/ wrote "more than your
enemy" (!) but immediately
corrected it. S\2/later
changed it to "as yourself"
(see Did. 1.2b, etc.).
5c <1Do not murder a child [= 2.2b|]
by abortion, nor,>1
again, destroy that
which is born.
5d Do not remove <1your [=4.9]
control>1 from <1your
son or your daughter,
but from youth
up, teach the fear
of>1 the Lord.
6a Be not desirous of <1the>1 [= 2.2c|]
<1things>1 of <1your>1
<1neighbor.>1 \q
\q/H lacks 19.6a entirely.
6b Be <1not greedy,>1 [= 2.6a|]
[=19.3a-b|] <1Exalt not yourself,/s>1 nor 9a
<1allow your soul to>1
<1become arrogant.>1
\s/Dctr adds "nor glorify yourself
before men" (cf. Barn. 19.3c).
neither be yoked Let not 9b
from <1your>1 soul <1your>1 soul be yoked
<1 with the haughty;>1 <1with the haughty,>1
<1 but associate with the>1 <1but associate with the>1
<1righteous and lowly.>1 <1righteous and lowly.>1
6c <1Whatever befalls you,>1 <1Whatever befalls you,>1 9c
<1receive these ex->1 <1receive these experi->1
<1 periences as good,>1 <1ences as good,>1
<1knowing that nothing>1 <1knowing that nothing>1
<1happens>1 <1happens>1
without God.>1 \r without <1God.>1
\r/Did. and Barn. use different
words for "without," and Barn. G
lacks "knowing ... God."

7a <1Be not double-minded [= 2.4|]
<1 nor double-tongued \s
for the double tongue
is a snare of death.>1 \t
\s/So HG (=Did.), but S has
"talkative" (cf. 19.8b).

\t/Only G preserves this clause
here (cf. 19.8b) as in Did.

7b Be subject to <1those over>1 [= 4.11]
<1 you as though to>1
<1in reverence and fear.>1
7c Do <1not>1 give an <1angry>1 [= 4.10a]
<1command to your>1
<1 slave or maid->1
<1 servant, who trust>1
<1 in the same God,>1 \u
<1 lest they fear not the>1
<1 God who is over>1
<1 you both;>1
\u/<l>G</l> reads "who have the same
hope" (see #5.5.1).

Because he came <1not to>1 [= 4.10b]
<1call men according>1
<1 to status,>1
<1but to call those in>1
<1whom he prepared>1
<1the spirit>1 [#5.10].
8a <1Share all things with>1 [= 4.8]
<1your>1 neighbor
<1and do not claim that>1
<1anything is>1
<1 exclusively yours;>1
<1For if you are sharers in>1
<1that which is>1
<1how much more so in>1
<1what is>1 perishable.
8b Be not overtalkative,
for the mouth is
<1death's snare>1 [cf. 2.4|]
[cf. 19.7a|].
8c To the extent of your
be pure for your soul's [cf.6.2]
sake [see 19.4b|].

9a <1Do not be one who>1 [= 4.5; see Sir.4.31;
<1stretches out>1 his Deut. 15.7 f.]
<1hands to receive>1
<1but who holds them>1
<1back when it comes>1
<1 to giving.>1
9b Love as the apple of
your eye 4 My child [cf. 3.1-6] 1a
all who proclaim the him who proclaims <1to>1
Lord's <1word to you.>1 <1you the word>1 of God,
10a <1Remember>1 the day of <1remember>1
<1night and day>1 <1day and night,>1
[#2.3; #5.3], and honor him as the
For wherever the king- 1b
ship is proclaimed,
the Lord is there.
10b and <1pursue>1 (the And <1seek out daily \t>1 2
quest) <1each day>1 \v the company of the
[#5.4] saints
/----- /-----
\v/G and S\2mg./add "the company \t/ Dctr lacks "daily," but cf. its
of the saints," thus modifying the conclusion at 6.1!
meaning of what precedes to agree \=====
with Did.
10c either by the word, \w
by toiling and trav-
eling in order to ad-
monish and by so that you might find
taking pains to save refreshment in their
a soul by the word words [see 16.2a;
[#5.8], #2.3,7].
\w/S\2mg./ adds "and work and
[= 19.12a] <1Do not cause divisions,>1 3a
<1but make peace>1
<1between disputants.>1
[= 19.11d] <1Judge justly.>1 \u 3b

\u/Dctr adds "knowing that you
will be judged."

[= 19.4c|] Do <1not show partiality>1 3c
<1 in reproving trans->1
<1 gressions.>1 \v

\v/Dctr has "Do not oppress
anyone in his misfortune" [?].

[= 19.5a|] Do <1not be of two minds>1 \w 4
<1whether or not some->1
<1thing should be.>1

\w/ApCo and CO (partly) add "in
your prayer."

[= 19.9a|] <1Do not be one who>1 5
<1stretches out his>1
<1 hands to receive,>1
<1but holds them back>1
<1when it comes to>1
<1 giving.>1

If you have acquired 6
something <1through>1
10d or <1by your hands,>1 <1 the work of your>1
by working to provide <1 hands,>1
<1a ransom>1 give it as <1a ransom>1
<1for your sins.>1 <1for your sins.>1
11a <1Do not hesitate to give>1 <1Do not hesitate to give>17
<1nor grumble when>1 <1nor grumble when>1
<1 you give,\x for you>1 <1 you give, for you>1
<1 know who is the>1 <1 know who is the>1
<1good paymaster>1 <1 good paymaster of>1
<1 the reward.>1 <1the reward.>1

\x/G and S\2/ add "Give to all who
ask you" (=Did. 1.5a).
Do not turn away from 8
the needy man,\x

\x/So Dctr (see Sir. 4.5a). The
Greek texts could be rendered "Do
not turn the needy away." One <l>MS</l>
of <lb>CO</lb> ends here, after adding "for
you will receive the worthy reward
from the God who loves men, to
whom be the glory forever, Amen"
(cf. Dctr's ending at 6.1).

