The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries

by Adolph (von) Harnack
translated and edited by James Moffatt
Second, enlarged and revised English edition;
London: Williams and Norgate / New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1908 (from the 2nd German edition)..
Theological Translation Library, volumes 19-20

From the German, Die Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902, revised 1906, 1915, and finally 1924)

[[In addition to the 1908 ET in electronic form, an updated version is being prepared which incorporates changes found in the 4th German edition of 1924 and other revisions and updates introduced by RAK for use in early 21st century America; see the end of this file for editing instructions and stages; the 1908 ET project in its final stages  has been assisted especially by Amna Khawar, Francisco Lameiro, Virginia Wayland,  Moises Bassan, Harry Tolley and Chris Segal; the 1924 updated English edition project is based especially on the translation efforts of David Barbee, Michael Nance, Luke Blair, and Harry Tolley, with final editing by RAK.]]

Table of Contents


Introduction [only in 4th ed]


Book 2. THE MISSION-PREACHING IN WORD AND DEED [fully edited to 1908 ET form]

Book 3. The Missionaries; Methods of and Reactions to the Mission

[end of physical volume 1]




[[end of TOC]]

New literature for possible incorporation:

The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine
Mitchell, Margaret M and Frances M Young, editors
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006
pp. xlv + 740 [review by Everett Ferguson online]

Instructions for editing the Harnack files:

(1) Make sure the English is accurate, by proofreading, doing global checks, etc. Reunite hyphenated broken words as you encounter them (or by means of a global search), but retain any that are not broken due to the end-of-line constraint (like that one!). Explanatory hyphens in the text -- like that one -- should be double, with space on each side (as earlier in this sentence).  Mark any questions you have with brackets and @@ thus -- [[@@ what do I do with this line?]. If editors are able to work in an html generating program (e.g. Netscape Composer [for Unicode Greek], Dreamweaver), all the better. Otherwise, use MSWord.

(2) Use Unicode Greek (through Netscape Composer) or cut and paste from TLG Greek (through UPenn Library access) to insert Greek materials. If necessary, identify other foreign fonts with <h>...</h> for Hebrew, <s>...</s> for Syriac, etc. (make a note at the top of the file of anything unusual). Beta code conventions should  be used when Unicode is not possible -- for details, see

Once your machine is set up to produce polytonic Greek Unicode (e.g. Palatino linotype) -- for some guidance see -- the resulting Greek keyboard will probably  be as follows (the number keys are "stop keys," to be hit before the vowels over which they produce diacritics) -- getting the letters with diacritics to match the size of other letters may require some experimentation (and how does one produce an iota subscript? or digamma?):

[Greek keyboard (polytonic Unicode);
lower case,               then upper case]
`άὰᾶἀἁἄἅἂἃἆἇ= ~!@#$%^&*()_+
 ϙςερτθυιοπ[]\         ϙςΕΡΤΘΥΙΟΠ{}|
  ασδφγηξκλ;'           ΑΣΔΦΓΗΞΚΛ·"
   ζχψωβνμ,./             ΖΧΨΩΒΝΜ<>?

Cutting and pasting from the TLG materials is usually safer and quicker than typing in the Greek, especially for long passages. The procedure that I use is as follows:

(3) Insert original page numbers into the running text, within double brackets -- text [[53]] continues; if the page breaks in the middle of a hyphenated word, put the [[page]] number after the full word reunited. Do not retain page headers that are unnecessary for reading the consecutive text. Footnotes that are broken shoud note the new page number with a "b" subscript, thus [[53b]]. These 1908 English edition page numbers will be coded in lavender [[brackets and all]]  (#993399) for the final version.

(4) Footnotes: the numbering should be consecutive throughout each chapter or similar section (not page by page as originally), and the notes to each paragraph should follow that paragraph, indented twice, "blockquote" style. The numbers in the text go after end punctuation, enclosed in diagonals with no space before the first diagonal, thus: " all probability."\5/ The same enclosure is used for the notes themselves (block indented twice).

(5) Roman numerals, chapter and verse numbers, abbreviated ancient titles: in general, eliminate roman numerals unless there seems to be a special reason or convention for them -- e.g. Theodosius II is more conventional than Theodosius 2, but for biblical books use 2 Cor or the like (not II Cor); also Philo's Life of Moses 2 (not II.). References to chapter & verse (or other divisions) of ancient literature should use the full stop ("period") as separator (not the colon or comma) thus: Rom 5.13, Justin's Apology 1.52, etc. Abbreviations will follow Journal of Biblical Literature practice (SBL Handbook of Style is available to members online) unless otherwise instructed. To convert roman numerals into arabic, do a search and replace procedure starting with higher numbers (e.g. xxx, ix, iv, iii) and eliminating the less frequent (e.g. lxxx=80, cix=109, xiv=14) before working back through the more frequent (v=5, iv=4, iii=3, ii=2, i=1, etc.). It may sometimes be useful to include an initial space in the search -- thus (sp)iii will avoid finding xiii, xxiii, etc. Avoid global search/replace procedures unless you are sure all ambiguities have been eliminated!

(6) Italics: in general, the italics of the 1908 ET should be followed. On titles of ancient works, conventions are not consistent. Normally, biblical works (including Apocrypha and "apocryphal NT") are not italicized, even when the author is known (as with Paul), but otherwise, if an author is known, the title of the work is italicized (e.g. Eusebius, HE; Ignatius, Romans). Non biblical works with unknown authors may be italicized (e.g. Didache), but again, there may also be inconsistencies!

(7) BC and AD should be changed to BCE and CE (no punctuation).

(8) British words in -our (Saviour, honour, honourable, labour, etc.) should be Americanized (Savior, honor, honorable, labor, etc.).

(9) Watch for possibly outdated names and text divisions in references to ancient sources such as Josephus, Philo, Shepherd of Hermas, Irenaeus, and flag them [@@ ??] if you are unsure how to proceed. Frequently links can be created to available web materials.

(10) Coordinating the text with the maps is a special project requiring special expertise in mapping computer images.

(11) Once the English text of the 2nd, 1908 edition is appropriately corrected, with Latin verified and Greek added, an editor who reads German will copy it to a new file and incorporate changes introduced in the two subsequent German editions (to 1924\4). The 1908 ET will be maintained as an electronic publication in its own right, and an updated ET will be created from that base text, with corrections to the ET where appropriate, and new materials noted in different colors (e.g. dark green for 1924\4 additions, dark red for subsequent updates).

//end of editing instructions//