Textual Criticism (RelSt [ClasSt, JewSt] 735, Fall 2008, Robert Kraft)

Tuesdays, 6-9 pm, Cohen (Logan) 204

Quick Links:

Jay Treat's Pages from the Web on Text, Manuscripts, Paleography

Wieland Willker's Bible-Links Page


09se -- Orientation

16se -- "3 Corinthians"

23se -- Polycarp-Barnabas

30se -- Barnabas papyrus ; Psalm 151

07oc -- Barthelemy's contributions to LXX/OG research

[14oc -- "fall break"]

21oc -- V.K.Inman, " The Dating of Early Qur'an Manuscripts"; possibly also special exhibits (see below) on Homer, Adonias/Ornia in Samuel-Kings, and Kittim in Daniel .

28oc -- (1) Read Nagy's piece on Homeric textual criticism;

(2) for special exhibit exposure, skim through my notes on Enoch in the Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs;

(3) report by Bill Malone on 1 Cor 15.54-55 quotation(s).

04no (election day) --review Kraft,  "Christian Transmission of Greek Jewish Scriptures: a Methodological Probe" (special attention to Justin's claims; see also section 5.3 in my Pseudepigrapha study);
report by Sigrid Peterson on Syriac "Book of Women" -- Sigrid also suggests that if class members have a copy of NETS (New English Translation of the Septuagint) to bring it -- and to check out the variant versions for Esther 2 (take a look at Susanna also)

11no -- Virginia Wayland report, Jehosaphat's reign (1/3 Kgs 16.28, 22.41ff);

Followup on texts of Esther and Susanna -- for details about the Syriac evidence, Sigrid Peterson refers us to Wido van Peursen's Introduction to the Peshitta and to her notes on Sebastian Brock's discussion of the Syrohexapla. On the dating and background of the Esther "additions," see Josephus Ant 11.216ff (the decree of Artaxerxes; Esther add B [13.1ff], 229ff (prayers of Mordecai and Esther; Esther add C [14.1ff]), 234ff (Esther approaches the King; Esther add D [15.4]), 273ff (the King's edict; Esther add E [16.1ff]). Note that the earliest Greek fragment of Esther, from ca 100 CE on a roll, contains parts of add E followed by Esther 8.13ff.

18no -- Tammie Wanta report on textual issues in Genesis 1.1-3; [see also the supplementary materials below];

Jonathan Henry on the Enoch quotation in Jude and associated issues.

25no (informal reports on SBL Boston) -- open discussion

02de -- reports from John Planer on Qohelet 3.16-18 [and Unetaneh tokef];

Matt Novenson on NT papyri marginalia -- for background, see Sir Frederic Kenyon, Handbook on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (1912), ch. 1, especially pp. 7-13 on types of errors in MSS http://books.google.com/books?id=jCtVAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=kenyon+handbook&ei=L-oySd3ACJT4NfqE2N0N#PPA1,M1
William O. Walker, Interpolations in the Pauline Letters (2001), ch. 1, especially pp. 21-24 on glosses and interpolations http://books.google.com/books?id=_f7xSvf10LIC&pg=PP1&dq=william+o+walker+interpolations+in+the+pauline+letters&ei=eegyScf0MaPKzASB1cH4DQ#PPA26,M1

General Description:

This is an introduction to the textual criticism of ancient texts – covering theory as well as specific applications, such as how to read and interpret text critical apparatuses and their evidence.  Primary attention will be given to texts preserved in Greek and Latin, including translations from Hebrew to Greek (especially Jewish scriptures in Greek) and between Greek and Latin.  Jewish and Christian texts, scriptural and others, will be examined as well as various classical writings.  Working knowledge of Greek is necessary; some Latin and/or Hebrew would be helpful but not crucial.

The goal of textual criticism is to collect and evaluate available information relating to the symbolic presentation (especially wording) and associated meaning(s) of a text in an attempt to shed light on its various stages of transmission and re-presentation, from the earliest ascertainable form onward throughout the lives of the preserved witnesses.Quest for "the original" is but one of many possible byproducts.