[= 19.8a|] but <1share everything>1
<1with your>1 brother,
<1and>1 do <1not claim that>1
<1anything is exclu->1
<1 sively your own;>1
<1For if you are sharers in>1
<1 the>1 immortal,
<1how much more in the>1
mortal things? \y

\y/Dctr reads "for if we are sharers
in mortal things, how much more
ought we henceforth to be, having
made such a start [?}. For the Lord
wishes to give to everyone from his
gifts" (=Did. 1.5a!). The reason for
this strange text is not immediately
apparent. At this point, some
<l>MSS</l> of <lb>CO</lb> introduce
material from Barn. 21.2-4, plus a
phrase from Did. 4.13, to end the Two
Ways section. Nor does Shenuti
preserve parallel material to 4.9-14b.

[= 19.5d|] Do not relax <1contol over 9
your son or daughter,
but from youth on-
ward, teach>1 them <1the
fear of>1 God.\z

\z/So H, ApCo (=Barn. S): but
Georg, Dctr, CO (1 MS) have "the
Lord" (=Barn. HG). One MS of
<lb>CO</lb> continues with phrases from
Did. 4.14a, 13a, 14b, 12, 13b, 14c
to conclude the Two Ways section.

[= 19.7c|] <1Do not give a command 10a
in your anger to
your slave or maid-
servant, who trust in
the same God,
lest they fear not the
God who is over you
[= 19.7c|] For he comes <1not to call 10b
men according to
wordly prestige,
but those on whom
he prepared the
spirit.>1 \a

\a/Dctr has "... in whom he found
the spirit." On this phrase see
#5.2.20; #9.10 (ApCo lacks 4.10b).||

[= 19.7b|] And you slave, be sub- 11
ject <1to>1 your <1masters
as if to God, in
respect and fear.
[= 19.2e|] Hate all hypocrisy>1 12
[= 19.2d|] and <1everything that is>1
not <1pleasing to the>1
[= 19.2f|] <1Forsake not the Lord's>1 13a
11b <1Guard what you>1 but <1guard what you>1 13b
<1received,>1 <1received->1
<1neither adding>1 <1neither adding \c>1
<1nor subtracting any->1 <1nor subtracting any->1
<1thing.>1 <1thing.>1
11c Hate evil completeIy. [cf. 4.12a|]

\b/Dctr lacks this exhortation (cf.
some <l>MSS</l> of <lb>CO</lb>).||

\c/Dctr adds "things contrary to
it" (cf. 5.1a and ApCo).||

11d <1Judge justly.>1 [= 4.3b|]
12a <1Do not cause divisions,>1 [= 4.3a|]
<1but make peace with>1
<1disputants>1 by
bringing them
In church, \d 14a
12b <1Make confession>1 for <1confess>1 your trans-
your sins. gressions,

\d/So H (Georg); but ApCo and
<lb>CO</lb> (1 <l>MS</l>) lack "in
church," while Dctr lacks all of
4.14a (including the "and" of

12c <1Do not go to>1 and <1do not go to>1 14b
<1prayer with an evil>1 <1prayer with an evil>1
<1 conscience.>1 <1conscience.>1
12d <1This is the Way>1 of <1This is the Way of>1 14c
Light.\y Life.

\y/S\2mg./ G include 19.12d, but
S\*/H lack it.


II. THE WAY OF DARKNESS/DEATH (Barn. 20.1-2; Did. 5.1-2)

Barnabas 20                             Didache 5
1a <1But the Way>1 of <1But the Way>1 of 1a
the Black One Death is this: \e"
\e/Dctr has "is contrary to this" (cf.
is crooked First of all,\f it <1is>1 wicked 1b
<1and full of cursing.>1 <1and full of cursing-->1
\f/Dctr lacks "of all" (cf. 1.2a).
1b For it is entirely a way\z
of eternal death
with punish-
ment, in which
lie the things
which destroy
men's souls--
\z/So Syr, cf. H ("for it is
entirely [<gk>holos</gk>] of eternal
death"): SG have "for it is a way
[<gk>hodos</gk>] of eternal death." <1murderers,\g adulteries,>1 1c
\===== lusts, sexual prom-
1c <1idolatry, arrogance,>1 iscuities, thefts,
<1pride>1 in power, <1idolatries, magic>1
<1hypocrisy,>1 arts, <1sorceries, rob->1
<1duplicity, adul->1 <1beries,>1 false testi-
<1tery, murder,>1 monies, <1hypoc->1
<1robbery, con->1 <1risies, duplicities,\h>1
<1ceit,>1 transgres- <1guile, conceit,>1 1d
sion, <1guile,>1 <1malice, stubborn->1
<1malice, stub->1 <1ness, greediness,>1
<1bornness,>1 foul speech,
<1sorcery, magic,>1 jealousy, <1arro->1
<1greediness.>1 <1gance, pride,>1
\g/Both the order and content of
this vice list varies considerably in
Dctr (cf. 2.2f.)--adulteries,
murders, false testimonies, fornications,
evil desires (=duplicities? lusts?),
magic arts, wicked deceptions
(=sorceries), thefts, vain superstitions
(=idolatries; see 3.4), robberies,
affectations (=lusts?), haughtiness
(=conceit?), malice, capriciousness
(=stubbornness?), greediness, foul

speech, jealously, audacity
(=arrogance), elevated pride, vanity
(=boastfulness). There does not
seem to be any equivalent for
"guile," and it is not clear if or
where "lusts," "hypocrisies," and
"duplicities" are represented.

\h/So ApCo (cf. Dctr); H (Georg?)
has "duplicity" (singular).

