Parabiblical Literature Associated with Early Christian (NT) Names
The Lost Apocrypha of the New Testament Project

(under construction; in imitation of M. R. James' compilation of "Lost Apocrypha of the OT")

coordinated by Robert A. Kraft [latest updates 16de03, 11no03, 27oc03, 08oc03, 4au03, 16je03 (begun April 2003)]
[for most recent expansions see conceptualization, Barnabas (also below), Clement (below)]

codes and bibliographic links:
G-G = Goodspeed-Grant, A History of Early Christian Literature (UChicago, 1966)
Gel = Gelasian Decree listing by number (Latin text; another English text)
H-S = Hennecke-Schneemelcher (Wilson), NT Apocrypha, 2 vols (Clarke 1991\2 [1963], 1965)
LX = Catalog of the Sixty Books listing by number
Nic = Stichometry of Nicephorus listing by number
Resch = Alfred Resch, Agrapha: Aussercanonische Schriftfragments (TU 15.3/4, Leipzig 1906\2)

To check:

Baring-Gould, S. (Sabine), 1834-1924.
The lost and hostile gospels : an essay on the Toledoth Jeschu, and the Petrine and Pauline gospels of the first three centuries of which fragments remain / by Rev. S. Baring-Gould, M.A., author of
"The origin and development of religious belief,"
"Legendary lives of the Old Testament characters," etc. (London ; Edinburgh : Williams and Norgate, 1874) xxxii, 305, [1], 5, [1] p. [225.7 G732] -- see 1885 edition of similar materials.

Theodore Bergren and Michael Stone, Biblical Figures outside the Bible

Richard Bauckham, Gospel Women: Studies of the Named Women in the Gospels (Eerdmans 2002): Ruth, Matthew's genealogy, Elizabeth and Mary, Anna, Joanna (= Junia?), Mary of Clopas, Salome (Jesus' sister, and the disciple), women at the resurrection. For reviews see

Made all possible links from Peter Kirby's Early Christian Writings page (10je2003)




THE LISTS AND STICHOMETRIES (see also this page):

"PARABIBLICAL" Titles from Lists, with a Comprehensive List
["LX" = the list of 60 Books; "Nic" = Stichometrey of Nicephoros]
The Latin Decretum Gelasianum (also in English)


THE TEXTS and TRADITIONS (arranged prosopographically)

Problem: How to deal with pre- or non-Christian names that present clearly Christian material? E.g. Ascension of Isaiah 11, Sibylline Oracles, Gospel of Eve, Odes of Solomon, Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs, 5th Ezra and 6th Ezra, Melchizedek [NHL], Seth literature [NHL] ?

20 July is the feast day of Aaron (Orthodox Church) (16th cent. BCE) Brother of Moses and first
Jewish high priest; and Elijah (also Orthodox) (9th cent. BCE)  The prophet. Although the Catholic Church does not usually think in terms of Old Testament saints, there is great veneration for the prophet Elijah among the Calced Carmelites --  the original Carmelites, tracing their origin to hermits found on Mount Carmel by the crusaders, who in turn claimed descent from the disciples of the prophet Elijah.The reformed or Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites were founded by St Teresa of <C1>vila and St John of the Cross. If you visit a house of Discalced Carmelites, you will very likely find pictures or statues of these two saints; but if you visit a Calced house, you will find a picture of the prophet Elijah; an easy way to know which kind of Carmelite you are dealing with, without needing to ask.

31 March: Amos (8th cent. BCE)  Amos was a shepherd near Bethlehem who became one of the minor prophets.  According to the Roman martyrology, he was killed by having an iron bar knocked through his head.