Initial Reading Suggestions:

Maas, Paul. Textual Criticism (Textkritik 1957\3; ET B. Flower 1958, repr 1967; Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-198-14318-4    

The Wikipedia article also describes various approaches and problems: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textual_criticism

Also valuable as a starting point is Jim Marchand's outline in What Every Medievalist Should Know (WEMSK), now online at http://www.the-orb.net/wemsk/textcritwemsk.html

And some informal notes from the MEDTEXTL (Medieval Text List) on related subjects.


This will be a "work-seminar" in which each student chooses projects that will require detailed knowledge of textcritical conventions and approaches relating to the students main areas of interest. For example, one project should deal with aspects of texts for which more than a score of witnesses exist, such as:

Another project should explore a text or texts for which no more than a handful of direct witnesses exist, such as:

Selected Readings and Exhibits Relating to Special Situations:

On the highly specialized and technical vocabulary of LXX/OG editions --

On the complex situation involving translation(s), recensions, etc. --

On recensional activity on a sub-set of a larger corpus --

On recensional activity in a text with limited witnesses --

On Christian editing of Jewish and other texts --

On textual confusion caused by faulty archetypes

On the textcritical impact of papyri evidence

On the influence of commentarial treatments --

Some samples of interesting problems with names --

1.05 -- Αδων(ε)ιας υἱὸς Αγγ(ε)ιθ || Ὀρνία υἱὸς ΔΑΔ [boc2e2; Syrj (Ornia; Ὀρνα M), g (ΔΑΔ)]
1.07 -- ὀπίσω Αδωνιου || αὐτοῦ [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.08 -- ὀπίσω Αδωνιου || μετὰ Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.09 -- Αδωνιου || Ὀρνία [oc2e2] Ὀρνίας [b] AORONIA [Syrj]
1.11 -- Αδωνιας υἱὸς Αγγιθ || Ὀρνία υἱὸς Αγγιθ [boc2e2 Syrj; see g (Αδωνιας υἱὸς ΔΑΔ γειθ]
1.13 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2]
1.18 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.24 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.25 -- Αδωνιας (Αδωνιου BAa2) || Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.41 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.42 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.49 -- τοῦ (>Bxa2) Αδωνιου || τοῦ Ὀρνία [boc2e2 Syrj]
1.50 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2]
1.51 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2]
2.13 -- Αδωνιας [Bja2Eth] (+ υἱὸς Αγγ(ε)ιθ rell) || Ὀρνία υἱὸς Αγγειθ [b(Αγιθ)oc2e2]
2.19 -- περὶ Αδωνιου || περὶ Ὀρνία [boc2e2]
2.23 -- Αδωνιας (Αδωνεια B) || Ὀρνία [Zboc2e2]
2.24 -- Αδωνιας (Αδωνεια B) || Ὀρνία [Zboc2e2; Ornias OL]
2.25 -- Αδωνιας || Ὀρνία [boc2e2(Ὀρνείας)]
2.28 -- ὀπίσω Αδωνιου (Αδωνεια Bi) || ὀπίσω Ὀρνία [boc2e2]

see Michael Glycas, Annals 337 -- ἰστέον ὅτι Ὀρνίας καὶ Ἀδωνίας ὁ αὐτὸς ἦν, υἱὸς δὲ Δαβίδ
ps-John Chrysostom, Synopsis 56 -- Ὀρνίας υἱὸς Δαυῒδ
John of Damascus, Sacra Parallela 95-96 -- Ὀρνίας ( υἱὸς Γεθθὶ)
Anacharsis sive Ananias 764 -- ὁ πολύφημος Ὀρνίας
Latin ps-Titus
[Ornias is also a very active demon in the Testament of Solomon]
[see also 3Kgs 4.5 Orneia // Azarias son of Nathan]

more to come

Sample Images of Possible Interest:

Textual Editions --

Textual Modeling --

//updated 06no2008//

Justin Martyr on textual variation: Dialogue with Trypho 71-74a

ANF, adapted by RAK
TLG (ed. Goodspeed, 1915)
“But I don't trust your teachers,
who refuse to accept as accurate  interpretation
those made
by the seventy elders who were with Ptolemy king of the Egyptians ;
but they attempt themselves to interpret.