1d <1Without fear>1 of God,\a <1Without fear,>1 \i 2a
/----- /-----
\a/So HGS\2/, but S\*/ lacks the words \i/So ApCo (see Barn. 20.1d in MS
"of God" (see Did. 5.2a).|| S\*/); cf. Ps-Clem. <s>Hom.</s> 1.18.
\===== Dctr\*/ had "not fearing," and a later
hand added "God." H (Georg?) lack
these words.
2a <1persecutors of the>1 <1persecutors of the>1
<1good;>1 <1good;>1
2b <1Hating truth,>1 <1Hating truth,>1 2b
<1loving a lie;>1 <1loving a lie;>1
2c <1Not knowing the reward>1 <1Not knowing the reward 2c
<1of righteousness,>1 <1of righteousness;>1
<1not associating with>1 <1Not associating with>1 2d
<1what is good;>1 <1what is good,>1
2d Not <1judging justly,>1 nor \j <1judging justly;>1
\j/So H (Georg?) ApCo, but Dctr
has "not" (=Barn.).
not guarding the
rights of the
widow and
2e <1Being alert not with re->1 <1Being alert not with re->1 2e
<1spect to>1 the fear <1 spect to>1 what is
of God good,
<1but>1 to <1that which is>1 <1but>1 to <1that which is>1
<1wicked-->1 <1 wicked-->1
<1from whom courtesy>1 <1from whom courtesy>1
<1and patience>1 <1and patience are>1
<1are far off>1 and <1 far off; \k>1
\k/Dctr reads: "from whom gentleness
is far off and pride is near."
2f <1Loving what is worth->1 <1Loving what is worth->1 2f
<1less,>1 <1less,\l>1
\l/Dctr lacks this item.
<1pursuing reward;>1 <1pursuing reward;>1

2g <1Not showing mercy to->1 <1Not showing mercy to->1 2g
<1ward the poor,>1 <1ward the poor,>1
<1not laboring on behalf>1 <1not laboring on behalf>1
<1of the down->1 <1of the down->1
<1trodden;>1 <1 trodden;>1
2h Reckless with slander-
ous speech,
<1not knowing him who>1 <1Not knowing him who>1 2h
<1made them;>1 <1made them;>1

2i <1Murderers of children,>1 <1Murderers of children,>1 2i
<1corrupters of God's>1 <1corrupters of God's>1
<1creation;>1 <1creation; \m>1
\m/Dctr reads: "destroyers of their
children, abortionists" (see 2.2b).
2j <1Turning away from the>1 <1Turning away from the>1 2j
<1needy,>1 <1needy,>1 \n
<1afficting the>1 <1afficting the>1
<1oppressed;>1 <1oppressed;>1
\n/For 5.2j-l, Dctr has: "Turning
themselves from good works,
oppressing the afflicted, avoiding the
appeals of the just."
2k <1Advocates of the rich,>1 <1Advocates of the rich,>1 2k
<1lawless judges of the>1 <1lawless judges of the>1
<1poor-->1 <1poor-->1
2l <1sinful through and>1 <1sinful through and>1 2l
<1through!>1 <1through.!>1
[cf. 21.9b] May you be delivered, 2m
children, from all
\o/Dctr has: "Abstain, (my) child,
from ..."



6 Beware lest anyone cause you to wander from this way of teaching,\p since such a one teaches
without regard to God. 2. For if you can bear the whole yoke of the Lord, you will be perfect;
but if you cannot, do what you can [cf. Barn. 19.8c].

\p/Dctr concludes here with these words: "... from this teaching,
otherwise you will be taught apart from the (true) instructions.
If you do these things daily [see 4.2] with deliberation, you
will be near to the living God. But if you fail to do them, you
will be far from truth. Store up all these things in your soul,
and you will not be beguiled from your hope [see #5.5.1], but
through these holy contests you will persevere to gain a crown.
Through the Lord Jesus Christ, who reigns and rules with God the
Father and the Holy Spirit for ever and ever. Amen." [[~p.161]]


21 Therefore it is fitting that when one has learned the ordinances 
of the Lord [#5.5.2] -- as many as have been written -- he walks in them.

1b. For he who does these things will be glorified in God's
he who chooses those will perish with his works [#5.3].
1c. For this reason there is resurrection,
for this reason there is recompense [see 5.7].

2. I urge \b those who are in a high position--if you accept any
of my well-intentioned advice [#4.3]--to make sure that there are
among you those to whom you may do that which is good\c
[#5.11]. Do not fail in this. 3. The day is near in which all things
will perish together with the Wicked One [#5.3]. The Lord is
near, and his reward [see 11.8]. [[~p.162]]

\b/The material in 21.2-4(6,8) is reflected in some MSS of CO as
follows: "We urge you, brethren, while there is yet time and
there are among you those for whom you may work, do not fail in
any respect if you have the power [cf. 21.8]. For the Day of the
Lord is near in which everything will perish with the Wicked One.
For the Lord is coming and his reward is with him. Be lawgivers
among yourselves, be good advisers taught by God" (then 19.11b =
Did. 4.13b).||

\c/ G (=CO) lacks "that which is good" (cf. 20.2e [Did. 5.2e]).||

4. Once more and again I urge you; be good lawgivers among
yourselves, persevere as faithful advisers to each other, remove
all hypocrisy [20.1c] from among you. 5. And the God who has
dominion over the whole universe [#5.9] will give you Wisdom,
Insight, Understanding, Gnosis of his ordinances, Endurance [=2.3].

6. Be taught by God [see 21.1a], seeking out what the Lord
seeks from you; and so act that you may find (what you seek) \d
in the day of judgment [#5.3-4]. 7. And if there is any
remembrance of what is good, remember me as you meditate
[#5.2.17] on these things, so that my earnest longing and my
sleeplessness might lead to some good result [#4.3].

\d/So H (Cl. A. lacks "and so act"); but S has "that you may be
found," and G has "that you may be saved" (cf. 29.20a-b!).||

8. I urge you, begging your favor, while the "good vessel" is
still with you do not fail in any respect, but continually seek out
these things and fulfill every commandment [#5.5.4] -- for they are
worthy. 9. Wherefore, I hastened all the more to write whatever
I could [see 1.5; 17.1].\e 9b. May you be saved, children of love
and peace [cf. Did. 5.2m; #4.3]. 9c. The Lord of glory and of all
grace be with your spirit.\f

\e/GS\2/ add "so that you might rejoice" (cf. 1.8; #5.5.6).||

\f/G adds "Amen," after which some of its MSS read: "The epistle
of the apostle Barnabas, traveling companion of the holy apostle
Paul." S has simply "Epistle of Barnabas," while H has no