1 August is the feast day of The Maccabean martyrs (d. 160 B.C.E.)  A group of Jews executed for resisting Antiochus IV Epiphanes' attempts to impose Greek religion on the Jews.  The most famous is Eleazar, a 90-year-old scribe who refused to eat pork and was executed; also famous are seven brothers and their mother Hannah who were killed together.  These are the only Old Testament figures who have official liturgical veneration in the western church; their remains are believed to be in the church of S. Pietro in Vincola in Rome. The account of their deaths played an important role in shaping the Christian concept of martyrdom.  Which makes it sad that their cult was restricted to local calendars in 1969. Maybe this has something to do with the fact that when their supposed relics were examined in the 1930s it was discovered that they were really dog bones.

Zacharias, father of John the Baptist

24 June is the feast day of John the Baptist (1st cent.)  One of the extremely few saints commemorated on his birth day
instead of his death day (or sometimes day of translatio, or more convenient date determined by later calendar emenders; the others who come to mind are Mary, whose birthday is celebrated on 8th September, and Jesus himself, whose birthday is celebrated on 25th December.).  John appears prominently in the gospels as a prophet and forerunner of Jesus. Early tradition placed J's tomb at Samaria, but it was destroyed in the reign of Julian, leaving the field open for conflicting claims to relics, several medieval churches claiming especially his head. The Beheading of John the Baptist is also celebrated on 29th August. The reason for celebrating his birth is that it is a significant and miraculous event, recorded in the scriptures. Other significant and miraculous events in the lives of saints are also celebrated, for example the "conversion" of Saint Paul, the Visitation of Mary, and indeed several other events in the life of Mary. The birth of John the Baptist also has signficance in that it occurs six months away (more or less) from the birth of Jesus. Since Christmas occurs at the winter solstice, symbolising light coming to a darkened world, so John the Baptist's birth around the time of the summer solstice reflects John's Gospel statement that "I must diminish so that he [Jesus] can grow".
The 'traditional' reason for celebrating John's birth in addition to his death is that a common (patristic?) understanding of the Lucan comment that 'the babe in her womb leapt with joy' was that John was cleansed from original sin ('filled with the Holy Spirit') while still in the womb. Hence, he was born without sin. (As opposed to Mary, who in RC
tradition was conceived without sin.) [internet thread 2004]. 29 August is the feast day of the beheading of John the Baptist  at the hands of Herod Antipas, after J. had criticized the king's marital practices.  At first Herod just imprisoned J., but his wife Herodias arranged for the execution by having her daughter dance before the king and win a promise of anything she wanted---which proved to be the head of J. on a platter.

Anne and Joachim: 26. July is the feast day of: Anne and her husband Joachim, the parents of the Virgin Mary, first appear in the Protoevangelium of James, an apocryphal gospel that dates to c. 170. The story is that they were publicly mocked for their childlessness, so Joachim went and fasted forty days in the desert, whereupon an angel appeared
and promised a child.  Anne promised to dedicate the child to God. Anne's cult appeared in the East in the sixth century, and spread to the west in the eighth, but only became popular from the fourteenth century on. In the late Middle Ages, A's miraculous conception of Mary was stressed, as well as Anne's role in educating the little Mary. Joachim (named in other sources as Heli, Cleopis, Eliacim, or Sadoc) only rated a western cult in the sixteenth century.

Mary, mother of Jesus (verify which Mary!)

Joseph, father of Jesus

Simeon "Senex" (8 October) Simeon makes a cameo appearance during the presentation of Jesus in the Temple (Luke 2:25-35) and it's thanks to this that we have that most beautiful of hymns, the Nunc Dimittis. He attracted
a later body of legend, but I couldn't find any details.

23 July is the feast day of The Magi (1st cent.)  This really does seem to be the main feast of the wise men, rather than Epiphany.  My guess is that it's the day of their relics' translatio to Cologne in the late twelfth century. Modern scholars think they were astrologers from either Babylonia or Arabia.