(71.1.)   Ἀλλ’ οὐχὶ τοῖς διδασκάλοις ὑμῶν πείθομαι,
μὴ συντεθειμένοις καλῶς ἐξηγεῖσθαι
ὑπὸ τῶν παρὰ Πτολεμαίῳ τῷ Αἰγυπτίων γενομένῳ βασιλεῖ
ἑβδομήκοντα πρεσβυτέρων,
ἀλλ’ αὐτοὶ ἐξηγεῖσθαι πειρῶνται.

that they have completely removed

many passages
from the translations/interpretations produced
by those elders

who were with Ptolemy,
by which it is

clearly demonstrated

that this very man

who was crucified

was proclaimed to be
God, and man,
and crucified, and dying;
I wish you to observe;

but since I am aware that this is denied
by all of your nation,
I do not address myself to

these disputed points,
but I proceed to carry on my disputes
on the basis of those passages
which are still acknowledged by you.

(2.)  καὶ

ὅτι πολλὰς γραφὰς

τέλεον περιεῖλον
ἀπὸ τῶν ἐξηγήσεων

τῶν γεγενημένων
ὑπὸ τῶν παρὰ Πτολεμαίῳ γεγενημένων πρεσβυτέρων,

ἐξ ὧν διαρρήδην

οὗτος αὐτὸς ὁ σταυρωθεὶς
ὅτι θεὸς καὶ ἄνθρωπος
σταυρούμενος καὶ ἀποθνήσκων κεκηρυγμένος ἀποδείκνυται,
εἰδέναι ὑμᾶς βούλομαι·

ἅς, ἐπειδὴ ἀρνεῖσθαι
πάντας τοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους ὑμῶν

ταῖς τοιαύταις ζητήσεσιν

οὐ προσβάλλω,
ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ τὰς ἐκ τῶν ὁμολογουμένων

ἔτι παρ’ ὑμῖν

τὰς ζητήσεις ποιεῖν ἔρχομαι.

For you assent to those

which I have brought before your attention,
except that you oppose the reading,
‘Behold, the virgin

shall conceive,’

and say it ought to be read,
‘Behold, the young woman

shall conceive.’

(3.)  καὶ γὰρ ὅσας ὑμῖν ἀνήνεγκα ταύτας γνωρίζετε,

πλὴν ὅτι περὶ τῆς λέξεως,
τῆς Ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος

ἐν γαστρὶ λήψεται,

λέγοντες εἰρῆσθαι·
Ἰδοὺ ἡ νεᾶνις

ἐν γαστρὶ λήψεται. 

And I promised to prove that the prophecy referred, not,

as you were taught,

to Hezekiah,
but to this Christ of mine:
and now I shall go to the proof.”

καὶ ὑπεσχόμην ἀπόδειξιν ποιήσασθαι
οὐκ εἰς Ἑζεκίαν,

ὡς ἐδιδάχθητε,

τὴν προφητείαν εἰρῆσθαι
ἀλλ’ εἰς
τοῦτον τὸν ἐμὸν Χριστόν·
καὶ δὴ τὴν ἀπόδειξιν ποιήσομαι.

Whereupon Trypho said,
“First we ask that you tell us also
some of the passages
which you allege have been completely removed.”

(4.)   Καὶ ὁ Τρύφων εἶπε·
Πρῶτον ἀξιοῦμεν εἰπεῖν σε ἡμῖν

καί τινας ὧν λέγεις

τέλεον παραγεγράφθαι


And I said,
“I shall do as you please.
From the interpretations, then, which Esdras interpreted
in reference to the law

concerning the passover,
they have taken away

this interpretation:

(72.1.)   Κἀγὼ εἶπον·
Ὡς ὑμῖν φίλον, πράξω.
ἀπὸ μὲν οὖν
τῶν ἐξηγήσεων,
ὧν ἐξηγήσατο Ἔσδρας

εἰς τὸν νόμον

τὸν περὶ τοῦ πάσχα,
τὴν ἐξήγησιν ταύτην ἀφείλοντο·

‘And Esdras said

to the people,
This passover [or paschal lamb]

is our savior [or salvation]

and our refuge.
And if you have understood,
and it has reached your heart,
that we are about to humble him

as a sign [or on a standard],
and thereafter hope in him,
then this place shall not be deserted

for ever,
says the God of hosts.