  @@Barn. 18.1-2; Did. 1.1-1b. Barn. 18.1a introduces the Two 
Ways section as a separate tradition from what has preceded -- it
is not exegetical but ethical gnosis (#5.1-2); not mysterious
"teaching" which must be uncovered (as in 9.9) but direct
commandments from the Lord (see 16.9). The ensuing description
(@@18.1b-2) is vividly escatological (see #2.2-4, #5.3) by
comparison with @@Did. 1.1a-b. The Didache quite briefly states
that there is a sharp contrast between the ways, but does not
attempt any general description beyond the identification with
"life" and "death." That this life/death imagery was already
commonplace is clear from such passages as Deut. 30.15 (Jer.
21.8); Sirach 15.17 (Matt. 7.13 f.); Orac. Sib. 8.399 f., Ign.
Magn. 5.1 (cf. Barn. 19.2c; 20.1b). @@Barn. 18.1b, on the other
hand, prefers the light/darkness symbolism which also was widely
popular, especially in apocalyptically oriented literature (see
Prov. 4.18 f.; T. Levi 19.1; Qumran <s>Manual</s> 3.13-4.26; 2
Enoch 30.15; Col. 1.12 f.; Clem. <s>Hom.</s> 20.2). The Doctrina
incorporates both the life/death and the light/darkness
contrasts (cf. Irenaeus, <s>Ap. Preach.</s> 1b), and adds (in
connection with the angels) a third traditional set,
righteousness/ iniquity (cf. Barn. 1.4; 4.10; 5.4; Hermas, Mand.
6.2.1 ff.). Other characterizations of the Two Ways include
truth/error (Qumran <s>Manual</s> 3.18 ff.; T. Judah 20.1; see T.
Benj. 6.1; Odes Sol. 38; Aristides, <s>Apol.</s> 15 [Gk.];
Justin, <s>Dial.</s> 35.2), good/evil (Deut. 30. 15; T. Asher
1.5; see Sirach 17.7), law of the Lord/works of Belial (T. Levi
19.1; cf. Ps-Clem. <s>Hom.</s> 20.2); straight/crooked (Hermas,
Mand. 6.1.2 ff.; see Matt. 7.13 f.; Barn. 20.1a), right
hand/left hand (Lactantius, <s>Epitome</s> 59).

The similarities between @@Barn. 18.1b-2 and the Qumran
<s>Manual</s>'s Two Ways are striking. Both traditions visualize
the present time as an era in which "authority" or "dominion" has
been granted to the rulers of each of the paths, darkness as well
as light. Both speak in terms of angelic agents, although at this
point the Doctrina with its <b>two</e> angels (= Hermas) is
closer to the <s>Manual</s> with its "angel of darkness" (cf. T.
Joseph 20.2; Barn. 4.10a; 20.1) vs. "angel of truth" -- it should
be noted here, however, that the <s>Manual</s> prefers the
imagery of <b>spirits</e> to that of angels (cf. T. Judah 20.1;
T. Dan 6.1-7). The "dominion" of the agents of darkness is
temporary, and will be brought to an end "in the appointed time
of judgment." For the <s>Manual,</s> the spirits of light and
darkness alike are creations of God and both are present in every
person's heart -- the goal is to maintain as great an imbalance in
favor of truth as possible (cf. the "two inclinations" in Jewish,
esp. Rabbinic, thought). Barnabas nowhere deals with these
details, although the creator God alone is pictured as eternal
and ultimately sovereign (see #5.9), and the recipients are
warned that they are continually in danger of the adversary
gaining the upper hand (see #5.3). For @@Barn. 18.2, the
<s>Manual</s> provides an interesting parallel: "One of the
spirits God loves for all the ages of eternity, and with all its
deeds he is pleased forever; as for the other, he abhors its
company, and all its ways he hates forever." In terms of the
broader theology of Barnabas, additional similarities emerge,
such as the ultimate goal of knowledge and wisdom for those who
are upright and blameless, and the new creation which apparently
follows the present time of testing. The <s>Manual</s>
tradition, however, leaves more of an impression of divine
determinism than is found in Barnabas (cf. Sirach 15.11-20; Pss.
Sol. 9.7-9).

The implications of the above analysis for detennining
precisely what material derives from the "common source" and
what has been contributed by the developing traditions are at
best ambiguous. It cannot be denied that the Two Ways pattern
was employed in strongly eschatological settings at an early date
(<s>Manual;</s> 2 Enoch; Testaments), but it is also clear that
it had a strictly ethical, noneschatological application in some
traditions (Proverbs, Sirach; see also Hermas). The most likely
solution seems to be that the source was at least mildly
eschatological in orientation (thus Barn. 4.9b = Did. 16.2b; see
#2.3, 7), and that the Barnabas tradition has characteristically
heightened the eschatology, while the Doctrina-Didache tradition
gradually eliminated it (see #2.4-6). Notice that the Doctrina
preserves the tenninology of light/darkness and angels, but
cannot really be called eschatological in emphasis (cf. also Dctr
6.2!). The same can also be said of Hermas' Two Ways

@@Barn. 19.1-2a; Did. 1.1c-3a. The word "diligent" in @@Barn.
19.1b refers not only to the idea that salvation is a quest that
requires centrated attention and righteous works (see #5.4), but
also to the - eschatolagical <b>urgency</e> of the situation --
temporal as well as moral. It could as well be translated "...
hastens to perform his works," just as the author has
<b>hastened</e> to send the epistle (1.5; 4.9; 21.9a) because
the times are short (see #5.3). The use of concrete spatial
imagery for ultimate salvation ("the appointed place," cf. Acts
1.25; 1 Clem. 5.4-7; 44.5; Ign. Magn. 5.1; Polyc. Phil. 9.2) is
reminiscent of such eschatological concepts as the "good land"
or the "new world" (see #5.3, 6). It may be that @@Barn. 19.1c
and @@Did. 1.3a represent the same passage of the common source.
In any case, Barnabas depicts ethical gnosis as synonymous with
"the way of Light," a conjunction of ideas which is also
approximated in the Testaments (see T. Levi 4.3; 18.3, 9; T. Gad
5.7; T. Benj. 11.2).