Jesus (Savior, Redeemer, Christ)

Jacob/James, brother of Jesus according  to Mark 6.3 = Matt 13.55 [verify which James]

Joses or Joseph brother of Jesus according  to Mark 6.3 = Matt 13.55

Jude/Judah, brother of Jesus according  to Mark 6.3 (listed 3rd) = Matt 13.55 (listed 4th) and thus a brother of Jacob/James [see also Judas Thomas, Judas Thaddeus]

Simon brother of Jesus according  to Mark 6.3 (listed 4th) = Matt 13.55 (listed 3rd)

Salome, sister of Jesus [? see Bauckham] (Mark 6.3 = Matt 13.56 mention only unnamed "sisters")

Augustus (Roman ruler)

Nicodemus (Jewish leader): 1 or 3 August is his feast day -- Nicodemus was a prominent Jew, probably a member of the Sanhedrin.  He visited Jesus secretly at night (thus, much later, Jean Calvin railed against the "nicodemites" who
practiced the reformed religion in secret);  later tradition says he became a disciple;  he and Joseph of Arimathaea together took Jesus from the cross and buried him. For some reason the apocryphal gospel that tells of Christ's harrowing of hell was attributed to N. According to tradition he was martyred. His supposed relics were founded along with those of Gamaliel.

Joseph of Arimathea

Pilate (Roman governor)

Gamaliel (Jewish teacher): 3 August is his feast day -- Gamaliel (1st cent.) Gamaliel was a Jewish lawyer who appears twice in Acts, teaching Paul and helping Peter & John. Legend makes him a convert to Christianity. His purported relics were found near Jerusalem in 415 [from web site].

25 March is the feast day of The Good Thief (d. whichever year the Crucifixion was) This is the repentant thief who was crucified along with Jesus, traditionally given the name "Dismas." A number of legends grew up about him (and the Bad Thief), including that the pair had tried to rob the holy family on their flight to Egypt.

"The Twelve Apostles/Disciples" [and the seventy?]

Simon Peter (Cephas) (named first in Mark 3.16, Matt 10.2, Luke 6.14; also Acts 1.13 [simply Peter there])

Jacob/James of Zebedee ["the greater"; verify which James] (named 2nd in Mark 3.17, but 3rd in Matt 10.2 = Luke 6.14 [no mention of Zebedee or brothership in Luke],  always before John [his brother in Mark and Matthew -- together they are Boanerges, "sons of thunder" in Mark 3.17]; in Acts 1.13 he is named after John and their relationship is not mentioned)

John of Zebedee (named 3rd in Mark 3.17, but 4th in Matt 10.2 = Luke 6.14 [no mention of Zebedee or brothership in Luke], always after Jacob/James [his brother in Mark and Matthew -- together they are Boanerges, "sons of thunder" in Mark 3.17]; in Acts 1.13 he is named before Jacob/James, and their relationship is not mentioned) [verify which John]

Andrew (named 4th in Mark 3.18 and Acts 1.13, with no relationship mentioned; named second in Matt 10.2 = Luke 6.14 as brother of Simon Peter )

Philip (named 5th in all four NT lists) [verify which Philip -- apostle or evangelist]

Bartholomew (named 5th in the Synoptic Gospel lists, but 6th in Acts 1.13 [after Thomas])

Matthew [(named 7th in Mark and Luke, but 8th  in Matthew [called "the tax collector," listed after Thomas] and Acts [after Thomas and Bartholomew]) [verify identifications]

Thomas [Judas, Didymos; see also brother of Jesus] (named 8th in Mark and Luke, but 7th in Matthew [before Matthew] and 6th in Acts)

Jacob/James of Alphaeus [verify which James; see also James the brother of Jesus, James of Zebedee] (named 9th in all four NT lists)

Thaddeus  (named 10th in Mark and Matthew; not in the other lists but a Judas of Jacob/James appears as 11th in Luke and Acts, traditionally conjectured to be the same person through harmonization of the lists. This also may be the "Judas not Iskariot" of John 14.22, or perhaps that is Judas Thomas?) [see also Judas Thomas]