But if you will not believe/trust him/it,
nor listen to the message about him/it,
you shall be a laughing-stock

to/among the nations.’ 

Καὶ εἶπεν Ἔσδρας

τῷ λαῷ·

Τοῦτο τὸ πάσχα ὁ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν

καὶ ἡ καταφυγὴ ἡμῶν.
καὶ ἐὰν διανοηθῆτε
καὶ ἀναβῇ ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν,
ὅτι μέλλομεν αὐτὸν ταπεινοῦν ἐν σημείῳ,
καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα
ἐλπίσωμεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν,
οὐ μὴ ἐρημωθῇ ὁ τόπος οὗτος

εἰς τὸν  ἅπαντα χρόνον,
λέγει ὁ θεὸς τῶν δυνάμεων·
ἂν δὲ μὴ πιστεύσητε αὐτῷ
μηδὲ εἰσακούσητε τοῦ κηρύγματος αὐτοῦ,

ἔσεσθε ἐπίχαρμα

τοῖς ἔθνεσι.    

And from

the sayings of Jeremiah
they have cut out these [words]:
‘I [was] like a lamb that is brought

to the slaughter:

they plotted a plot against me,

 Come, let us lay on wood

on his bread,
and let us blot him out

from the land of the living;
and His name

shall be remembered no longer.’


And since this passage

from the sayings of Jeremiah

is still written

in some copies

in the synagogues of the Jews

(for it is only a short time

since they were cut out),

and since from these words

it is demonstrated that

the Jews took counsel

concerning the Messiah/Christ himself,

to sieze him,

having decided to crucify him,

and he is revealed.

as also was prophesied through Isaiah,

to be led as a sheep to the slaughter,

and is here exhibited as a blameless lamb;

not knowing what to do with them,

they give themselves over to blasphemy.

And similarly, from the wordss

of the same Jeremiah

these have been cut out:

‘The Lord God remembered

his dead people of Israel

who lay in the graves;

and he descended to preach to them

his own salvation.'

(2.)  καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν

διὰ Ἰερεμίου λεχθέντων

ταῦτα περιέκοψαν·

Ἐγὼ ὡς ἀρνίον φερόμενον

τοῦ θύεσθαι.

ἐπ’ ἐμὲ ἐλογίζοντο λογισμόν,


Δεῦτε, ἐμβάλωμεν ξύλον

εἰς τὸν ἄρτον αὐτοῦ

καὶ ἐκτρίψωμεν αὐτὸν

ἐκ γῆς ζώντων,

καὶ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

οὐ μὴ μνησθῇ οὐκέτι.  

(3.)  καὶ ἐπειδὴ αὕτη ἡ περικοπή,

ἡ ἐκ τῶν λόγων τοῦ Ἰερεμίου,

ἔτι ἐστὶν ἐγγεγραμμένη

ἔν τισιν ἀντιγράφοις

τῶν ἐν συναγωγαῖς Ἰουδαίων

(πρὸ γὰρ ὀλίγου χρόνου ταῦτα ἐξέκοψαν),

ἐπειδὰν καὶ ἐκ τούτων τῶν λόγων ἀποδεικνύηται

ὅτι ἐβουλεύσαντο Ἰουδαῖοι

περὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ,

ἀναιρεῖν αὐτὸν

σταυρώσαντες βουλευσάμενοι,

καὶ αὐτὸς μηνύεται,

ὡς καὶ διὰ τοῦ Ἠσαίου προεφητεύθη,

ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἀγόμενος,

καὶ ἐνθάδε ὡς ἀρνίον ἄκακον δηλοῦται·

ὧν ἀπορούμενοι

ἐπὶ τὸ βλασφημεῖν χωροῦσι. 