@@Barn. 19.2a = Did. 1.2a leave little doubt that the initial
item in the original "Way of Light/Life" spoke of love for the
creator (cf. Justin, <s>Apol.</s> 15.6b). But it is not so clear
what followed. The twofold commandment of @@Did. 1.2a-b could
have been derived from a Jewish manual independently from the
Synoptic tradition (Mark 12.28 and parr.) -- the Testaments attest
a similar juxtaposition of the love commandments (T. Isachar 5.2;
7.6; T. Dan 5.3; cf. T. Benj. 3.3; <s>Pirke Abot</s> 6.1),
and there is no reason to assume that the Synoptic tradition (or
Jesus) was the first to unite Deut. 6.5 with Lev. 19.18b.
Furthermore, it is evident from the New Testament alone that Lev.
19.18b was widely used in Judaism as a capsule form of Torah-Law
(Rom. 13.9; Gal. 5.14; Jas. 2.8) -- Rabbi Akiba (ca. A.D.
130) called it "the greatest principle in Torah" (<s>Sifra</s>,
<l>ad loc.;</l> cf. Hillel in <s>Pirke Abot</s> 1.12). The
"negative golden rule" of @@Did. 1.2c (cf. Matt. 7.12 = Luke
6.31) also was a popular summary of Torah in Judaism (see Tob. 4.
15; Hillel in b. <s>Shabb</s> 31a), and had wide vogue in early
Christianity (Acts 15.20, 29 [D text], Didascalia 1, etc.) -- it
is also attributed to ancient non-Jewish/Christian figures such
as Confucius. It has left no clear trace in Barnabas.

Somewhat more suspicious, however, is the <b>numbering</e> of
the love commands in @@Did. 1.2a-b, which parallels Mark 12.29-
31 almost exactly. Whatever the explanation may be for the
Doctrina and its allies here, it is almost certain that the final
editor of Didache both knew the Synoptic tradition in some form
(#9.4) and had to struggle with the presence of these numbers,
"First ... second ... ," as he expanded his Two Ways material.
Whether he interpreted @@Did. 1.2 as a single, "first"
commandment with multiple parts (cf. Mark 12.33), or saw 1.3-6
as the "teaching" for only @@1.2c is not clear; but for some
reason 2.1-4.14 became "the second commandment of the
teaching" (!). The resulting sequence of "First ... second ...
second" created further problems in the continuing Didache
tradition -- ApCo drops the "second" from @@1.2b, while P.Ox makes
some adjustment at Did. 1.4 (P.Ox is not preserved for @@1.2). A
similar ambiguity occurs in 5.1, "first of all."

@@Barn. 19.2a shows no awareness of these problems, but
presents a simple tristich (see #2.6) concerning one's attitude
to the creator (see #5.9; esp. Barn. 2. 10*) who delivers men
from death (see 14.5-8, "from darkness"!). A strikingly similar
approach is found in Sirach 7.29 ff., "with your whole soul,
reverence the Lord ... , with all your might love him who made
you ... , fear the Lord and glorify the priests..." (cf. Hermas,
Mand. 1: "Believe that the God who created everything is one ...
and fear him").

@@Did. 1.3b-2.1. Most of the material in @@1.3b-4 is closely
related to teachings attributed to Jesus in the Synoptic
tradition -- specifically, Luke 6.27-35 (which also includes the
"golden rule"; cf. Did. 1.2c) and Matt. 5.39-48. But the precise
nature of the relationship is difficult to determine. The
Didache sometimes parallels the wording of Matthew, sometimes
that of Luke, sometimes has elements of both intertwined -- and
sometimes includes non-Synoptic material! Probably the Didache is
not directly dependent on the written Gospels as we know them,
but either uses a "harmony" tradition which developed from them
or, more likely, used the kind of material which they fixed in
writing but which continued to circulate (in various forms) after
they were written (so Koester).

Some of the non-Synoptic wording deserves notice: (1) the
admonition to "pray for your enemies" (@@1.3b) is in the P.Ox
1224 fragments of an unknown Gospel, and was also known to
Justin <s>(Apol.</s> 15.9; <s>Dial.</s> 133.6b) as words of
Jesus. Thus we are dealing here, at least in part, with
traditional gospel material that is not now found in our
Gospels. The reference to fasting in @@1.3b (cf. 8.1) is more
difficult to explain, but may be related to the practice
attested in later Eastern church manuals of fasting for the Jews
at Passover/Easter time (ApCo 5.14.20; 5.19.2 ff. = Didascalia
Syr. 21). (2) There is an exact parallel to the final words of
@@1.3c in Didasc. 1 (lacking in ApCo 1.2): "... in the Gospel it
says, "Love those that hate you, and pray for those that curse
you, and you will have no enemy." Again, this may be a
traditional saying of Jesus -- it is certainly not clear that
Didascalia depends on the Didache here (see also 2 Clem. 13.4;
Justin, <l>loc. cit.</l>). (3) The final phrase of @@1.4b
interrupts the pattern of @@1.4 and may be a late gloss. It
resembles the repeated phrase in @@1.5, "he is blameless." The
attribution of spiritual/moral "perfection" became common in
Eastern Christianity. (4) The final words of @@1.4e (another
gloss?) are obscure (see Georg!). Similar material is found in
Syntagma with the meaning, do not demand interest on what is
borrowed! For the older tradition, however, this probably is to
be taken in the context of non-retaliation (do not take hlin to
court -- cf. 1 Cor. 6.1 ff.; Didasc. 11 [ApCo 2.46]), or of
resignation (you are helpless to resist), or of unselfish
almsgiving (pefection requires total sharing; cf. @@1.5a; 4.8).