Simon the Cananean or Zealotes (named 11th as "Cananean" in Mark and Matthew, but 10th [as "Zealotes" -- a reasonable translation of "Cananean"] in Luke and Acts)

Judas Iskariot (named last in the Synoptic Gospel lists, called "son of Simon Iskariot" in John 6.71, 13.2 and 13.26 [see also 12.4 var]; story of his replacement in Acts) [verify]

Matthias (replacement for Judas Iskariot according to Acts 1.26)

Joseph Barsabbas surnamed Justus (canidate to replace Judas Iskariot according to Acts 1.23)

Mary Magdalene

Martha, sister of Mary [which?]

29 July is the feast day of Martha (1st cent.)  The sister of Mary and Lazarus, Martha got rather shown up by her sister in the gospels.  Jesus visited the family home in Bethany---Mary listened while Martha did all the work, and Jesus
wouldn't even stand up for her.  She did, however, make one of the clear professions of faith in the gospels---that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God (John 11.27), just before Jesus resurrected Lazarus. Martha and Mary have been used for an awful long time as models of the active and contemplative life.

Salome [which? see above, sister of Jesus?]

Mary Clopas


12 July is the feast day of Veronica (1st cent.)  A figure of legend, whose name (which means "true image") seems just a little too convenient to be a coincidence. Legend tells that when Christ was carrying his cross on his way to
the crucifixion, a woman in the crowd wiped his face with a cloth---which became miraculously imprinted with Jesus' face. Various legends tell that she cured Emperor Tiberius with this relic, that she was the wife of Zacchaeus the tax collector and accompanied him to France to convert the locals, or that she was the woman Jesus cured of a 12-year hemorrhage.

20 August: Amadour (date ?)  A cute legend tells that Amadour was a servant in the household of the holy family (!)  He married St. Veronica, was driven from Palestine and went to Gaul, where he missionized the area around Bordeaux.  On a visit to Rome he witnessed the martyrdom of Peter and Paul.  Back in Gaul again, he founded several monasteries (!!) and ended up as a hermit at Quercy, where he built a shrine to the Virgin Mary.

Barnabas [see also] (Joseph; one of the 70; Levite from Cyprus [Acts 4.36f]; sponsor/companion of Paul [Acts 9.27]);  patron saint of Cyprus; legend says he ended up as a martyr on Cyprus (although Milan claimed B. as its first bishop).  His attribute is a pile of stones---a rather ominous hint at his martyrdom.

Anathalon (1st cent.??) (24 September) Later legend tells that Barnabas sent Anathalon to become first bishop of Milan.

Gaius of Milan (1st cent.?)(26 September) According to legend, Gaius was the second bishop of Milan, succeeding Barnabas. It should be noted that there is no evidence of a diocese centered on Milan before 200 and G's existence is doubtful, even if St. Charles Borromeo *did* enshrine Gaius' relics.

Clement (one of the 70)

Prisc(ill)a, Aquila, Apollos [any ancient literature connections? authorship of Hebrews?]

13 July is the feast day of Silas (1st cent.)  Silas was one of the leaders of the early Christian community in Jerusalem.  He ended up accompanying Paul on his second missionary journey.  He may be the same person as the Silvanus who appears in 2 Cor 1.19.  Legend makes Silas the first bishop of Corinth, reporting that he died in Macedonia.

Evodius of Antioch (d. c. 64-7) Tradition names Evodius as one of the 70 disciples.

Eutychius the Phrygian (1st cent.) 24 August. The apocryphal acts of John tell that Eutychius was a disciple of Paul who then joined John, accompanying the evangelist to Patmos and eventually dying peacefully after being tortured
for his faith. He is identified with the man of Acts 20 who fell from a window at Ephesus.

Ptolemy of Nepi (1st cent.?) 24 August. Allegedly a disciple of St. Peter, Ptolemy was first bishop of Nepi (Tuscany), where he was martyred. It's also the feast day of Romanus of Nepi, allegedly Ptolemy's disciple and successor, also martyred.