(4.)  καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων

τοῦ αὐτοῦ Ἰερεμίου

ὁμοίως ταῦτα περιέκοψαν·

Ἐμνήσθη δὲ κύριος ὁ θεὸς

ἀπὸ Ἰσραὴλ τῶν νεκρῶν αὐτοῦ,

τῶν κεκοιμημένων εἰς γῆν χώματος,

καὶ κατέβη πρὸς αὐτοὺς

εὐαγγελίσασθαι αὐτοῖς

τὸ σωτήριον αὐτοῦ.



from the ninety-fifth Psalm

of the words spoken through David

they have removed

these brief items

‘From the wood.’

For when the passage said,
‘Tell ye among the nations,
the Lord hath reigned

from the wood,’
 they have left,
‘Tell ye among the nations, the Lord hath reigned.’

(73.1.)  Καὶ

ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐνενηκοστοῦ πέμπτου ψαλμοῦ

τῶν διὰ Δαυεὶδ λεχθέντων λόγων

λέξεις βραχείας ἀφείλοντο ταύτας·

ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου.

εἰρημένου γὰρ τοῦ λόγου·

Εἴπατε τοῖς ἔθνεσιν·

Ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν

ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου,


Εἴπατε ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν·

Ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν. 

Now no one of your people has ever been said
to have reigned as God and Lord among the nations,
with the exception of Him only who was crucified,
of whom also the Holy Spirit affirms in the same Psalm
that He was raised again, and freed from [the grave],
declaring that there is none like him among the gods of the nations:
 for they are idols of demons.

(2.)  ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἔθνεσι περὶ οὐδενὸς ὡς θεοῦ καὶ κυρίου ἐλέχθη ποτὲ

ἀπὸ τῶν τοῦ γένους ὑμῶν ἀνθρώπων

ὅτι ἐβασίλευσεν,

ἀλλ’ ἢ περὶ τούτου μόνου τοῦ σταυρωθέντος,

ὃν καὶ σεσῶσθαι ἀναστάντα

ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ψαλμῷ

τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον λέγει,

μηνύον ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ὅμοιος

τοῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν θεοῖς·

ἐκεῖνα γὰρ εἴδωλά ἐστι δαιμονίων.

But I shall repeat the whole Psalm to you,
that you may perceive what has been said.
It is thus:
‘Sing unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the Lord,
all the earth.
Sing unto the Lord, and bless His name;
show forth His salvation from day to day.
Declare His glory among the nations,
His wonders among all people.
For the Lord is great, and greatly to be praised:
He is to be feared above all the gods.
For all the gods of the nations are demons
but the Lord made the heavens.
Confession and beauty are in His presence;
holiness and magnificence are in His sanctuary.
Bring to the Lord, O ye countries of the nations,
bring to the Lord glory and honour,
bring to the Lord glory in His name.

(3.)  ἀλλ’ ὅπως τὸ λεγόμενον νοήσητε,

τὸν πάντα ψαλμὸν ἀπαγγελῶ ὑμῖν.

ἔστι δὲ οὗτος·

Ἄισατε τῷ κυρίῳ ᾆσμα καινόν,

ᾄσατε τῷ κυρίῳ πᾶσα ἡ γῆ.

ᾄσατε τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ εὐλογήσατε τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ· εὐαγγελίζεσθε ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας τὸ σωτήριον αὐτοῦ. ἀναγγείλατε ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσι τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, 

ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς λαοῖς τὰ θαυμάσια αὐτοῦ·

ὅτι μέγας κύριος καὶ αἰνετὸς σφόδρα,

φοβερός ἐστιν ὑπὲρ πάντας τοὺς θεούς·

ὅτι πάντες οἱ θεοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν δαιμόνια,

ὁ δὲ κύριος τοὺς οὐρανοὺς ἐποίησεν.