The Synoptic parallels to 1.5 are limited to the beginning and
end, while most of the intervening material is closely paralleled
by Hermas, Mand. 2.4-6 (italics indicate exact Greek wording
common to the Didache): "Do what is good, and from that which God
has given you from your labors [cf. Barn. 19.10d], give single-
mindedly to all who are in need, not being in doubt as to whom
you should or should not give [cf. Did. 4.4=Barn. 19.51].
<b>Give</e> to all, for God <b>desires that all be in
receipt of his</e> benefits. Thus those who receive shall render
account to God as to <b>why</e> they <b>received and with what
results.</e> For those who <b>receive</e> while in affliction
will not be punished, but those who receive hypocritically will
pay a <b>penalty.</e> Thus <b>the one who gives is
blameless.</e> ..." Jewish literature abounds with similar
interests-see Deut. 15.7 ff.; Prov. 3.27 f.; Sirach 4.1 ff.; 7.32
f.; Tob. 4.7 -- and early Christian tradition often credited Jesus
with words on this subject which are not in our Gospels (e.g.,
Acts 20.35). Thus the reference "the command" can be variously
interpreted -- even the Hermas context speaks of a "command" (to be
single-minded). The motive for giving in @@1.5a is found in the
Doctrina at the close of the Two Ways giving section at Did.
4.4-8; perhaps the Two Ways source (which also seems to have
been known to Hermas in some form) at one time contained @@1.5a
-- note that manuscripts S\2/G of Barn. 19.11a also cite part of
this material. The evidence points in the direction of a common
tradition about giving behind Didach and Hermas -- the former
placed it in a Synoptic framework while the latter adapted it to
his "commandment" about single-mindedness. ApparenVy another form
of this tradition has survived in Didascalia 17= ApCo 4.3 -- in
fact, ApCo even attributed it to "the Lord" (Jesus): "Blessed
is he who gives rather than he who receives [cf. Acts 20.35;
Didasc. has "... who is able to help himself ..."] ..., woe to
those who have and receive in hypocrisy, or who are able to help
themselves and wish to receive from others. For each will render
account to the Lord God in the day of judgment." Or again, in a
fragrnent from Clement of Alexandria: "Give alms, but with
discernment and to those who are worthy, so that we might find
recompense from the Most High [see Sirach 12.2]. But woe to those
who have and who receive in hypocrisy, or who are able to help
themselves and wish to receive from others. For he who has and
receives through hypocrisy or laziness will be sentenced."

@@Did. 1.6 appends a supporting quotation from an unknown
source (unless it is a rather free, variant rendering based on
Sirach 12.1-7). Notice that here some kind of responsibility on
the part of the <b>giver</e> is implied. In @@1.5 it was the
<b>recipient</e> who was accountable (every recipient according
to Hermas, only the pretenders in the Didache).

@@Barn. 19.2b-4b; Did. 2.2-7. Barnabas contains a few phrases
not paralleled in the Didache which merit special comment. The
concern about one's companions in @@19.2c is typical of the
Barnabean tradition (cf. 10.3-11), but neither is it foreign to
the Two Ways as such (see Did. 3.9b; 5.2c = Barn. 19.6b; 20.2c).
The "way of death" (not darkness) allusion, taken in conaection
with 20. 1b (cf. 19.2a!), shows that Barnabas is conscious of
(but does not prefer) the life/death Two Ways imagery (see Did.
1.1). There is nothing particularly Barnabean about the non-
Didachean phrases in @@19.3a (cf. Shenuti, "but always be
humble"!) and @@19.3c (cf. Dctr to 3.9a). These words, along
with the entire context, are strongly Jewish in flavor as the
following passage from <s>Pirke Abot</s> 5.22 (cf. 6.5-6)
illustrates: "A good eye and a humble spirit and a lowly soul
characterize the disciples of our father Abraham; an evil eye an
d a haughty spirit and a proud soul characterize tbe disciples
of Balaam the wicked one."

@@Barn. 19.4a deals only with sexual misconduct (as in 10.6-8),
while @@Did. 2.21-3d groups together a number of succinctly
stated vices (some of which are paralleled later in Barnabas;
cf. also Did. 5.1 = Barn. 20.1) resembling the "second tablet" of
the decalogue. Some items are difficult to translate with
precision: e.g., the reference to sexual perversion in @@Barn.
19.4a = Did. 2.2a literally reads "do not be a corrupter of
children/boys" and has specific reference to homosexual
misconduct in which young men are adapted for the female sexual
role, thus "corrupting" their natural sexual functions and often
leading to castration or (it was believed) to impotence. The term
was extended to include sodomy/homosexuality in general (so ApCo
interprets it here) -- see T. Levi 17.11; Justin, <s>Dial.</s>
95.1; Tatian, <s>Discourse</s> 8.1; Clement, <s>Paed.</s> 3.
(12).89 (as part of the decalogue). Philo, <s>Spec. leg.</s>
3.37 ff. and <s>Migr. Abr.</s> 135 f., discusses this practice at
length (cf. 2 Enoch 10.4[A]; Rom. 1.27; Hippolytus,
<s>Refutation</s> 9.15; Barn. 10.6). A related phrase occurs in
@@Did. 2.2b = Barn. 19.5c where the reference to <b>abortion</e>
(so Dctr) literally reads "murder a child by
destruction/corruption" (apparently before birth since
infanticide is next mentioned, cf. Diognetus 5.6), which might
also apply to primitive birth control (esp. onanism [Gen. 38.9]).
The word that is traditionally rendered "fornication" appears in
@@Barn. 19.4a = Did. 2.2a as <b>sexual promisuity</e> since the
meaning of the Greek is quite broad and usually includes such
relationships as prostitution and adultery (see Did. 3.3). On
magic and sorceries (or "making potions" [@@Did. 2.2a]), see
Did. 3.4; Gal. 5.20; Rev. 9.21, etc. The problem of <b>oath
breaking</e> (@@2.3a) was solved in some traditions by
prohibiting oaths (Matt. 5.34; Jas. 5.12). On <b>bearing a
grudge</e> (@@2.3d), see also Lev. 19.18a; 1 Clem. 2.5; 62.2;
Barn. 2.8*.