Onesiphorus & Porphyry (d. c. 80) (6 September). Onesiphorus is mentioned in 2 Timothy (4:19).  In legend, he accompanied Paul to Spain and then back to the eastern Mediterranean. There O. was eventually caught, tied to wild horses, and torn in pieces somewhere around the Hellespont in Domitian's reign. Porphyry was supposedly his servant, martyred with him.

Rufus and Zosimus (d. c. 107) (18 December) Rufus and Zosimus were citizens of Philippi (Macedonia). They were taken to Rome with St. Ignatius of Antioch where they were martyred two days before I, killed by wild animals in the amphitheater.

Abdias [see under Apostles, Acts/History/Passions]

Domnio of Salona and companions (11 April) An unlikely legend tells that Domnio was one of Jesus' original 72 disciples, and Peter sent him to evangelize Dalmatia, where he became first bishop of Salona (now a suburb of Split). It is much more likely that he was a martyr of Diocletian's reign.

Stephen (included in traditions about the 70)

Nicanor the Deacon (d. c. 76) Nicanor was a Jew, one of the original seven deacons of Jerusalem (Acts 6:5). Legend tells that he eventually ended up in Cyprus, where he was martyred in Vespasian's reign.

23 January is the feast day of Parmenas (d. c. 100) Parmenas was one of the seven deacons of Jerusalem whose appointment is described in Acts 6:5. According to legend, he went on to be a missionary in Asia Minor and was martyed at Philippi (Macedonia).

Cornelius of Caesarea (1st cent.) Cornelius was a Roman centurion, baptized by St. Peter at Caesarea (Acts 10). According to tradition, he was the first bishop of the city.

13. February is the feast day of Agabus (1st cent.) Agabus was a prophet, mentioned in Acts 9:28 and
21:10-12. Medieval legend made him a Carmelite monk.

29 June is the feast day of Mary, mother of John Mark (1st cent.)  This Mary appears in Acts 12.12.  Her house in Jerusalem seems to have been a meeting place for the early Christian community.

Mark (included in traditions about the 70)

Paul (and Thecla)

Luke (also one of the 70)



22 November is the feast day of Philemon and Apphia (d. c. 70) Philemon was the recipient of one of
Paul's letters -- he was a citizen of Colossae and owned the runaway slave Onesimus, about whom Paul wrote. Apphia was apparently his wife. Legend tells that both were stoned to death at their home.

16 February is the feast day of Onesimus (d. c. 90) The runaway slave Onesimus was the reason behind Paul's letter to Philemon. The old Roman Martyrology reports that O. was Timothy's successor as bishop of Ephesus, and was martyred.

Ananias (1st cent.) Ananias was one of Jesus' disciples. He appears in Acts 9 as the baptizer of Paul. According to legend, he preached in Damascus and Eleutheropolis before he was martyred.

Aristarchus: 4 August is the feast day of: Aristarchus of Thessalonika (1st cent.) Aristarchus' was Paul's traveling companion for a time. Legend reports that he was first bishop of Thessalonika, and that he was martyred along with Paul at Rome [from web site].

Lydia: 3 August is the feast day of: Lydia of Thyatira (or Lydia Purpuraria) (1st cent.) Lydia was a dealer in purple dye. When Paul visited Philippi in Macedonia, she became his very first convert in Europe.

Erastus: 26 July feast day -- Erastus was the city treasurer of Corinth, and appears three times in the New Testament. On the principle that anyone who ever met Paul must be a saint, later tradition made E. a bishop and
martyr---eastern tradition says he was at Caesarea Philippi in Palestine; western tradition reports that he was martyred while bishop of Philippi in Macedonia.

Dionysius the Areopagite (d. c. 95)(9 October). Dionysius appears in Acts 17, converted by Paul at Athens. According to legend he became the first bishop of Athens and was martyred there. His name was later connected to
the fifth-century writer Pseudo-Dionysius.