ἐξομολόγησις καὶ ὡραιότης ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ,

ἁγιωσύνη καὶ μεγαλοπρέπεια ἐν τῷ ἁγιάσματι αὐτοῦ. ἐνέγκατε τῷ κυρίῳ, αἱ πατριαὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν,

ἐνέγκατε τῷ κυρίῳ δόξαν καὶ τιμήν,

ἐνέγκατε τῷ κυρίῳ δόξαν ἐν ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.

Take sacrifices, and go into His courts;
worship the Lord in His holy temple.
Let the whole earth be moved before Him:
tell ye among the nations, the Lord hath reigned.
For He hath established the world,
which shall not be moved;
He shall judge the nations with equity.
Let the heavens rejoice, and the earth be glad;
let the sea and its fulness shake.
Let the fields and all therein be joyful.
Let all the trees of the wood be glad before the Lord:
for He comes, for He comes to judge the earth.
He shall judge the world with righteousness,
and the people with His truth.’ ”

(4.) αἴρετε θυσίας καὶ εἰσπορεύεσθε

εἰς τὰς αὐλὰς αὐτοῦ.

προσκυνήσατε τῷ κυρίῳ

ἐν αὐλῇ ἁγίᾳ αὐτοῦ.

σαλευθήτω ἀπὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ πᾶσα ἡ γῆ.

εἴπατε ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν·

Ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσε.

καὶ γὰρ κατώρθωσε τὴν οἰκουμένην,

ἥτις οὐ σαλευ- θήσεται·

κρινεῖ λαοὺς ἐν εὐθύτητι.

εὐφραινέσθωσαν οἱ οὐρανοὶ

καὶ ἀγαλλιάσθω ἡ γῆ,

σαλευθήσεται ἡ θάλασσα

καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς.

χαρήσεται τὰ πεδία

καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς,

ἀγαλλιάσονται πάντα τὰ ξύλα τοῦ δρυμοῦ

ἀπὸ προσώπου κυρίου,

ὅτι ἔρχεται, ὅτι ἔρχεται κρῖναι τὴν γῆν.

κρινεῖ τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ

καὶ λαοὺς ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ αὐτοῦ.

Wherapon Trypho remarked,
“Whether [or not] the rulers of the people
have erased any portion of the Scriptures,
as you affirm, God knows; but it seems incredible.”

(5.)   Καὶ ὁ Τρύφων·

Εἰ μέν, ὡς ἔφης, εἶπε,

παρέγραψάν τι ἀπὸ τῶν γραφῶν

οἱ ἄρχοντες τοῦ λαοῦ,

θεὸς δύναται ἐπίστασθαι·

ἀπίστῳ δὲ ἔοικε τὸ τοιοῦτον.

“Assuredly,” said I, “it does seem incredible.
For it is more horrible than the calf which they made,
when satisfied with manna on the earth;
or than the sacrifice of children to demons;
or than the slaying of the prophets.
But,” said I, “you appear to me not to have heard
the Scriptures which I said they had stolen away.
For such as have been quoted
are more than enough to prove the points in dispute,
besides those which are retained by us,  
Many think, “you.” and shall yet be brought forward.”

(6.)   Ναί, ἔφην, ἀπίστῳ ἔοικε·

φοβερώτερον γάρ ἐστι τῆς μοσχοποιΐας,

ἣν ἐποίησαν ἐπὶ γῆς μάννα πεπλησμένοι,

καὶ τοῦ  τὰ τέκνα θύειν τοῖς δαιμονίοις,

ἢ τοῦ αὐτοὺς τοὺς προφήτας ἀνῃρηκέναι.

ἀλλὰ δή, ἔφην, μοι νομίζεσθε

μηδὲ ἀκηκοέναι ἃς εἶπον

περικεκοφέναι αὐτοὺς γραφάς.

ὑπὲρ αὐταρκείας γὰρ αἱ τοσαῦται προανιστορημέναι εἰσὶν εἰς ἀπόδειξιν τῶν ζητηθέντων μετὰ τῶν λεχθήσεσθαι μελλόντων παρ’ ὑμῖν παραπεφυλαγμένων.