@@Did. 2.4-7 adds a few stylistically more complex
prohibitions. The "deathtrap" imagery in @@2.4b is widely
attested (e.g., Ps. 18.5; Prov. 14.27; Tob. 14.10) and is used in
connection with false speech in Prov. 21.6 (cf. Sirach 51.2; Jas.
3.5 ff.). Early Christian literature abounds with admonitions to
"practice what you preach" (@@2.5) -- e.g., 1 Clem. 38.2; Ign. Eph.
15.1; 2 Clem. 4.1 ff. (see Matt. 7.21), etc. Several of the
items included in @@2.6a are found in the vice list in 1 Clem.
35.5. It is not clear precisely how the Didachist would have
reIated @@2.7 to 1.2b (cf. Barn. 19.5b) -- was positive "love"
reserved for those <b>within</e> the community (= neighbor,

@@Did. 3.1-6 clearly is a unity both with reference to style
(five commands with two subdivisions each) and to content. It
has sometimes been dubbed "The Fences" because it aims at making
it more difficult for certain forbidden acts to occur (murder,
adultery, idolatry, theft, calumny) by prohibiting attitudes or
actions which foster them. A similar approach to law (especially
cultic law) is basic to Rabbinic Judaism -- see <s>Pirke Abot</s>
1.1, "... make a fence around Torah." The style may be described
as catechetical, using a personal approach (cf. #4.3; Did. 4.1)
and a set pattern that facilitates memorization (cf. Barn. 10.3-
5, 6-8 for similar patterns). Barnabas shows no clear knowledge
of this material, and it is only in Did. 5.1 that there seems to
be any significant relationship between @@3.1-6 and the Two Ways
ethic of the Didache (see R. H. Connolly, <p>JTS</p> 33 [1932],
241 f.). Thus this section probably was added to the Didache
branch of the Two Ways soon after the Barnabas form had separated
from the common stock, and it came to influence the list of
vices in 5.1 (see #2.4-5; #8.4-5).

The precise background of @@3.1-6 is not clear, but the best
parallels come from the Testaments: see T. Judah 14.1, "My
children, do not become intoxicated with wine, for wine turns the
mind from the truth and introduces lustful passion and its path
leads the eyes to error"; of 19.1, "My children, love of money
leads along the path to idolatry...."

@@Did. 3.1 (cf. Barn. 4.1) is very similar to T. Benj. 7.1 ("my
children, I say to you, flee the evil of Beliar ...") and T. Dan
6.8 ("keep yourselves, my children, from every evil work").
Notice the general synonymity of "promiscuity" (see 2.2a) and
"adultery" in @@3.3. The vocabulary of magical practices in @@3.4
(cf. 2.2a; 5.1) is difficult to translate with precision. It
prohibits augury (literally, interpreting behavior of birds),
use of incantations, astrology, and magical purification rites
(for healing purposes?; see W. L. Knox, <p>JTS</p> 40 [1939], 146
ff.)-cf. Lev. 19.26, 31; Deut. 18.10 ff.; Orac. Sib. 3.218 ff.
The first part of

@@Did. 3.5 is cited by Clement <s>(Str.</s> 1.[20].100) without
precise indication of its source ("scripture") -- he may have
known the tradition from which the Didache drew @@3.1-6. Outside
of @@3.6, "blasphemy" (i.e., abusive speech, which ultimately
slanders God) is not mentioned by the Didache (or Barnabas)
despite its presence in other early vice lists such as Mark 7.21
f. (= Matt. 15.19) and Hermas, Mand. 8.3. The word is also rare
in the LXX and absent from the Testaments. But similar ideas
occur in Did. 2.3c, 5 and Barn. 19.4b, e; 20.2h.

@@Barn. 19.4c-12; Did. 3.7-4.14. Items that are unique to
Barnabas in the remainder of the "Way of Light" include:
@@19.4e, which may be a late addition to the Barnabas Two Ways
(note the textual problem); @@19.8b seems to be a doublet of
@@19.7a (= Did.); the exhortation in @@19.8c is reminiscent of
Did. 6.2 and has an ascetic tone to it, although elsewhere
Barnabas does not seem to be overly inclined to asceticism (cf.
4.10b); the phrase "apple of your eye" in @@19.9b (also in CO) is
quite Semitic and biblical (see Deut. 32.10; Ps. 17.8; Prov.
7.2, etc.) -- cf. G. Thom. 25: "Jesus said, Love your brother as
your soul, guard him as the apple of your eye"; the summary
statement in @@19.11c may be a doublet of Barn. 4.10a and echoes
Prov. 8.13 (cf. Qumran <s>Manual</s> 4.1, God "hates forever" all
the ways of the spirit of darkness).

@@The unique elements in the Didache are less frequent. In
@@3.7, the scriptural allusion is probably an expansion of the
older tradition; expansion may also be present in @@3.8 with its
piling up of virtues. @@Did. 4.1-2 is consistent with other
emphases in both Didache and Barnabas -- e.g., on frequent
fellowship, see #2.3, 7; on reverence for God's servants, see
Did. 12.1; 15.2; and on the spokesman of God's word, see Barn.
16.8 ff., etc. The exact meaning of @@Did. 4.1b is problematic,
but it at least identifies tbe Lord's presence with the preaching
of "the things of the Lord." In @@4.14a, it may be that the
Didache tradition has reworked an original reference to
"gathering together" (see @@Barn. 19.12a, <gk>synagagwn)</gk> into
a precise reference to "church" (the former "synagogue"?).

With respect to the materials shared by Barnabas and Didache
here, the latter presents them in a more organized fashion.
@@Did. 3.7-9 treats personal attitudes and conduct; @@4.1-2
duties toward other Christians in general; @@4.3 Christian
judging; @@4.4-8 obligations toward the needy (@@4.4 probably
means do not hesitate to give alms or doubt that all men are
worthy in God's sight -- see Georg and Did. 1.5); @@4.9-11 family
and household duties; @@4.12-13 summary exhortation; @@4.14
purity of life (?). There are numerous instructive parallels to
these various commandments of the "Way of Light/Life," but the
reader must be referred to the larger commentaries for assistance
in such matters.