Crescentius/Crescens (1st cent.) (27 June). Crescens appears in 2 Tim 4.10 as a disciple/associate of Paul, where it is said that he has gone to Galatia. Tradition makes C the first bishop of the Galatians and tells that he was martyred there in the reign of Trajan. Later legend is divided on whether he was active in Gaul or Galatia. The more venturesome hagiographers made C into a disciple of Paul, who traversed all of Europe, visiting Rome and going on to Gaul, where he founded the church in Vienne (France) and was even in Mainz in Germany; then he made it back to modernday Turkey (Galatia), where he was martyred.

Artemas of Lystra (30 October) Artemas was one of Paul's first converts; he appears in Titus 3:12). Legend says A. was the first bishop of Lystra in Asia Minor.

Apollinarius of Ravenna (1st cent.) (27 June or 23 July?). Apollinare is now most famous for the two great late antique basilicas dedicated to him in Ravenna. According to tradition, he was the first bishop of Ravenna -- later legend has St. Peter commission Apollinarius and send him to northern Italy to preach. His cult spread across the Alps to France and Germany, especially Alsace. Legend tells that Apollinaris was a native of Antioch.  He became a disciple of St. Peter and was "appointed" first bishop of Ravenna.  He is supposed to have converted many people, suffered shipwreck, was exiled three times, fled during Vespasian's persecution,  was caught and beaten by a mob, but survived the experience.

Cletus (26. April) A rather confused character, who seems to have been duplicated rather a lot. According to Irenaeus, Cletus was the second successor of Peter as bishop of Rome. He made it into the Roman martyrology twice: once as Cletus and once as Anacletus. His cult was suppressed in 1969, but his name still appears in the Roman canon of the mass.

Aphrodisius and companions (28 April) Gregory of Tours tells an exotic legend to the effect that Aphrodisius was an Egyptian who sheltered the Holy Family during the flight to Egypt. He is later supposed to have made his way to Languedoc (doubtless along with Lazarus, Mary, and Martha), where he was martyred.

11 May is feast day for Evellius (d. c. 66?) The subject of what appears to be a later pious myth, Evellius was alleged to be a counsellor of Nero, so impressed by the martyrs Nero created that he himself converted and was martyred.

12 May is the feast day of Flavia Domitilla, Euphrosyna, and Theodora (d. c. 100) Flavia was a great-niece of emperors Titus and Domitian. She was exiled as a Christian. She may also have been martyred with two foster-sisters. Then again, there may be two martyrs of the same name. Her cult was deemed too confusing, and suppressed in 1969.

12 May is the feast day of Nereus and Achilles (d. c. 100) Soldiers in the Praetorian Guard who, according to their unreliable acta, where baptized by Peter and exiled with Flavia Domitilla before they ended up decapitated. *Their* cult hasn't been suppressed.

29 December is the feast day of Trophimus the Ephesian (d. c. 65) Trophimus accompanied Paul to Jerusalem. One legend says that he was beheaded in Rome in Nero's reign. He wasn't actually the first bishop of Arles (see below).
Trophimus of Arles (d. c. 280) One legend says that Trophimus was sent from Rome to be first bishop of Arles. Ever since the 5th century, though, he has been identified with Trophimus the Ephesian (see above).

15 March is the feast day of Longinus (1st cent.) Longinus is the name traditionally given to the soldier who pierced Jesus' side with a spear to make sure he was dead. Legend tells that L. converted, was cured of blindness, and was eventually martyred in Cappodocia.

15 March is the feast day of Aristobolus (1st cent.) Aristobulus appears in Romans 16:11 and tradition further reports that he was one of the 72 disciples. A later fiction identified A. with Zebedee (father of James and John) and connected him with Britain.