Then Trypho said,
“We know that you quoted these because we asked you.
But it does not appear to me that this Psalm
which you quoted last from the words of David
refers to any other than the Father and Maker of the heavens and earth.
You, however, asserted that it referred to Him who suffered,
whom you also are eagerly endeavouring to prove to be Christ.”

(74.1.)   Καὶ ὁ Τρύφων ἔφη·

Ὅτι δι’ ἡμᾶς ἀξιώσαντας ἀνιστόρησας αὐτάς, ἐπιστάμεθα.

περὶ δὲ τοῦ ψαλμοῦ τούτου,

ὃν τελευταῖον ἔφης ἀπὸ τῶν Δαυεὶδ λόγων,

οὐ δοκεῖ μοι εἰς ἄλλον τινὰ εἰρῆσθαι

ἀλλ’ εἰς τὸν πατέρα,

τὸν καὶ τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὴν γῆν ποιήσαντα·

σὺ δ’ αὐτὸν φῂς εἰς τὸν παθητὸν τοῦτον,

ὃν καὶ Χριστὸν εἶναι σπουδάζεις ἀποδεικνύναι, εἰρῆσθαι.

Textual situation for the book of Esther

Two recensions of Greek Esther exist, the longer usually called "B" (for its presence in Vaticanus and the majority of Greek MSS including Alexandrinus and Sinaiticus and pChBeatty 967; also called "LXX" and/or "OG") and a shorter version called variously ("A[lpha]," "Luc[ianic]," "Ant[iochene]"). Both recensions include the material not found in MT (thus considered "additions"), interspersed with the materials paralleled in MT. There are also versions in Sahidic, Ethiopic, and Old Latin [i.e. non Vulgate], at least. Josephus also seems to know (most of) the "additions" (Antiq 11.6).

In his Latin Vulgate edition, Jerome separated out the "additions" and placed them at the end of the text that parallels the MT. It is not clear to me how Origen's Hexapla treated these passages. Presumably the Syrohexapla would be helpful for that question, if it included Esther (the Syrohexapla has not been preserved in its entirety).

[Sigrid Peterson adds the following notes]
Peshitta Esther (P Esther) is not found in all Peshitta pandects where it might be expected. Where found, it is often in the second part of the Book(s) of Illustrious women. The Syriac text has been collated and published in a diplomatic edition based on the Ambrosian manuscript B.21 inf (7a1). As published, none of the additions to Esther found in the Greek are present in the Peshitta version.

The Syrohexaplaric version of Esther can be found by reading the photolithographic edition of Ceriani, of the other great Syriac manuscript in Milan's Ambrosian Library, designated C.313 inf.

Summary: for the most part, including the additions to Esther, the Hebrew and Peshitta Syriac agree, against the Greek, as my handout shows, in brief comparison of P Esther, Hebrew Esther, and Gk Esther.  Therefore, many of my remarks consist of comparisons to the Hebrew. Additions to Esther exist only in the Greek, but exist in both the Old Greek and the Alpha Text [although there are also variations between those texts of the "additions" -- RAK]. The Peshitta otherwise follows the Old Greek contents, rather than the more lengthy (and later) Alpha Text.

The SyroHexaplar of Esther, because of its lateness, seems somewhat irrelevant. It is supposed (by two accounts in the literature) to be a faithful copy of Origen's "LXX/OG" column.

The names in P Esther agree with Hebrew names, rather than Greek names.

But what does Greek Esther or SyroHexaplar Esther have to do with P Esther in the Book(s) of Women?
<end sp stuff>

Textual situation for Susanna

The Susanna story is the opening episode of the Greek book of Daniel in both the "OG" ("LXX") and the "Theodotionic" versions, Thus it could easily be viewed as a separate composition that was mechanically joined to the "visions" of Daniel, although the extant MSS do not treat it that way. Irenaeus and Tertullian both cite Susanna as part of Daniel (Swete 260f). It is present in the Syrohexapla in the "OG" recension (presumably including Susanna). It is not clear to me whether Julius Africanus, in his letter to Origen questioning the authenticity of Susanna (as a translation of a Hebrew text), considered it to have separate circulation from the main text of Daniel.