@@Barn. 20.1-2; Did. 5.1-2. In both Barnabas and the Didache
the "Way of Darkness/Death" consists of three sections: the
introduction, followed by a list of vices, and finally
characteristic acts of those who walk in this path. The Barnabas
form of the introduction (@@20.1a-b) is characteristically
eschatological (see #5.3), with its reference to Satan, the
Black One (see 4.10a), and to "eternal death with punishment"
(cf. 10.5 -- Barnabas nowhere gives the details about the
"punishment" of the wicked). Barnabas does not repeat the phrase
"Way of Darkness" (18.1b) here, and again shows knowledge of the
"death" imagery (see 19.2a). On the symbolism of the "crooked"
path, see LXX Prov. 21.8; 22.5, 14, etc. @@Did. 5.1a is
consistent in using "way of death" (see 1.1a). Strangely, the
"first" of @@Did. 5.1b (see 1.2a) is not followed up by a
"second" (at @@5.2a?; see 1.2b; 2.1). On the relationship
between such vices and cursing (@@Barn, 20.1a = Did. 5.1b), see
esp. Deut. 27.15 ff.; 28.15 ff. (with the punishment spelled

Numerous problems arise when the lists of vices in @@Barn.
20.1c and @@Did. 5.1c-d are compared. Barnabas gives the shorter
version, and in one way or another the Didache tradition
includes all of the items of Barnabas except "transgression" (see
Barn. 12.5). Several items in @@Barn. 20.1c have already been
mentioned in the "Way of Life" -- arrogance (19.3b), pride (19.3a),
hypocrisy (19.2e), adultery (19.4a), greed (19.6b). Of special
interest is the presence of idolatry at the head of the list.
Elsewhere Barnabas shows concern for this sin (4.8; 9.6; 16.7;
cf. 12.6; 14.3), thus its precedence may be reiated to the
attitude reflected in certain other Jewish vice lists which see
idolatry as the primal sin -- for example, the Decalogue; Wisd.
Sol. 14.12 ff., 27; T. Levi 17.11; 2 Enoch 34.1 (cf. such
Christian lists as Rom. 1.23; Justin, <s>Dial.</s> 95.1;
Theophilus, <s>Ad Autol.</s> 2.34 f.).

Apparently the vice list in the Didache has been reorganized
and expanded significantly as that tradition developed. Possibly
Did. 3.1-6 has influenced the inclusion of such items as "foul
speech" (@@5.1d; see 3.3b) and "jealousy" (see 3.2b,
"excitable" -- from the same root). The presence of "lusts,
promiscuities, thefts ... , false witnessings" (@@5.1c) is
explainable on the basis of the Decalogue (the first three also
are found in 3.1-6, and they are paralleled in 2.2f.).
"Boastfulness" frequently occurs in contemporary vice lists (1
Clem. (1 Clem. 35.5, Hermas, Mand. 6.2.5, etc.). The order of
vices differs significantly in the Doctrina, and the same
phenomenon in 2.2 f. shows that it is not accidental. For the
Doctrina, adultery-murder-false testimony take precedence. It is
possible that the Doctrina order has been changed in the Didache
under the influence of Matt. 15.19 (or a closely related
source). Notice also that the change from plural to singular
between @@5.1c and @@5.1d is paralleled in Mark 7.21 f. (but not
Matt. 15.19), and roughly at the same point ("guile").

It is not entirely clear where the simple vice list ends and
the grammatically more complex list of acts begins. Because the
normal structure in the latter is simple parallelism (see #2.6
on style), we have linked @@Barn. 20.1d with @@20.2a as most
probably representing the intention of the common source (cf.
Dctr). But "without fear (of God)" may have been considered the
concluding (summary) vice -- it represents a frequent emphasis in
Barnabas (see #5.5.6) which is not absent from the Didache
(4.9). Some of the material in @@Barn. 20.2 = Did. 5.2 has
already been mentioned under the "Way of Life/Light" -- e-g.,
judging justly (19.11d = 4.3b), infanticide and abortion (? 19.
5c = 2.2b). In @@20.2d, Barnabas retains a typically Jewish
ethical emphasis that is lacking in the Didache -- cf. Isa. 1.17;
Jas. 1.27; Polycarp Phil. 6.1, etc. The opposite of @@20.2f,
"loving what is vain," is reflected in Barn. 4.10a, which is
also strongly oriented to the "Two Ways" scheme (see #2.3, 7).
Barn. @@20.2b parallels in thought the idea of "blasphemy" (Did.

@@Did. 6.1-2. The conclusion in the Didache (cf. also 11.1-2
and #2.3, 7) shows little relationship to Barnabas 21. @@Did.
6.1b (cf. Barn. 5.4b) can be contrasted with Barn. 21.6a, "be
God-taught," and with the title of the Didache, "Teaching of the
Lord." The present form of Did. @@6.2 is linked to 6.3 by its
atmosphere of concession, which also evident elsewhere in the
Didache (see #8.3; cf. Hermas, Mand. 12.3.4f.!). But the
<b>style</e> of 6.3 links it with 7.1 (9.1; 10.8; 11.3)
<b>not</e> with @@6.2. It would seem that something like @@6.2
was common source, and has also left its influence on Barn.
19.8c (cf. Did. 1.4b, 5b-c; 16.2b; Qumran <s>Manual</s> 4; on
the "Lord's yoke," see Barn. 2.6; Matt. 11.29 f.; Acts 15.10;
Justin, <s>Dial.</s> 53.1).

@@Barn. 21.1-9 forms a comprehensive conclusion to both the Two
Ways section and to the entire tractate. Its emphasis on striving
for the eschatological salvation which is near at hand is
characteristic of the epistle (#5.3-4). The conclusion to the
Doctrina faintly preserves similar material (see also Hermas,
Mand. 6.2.10!), and resembles the Qumran <s>Manual</s> in using
the imagery of "truth" and the ultimate "crown." The "good
vessel" of @@21.8 apparently signifies the physical body which
the spirit indwells (cf. 7.3; 11.9) "probably Pseudo-Barnabas
means that the recipients should act while <b>they</e> have the
chance (in this life; cf. 4.9b = Did. 16.2b?), although he might
be referring to <b>his own</e> presence in this life. The chapter
reads as though it had been expanded in various stages, possibly
by uniting an older conclusion to chapters 1-17 (@@21.2-5?) with
the Two Ways conclusion. Note that @@21.9 parallels the final
phrase of Did. 5.2, that @@21.5 sounds very much like part of a
benediction, and that @@21.4a and 21.6a form a rough doublet. In
fact, CO's version of @@21.2 ff. resolves much of this
awkwardness -- does it reflect an older form?

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