22 June: Flavius Clemens (d. 96)  Flavius was a brother of Emperor Vespasian, uncle of Titus and Domitian.  He shared the consulate with Domitian in 95, who then had F. executed for "atheism" and "Jewish customs"---terms believed to refer to F's conversion to Christianity.

2 July: Processus and Martinian (1st cent.)  A sixth-century legend tells that Martinian and Processus were Roman prison guards who had charge of either Peter or Paul (or both) when they were in the Mammertine Prison.  Of course M and P were converted -- and Peter baptized them using a spring that conveniently (and miraculously) appeared in the prison.  The two were then tortured by their superior for refusing to sacrifice and finally killed.

6 July is the feast day of Romulus of Fiesole (d. c. 90?)  According to legend, Romulus was a Roman converted by  Peter.  He went on to be first bishop of Fiesole and was martyred there with several companions.  An eleventh-century vita that sounds like great fun tells that R. was the illegitimate son of a noblewoman and a slave; R. was abandoned,
suckled by a kindly wolf, and lived wild until captured by Peter (after Nero had tried and failed to do so).  R. then went on to evangelize much of central Italy.

28 July is the feast day of Nazarius and Celsus (d. c. 68)  According to legend, Nazarius was a disciple of St. Peter.  During Nero's reign he was beheaded in Milan for preaching Christianity, along with his young companion Celsus.
While that's legend, it's fact that Ambrose discovered the bodies in Milan soon after 395 (this has a legendary element too: that N's blood was still liquid when the relics were discovered).

3 August: Aspren of Naples (late 1st/early 2d cent.?).  According to uniform local tradition, reaching back at least as far as the anonymous first part (late 8th/very early 9th cent.) of the _Gesta episcoporum neapolitanorum_, A. was Naples' first bishop.  The 9th century _Vita maior_ of St. Athanasius of Naples (BHL 735) has him consecrated by St. Peter himself.  His _Vita minor_ (late 9th or early 10th cent.; BHL 724) presents the earliest version of the story of Peter's stopping for a while in Naples on his way to Rome and here first converting and baptizing A. and later, once Naples had accepted Christianity, consecrating A. as its bishop. BHL 724 was further developed by Alberic of Montecassino (BHL 725; late 11th cent.) and others; in its mature form A.'s legend includes the foundation story of Naples' Benedictine monastery church of San Pietro ad Ara(m), a pious fiction attaching to a particular spot the supposed Petrine origin of Christianity in Naples.  San Pietro ad Ara(m) is built over a paleochristian church with adjacent catacombs; its present structure (seventeenth-century) houses bits and pieces from other churches demolished during Naples' late ninetee
nth-century "Risanamento", when parts of the Old City near the port were "cleaned up" following the cholera epidemic of 1884/85. San Pietro ad Ara(m) is near the Piazza Garibaldi end of the Corso Umberto I (the "Rettifilo"); at the Piazza Bovio end is the Palazzo della Borsa, a late nineteenth-century structure incorporating the remains of the early medieval church of Sant'Aspreno al Porto (as well as some fifteenth-century columns removed from the cloister of San Pietro ad Ara[m] when the latter was torn down in the Risanamento).  There is also a chapel dedicated to A. in the Basilica of Santa Restituta (a rebuilt early medieval structure incorporated into Naples' cathedral) commemorating A.'s traditional burial place in an early Christian oratory beneath it. Needless to say, A. is one of Naples' patron saints: among those named after him were the nineteenth-century medievalists Gennaro Aspreno Galante (a local archeologist of note) and Gennaro Aspreno Rocco (a literary scholar and Latin poet). [John Dillon]

5 August: Addai and Mari (d. c. 180?)  Legend tells that Jesus promised to send a disciple to King Abgar at Edessa and Addai, one of the 72, was chosen.  He cured Abgar of an incurable disease, converted him (and his people) to Christianity, etc.  Addai's own disciple Mari went on to be a missionary along the Tigris.  More historically, both seem to have been missionaries in the late second century and both have been venerated since an early date as apostles of Syria and Persia.

