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Primarily aspectual verbs.

The aspectual verbs that are primarily aspectual (and minimally attitudinal) are (v)idu `completive', ե kittiru `durative', ¿ vayyi `future utility', aahu `finality, expected result', vaa `iterative', ؽ poo `change of state', iru `perfect', iru `result remains', and iru `epestemic.'I have dealt with the nitty-gritty details of the three s iru's in my 1969 dissertation.

The aspectual verbs that are primarily attitudinal (but nonetheless aspectual) are tallu `distributive', `exdeictic',That is, away from the speaker. ׻ tole `riddance', ؽ poodu `malicious intent', and some others that vary from dialect to dialect.The attitudinal aspectual verbs are not a closed set, and different dialects may use different verbs as markers of aspectual and attitudinal nuances. The non-attitudinal aspectual verbs are a closed set and show less variation from dialect to dialect. But there are some differences between Literary and Spoken Tamil, even in this set. Annamalai 1981 also lists ״ kodu `benefactive'; Ramanujan (196?) gives some others. I am indebted to Annamalai for his many cogent examples of Tamil aspectual verbs. Finally, there is ش koo `self-benefactive', that displays more versatility than almost any other AM except possibly iru `be; perfect; epistemic; suppositional'. It displays both aspectual and attitudinal semantics, and is perhaps the most radically different in phonology from its lexical analog of all the AM's.

Vasu Renganathan
Sat Nov 2 21:16:08 EST 1996