[Sigrid Peterson adds]
Susanna is included in a large number of Syriac mss. These inclusions include:   the individual book, in a miscellany; Susanna together with Ruth in the first of two Books of (Illustrious or Notable) Women; Susanna together with Daniel; and possibly other configurations. In the base Peshitta ms of 7a1, Susanna follows Ruth, probably in a "Book of Women."

The contents of P Susanna is similar to the Theodotion version of the Greek. There is one notable name difference:  Chelkis in the Greek is Hilkiah in Syriac. Both P Susanna and Th Susanna seem to follow a [lost] Hebrew exemplar closely. P Susanna does appear to have an expansion of the text compared to Th Susanna, on first look, before I was distracted with questions about Greek Esther.

There is a SyroHexaplar version of Susanna:  all of the SyrH texts go back to an eighth century translation made by Paul of Tella, who fled the Persians and took refuge at the monastery of the Syrians, in the Egyptian desert between Alexandria and Cairo.  Given the interchange between Julius Africanus and Origen concerning the Hebrew origin of Susanna, the SyrH is worth examining.

The textual issues are much more complex for Susanna, in part because she is so short! Desiderata include

a. comparison of ms versions of Susanna in Syriac -- Peshitta, SyroHexapla, and others, that might include direct translations from the OG
b. clear consideration of the correspondence between Africanus and Origen
c. considering whether Chelkis is independent of Hilkiah, or a simple transformation of the Hebrew name, such that Chelkios ==>Chelkis, and Ch is a standard transliteration of Hebrew Heh or Chet.
[end of Sigrid comments]

Creation "in the son"

“In the Son God created heaven and earth”

In principio fecit Deus coelum et terram

In filio fecit …


[see P. Nautin, In Principio: Interpre/tations des premiers versets de la Gene\se (Etudes Augustiniennes; Paris 1973) 61-94]


Dial of Jason and Papiscus [Ariston] (Jerome QuHebGen 3 [ed Vall. p 305]


(Justin Dial 61-62?)


Irenaeus Dem 43


Tertullian, AdvPrax 5.1: Aiunt quidam et Gwenesin in Hebraico ita incipere: in principio Deus fecit filium.


Hilary apud Jerome


Dial of Athanasius and Zacchaeus? In principio = in filio (Christ as arxh)


Dial of Simon and Theophilus


Augustine, De Genesi ad litteram 3 (PL 34.222) – see John 8.25


Jerome (PL 23.985-987): Plerique existimat, sicut in altercatione quoque Jasonis et Papisci scriptum est, et Tertullianus in libro contra Praxeam disputat necnon Hilarius in expositione cuiusdam Psalmi affirmat, in Hebraeo haberi: In filio fecit Deus coelum et terram. Quod falsum esse, ipssius rei veritas comprobat.


[Resnick (1992)] Comments on Jerome's interp of Ps 39/40.8 as the beginning (principium) of OT (logos; in hoc libri capite nuntiatus est) -- Breviarum in Psalmos 39.8 (PL 26.1002A). Jerome also accuses Hilary of Poitiers of misunderstanding Gen 1.1 with rendering 'in filio fecit Deus coelum et terram' Liber Hebraicum quaestionum in Genesim 1.1 (PL 23.937). Some other interpreters take the ref to be to Ps 1.1 (Arnobius Junior, Commentarii in Psalmos 39.8 (PL 53.381B), Ps-Rufinus, In Psalmos 75 Commentarius 39.8 (PL 21.295A)). Jerome thus connects this all with John 1.1. "While the phrase in capite libri would not necessarily suggest to us the prologue to John, the Syriac text of Psalm 40.8, when rendered in Latin, reads: Ecce venio: quia in principio librorum scriptum est de me. (n.63) Elsewhere Jerome reminds us that he sought the sense of the Syriac when translating biblical books. (n.64) Jerome's translation, then reflects a resonance between Genesis 1, Psalm 39.8 (Vulgate) and the prologue of John."


Bede, In lib. Genesis 1 (ed. Giles, 7.3)