7 August: Claudia (1st cent.)  An interesting tradition makes Claudia, the mother of Linus, the daughter of British King Caractacus.  Caractacus had indeed been sent to Rome after his defeat in battle and one of his daughters took the name Claudia (she's mentioned in 2 Timothy).

10 August: Philomena (date ?)  A set of bones of a young girl were found in the catacomb of Priscilla, with the inscription: "Peace be with you, Philomena."  Clearly a saint.  The relics were moved to the church of Mugnano del Cardinale near Nola in 1805 and miracles were soon reported.  P's cult spread widely and was authorized in 1837.  But she was removed from the calendar in 1961 because there's no evidence at all that she was a saint (posthumous miracles apparently not being enough in this case).

1 September: Priscus of Capua (d. 68, supposedly, or perhaps 368 or 378).  Today's less well known saint from the Regno is an early martyr recorded for the today in the pesudo-Hieronymian Martyrology, in the Marble Calendar of
Naples, and in various other early-to-Carolingian sources.  His cult is attested from the early fifth century, the approximate date of the now lost portrait mosaics of Campanian saints that once adorned the church dedicated to him at what is now San Prisco (CE), between Capua and Caserta.  In the Martyrology of Ado he is said to have been one of
Jesus' disciples; local tradition (neither unanimous nor particularly credible) makes him a companion of St. Peter and the first bishop of Capua (who is otherwise said to have been Rufus of Capua [27 August]). P.'s Casssinese Vita (BHL 6927; ?10th cent.) makes him a bishop expelled from Africa during a later fourth-century persecution who settled at
Capua, destroyed the temple of Diana on the site of the later Sant'Angelo in Formis, and was martyred for his pains.  The even more legendary eleventh- or twelfth-century _Passio sancti Castrensis_ includes him among the dozen bishops who fled Vandal persecution in Africa and settled down in various parts of Campania.  Real proof of P.'s episcopal dignity is lacking.  Domenico Ambrasi, s.v. "Prisco di Capua, santo, martire," in the _Bibliotheca Sanctorum_, vol. 10 (1968),
cols. 1114-16, suggests he may have been a soldier or an imperial functionary. [John Dillon]

15 September: Nicomedes (d. c. 90?)  According to the Roman Martyrology, Nicomedes refused to sacrifice to the state gods and was flogged to death.  His veneration in Rome goes back to an early date.

Hermas (included among the 70)

22 February is the feast day of Papias of Hierapolis (d. c. 130) Papias was bishop of Hierapolis (Phrygia). He is known for his *Explanation of the Sayings of the Lord* (unfortunately no longer extant; or maybe not so unfortunately: Eusebius had a very low opinion of it). This work is the source of the traditions that Matthew wrote his gospel in Aramaic and that Mark's gospel was a summary of Peter's preaching.

23 February is the feast day of Polycarp of Smyrna and companions (d. c. 155) Polycarp had been a disciple of John the Evangelist (according to Irenaeus) before becoming bishop of Smyrna in c. 96. He and twelve other Christians were burned alive in the amphitheater in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. The account of this is the earliest surviving acta of any Christian martyr.

17 October is the feast day of Ignatius of Antioch (d. c. 107)  Ignatius may have been a disciple of
John the Evangelist.  Legend tells that Peter consecrated him as
bishop of Antioch.  After 40 years in office, I. was arrested in
Trajan's reign and shipped to Rome, where he was thrown to the lions.
Two of I's companions on his final journey wrote a description of the
trip, and I himself wrote seven letters of instruction.

Gospels & Writings Associated with Judaistic Christians

Other Gospels Associated with "Heretics" (make separate entries by name?)

Miscellaneous "Gospels"

Other Miscellaneous

Apostolic Fathers (except Clement, Barnabas, and Hermas -- see above)

Later Fathers